A report on Timur and Mughal emperors

Timur facial reconstruction from skull, by Mikhail Mikhaylovich Gerasimov
Genealogy of the Mughal Dynasty. Only principal offspring of each emperor are provided in the chart.
Genealogical relationship between Timur and Genghis Khan
Group portrait of Mughal rulers, from Babur to Aurangzeb, with the Mughal ancestor Timur seated in the middle. On the left: Shah Jahan, Akbar and Babur, with Abu Sa'id of Samarkand and Timur's son, Miran Shah. On the right: Aurangzeb, Jahangir and Humayun, and two of Timur's other offspring Umar Shaykh and Muhammad Sultan. Created c. 1707–12
Emir Timur feasts in the gardens of Samarkand.
Shah Jahan, accompanied by his three sons: Dara Shikoh, Shah Shuja and Aurangzeb, and their maternal grandfather Asaf Khan IV
Timur commanding the Siege of Balkh
Akbar Shah II and his four sons
Timur besieges the historic city of Urganj.
Timur orders campaign against Georgia.
Emir Timur's army attacks the survivors of the town of Nerges, in Georgia, in the spring of 1396.
Timur defeats the Sultan of Delhi, Nasir Al-Din Mahmud Tughluq, in the winter of 1397–1398, painting dated 1595–1600.
I.O. Islamic 137 f.284v Timur's Defeat of Amlu Khan and the Capture of Delhi, from the 'Zafarnama' by Sharaf al-Din, 1533 (vellum)
Timur defeating the Mamluk Sultan Nasir-ad-Din Faraj of Egypt
19th century painting depicting Bayezid I being held captive by Timur.
Timur had aligned himself with the remnants of the Northern Yuan dynasty in his attempts to conquer Ming China.
The fortress at Jiayu Pass was strengthened due to fear of an invasion by Timur.
Timurid Empire at Timur's death in 1405
Timur's mausoleum is located in Samarkand, Uzbekistan.
A Timurid-era illustration of Timur
Letter of Timur to Charles VI of France, 1402, a witness to Timurid relations with Europe. Archives Nationales, Paris.
Emir Timur and his forces advance against the Golden Horde, Khan Tokhtamysh.
Statue of Tamerlane in Uzbekistan. In the background are the ruins of his summer palace in Shahrisabz.
Ahmad ibn Arabshah's work on the Life of Timur
A wax statue of Timur made in Turkey
Geometric courtyard surrounding the tomb showing the Iwan, and dome.
View of the Registan.
Timurid Mosque in Herat.
Goharshad Mosque
Green Mosque (Balkh) is a Timurid mosque that inspired Shah Jahan.
Bibi-Khanym Mosque
Mausoleum of Khoja Ahmed Yasawi
Deep niches and diverse muqarnas decorate the inside of the Gur-e Amir.
Shakh-i Zindeh mosque, Samarkand

Their founder Babur, a Timurid prince from the Fergana Valley (modern-day Uzbekistan), was a direct descendant of Timur (generally known in western nations as Tamerlane) and also affiliated with Genghis Khan through Timur's marriage to a Genghisid princess.

- Mughal emperors

Muhammad Iqbal, a philosopher, poet and politician in British India who is widely regarded as having inspired the Pakistan Movement, composed a notable poem entitled Dream of Timur, the poem itself was inspired by a prayer of the last Mughal emperor, Bahadur Shah II:

- Timur
Timur facial reconstruction from skull, by Mikhail Mikhaylovich Gerasimov

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Overall

The empire at its greatest extent in c. 1700 under Aurangzeb ((r. 1658 – 1707))

Mughal Empire

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Early-modern empire that controlled much of South Asia between the 16th and 19th centuries.

Early-modern empire that controlled much of South Asia between the 16th and 19th centuries.

The empire at its greatest extent in c. 1700 under Aurangzeb ((r. 1658 – 1707))
Akbar holds a religious assembly of different faiths in the Ibadat Khana in Fatehpur Sikri.
Group portrait of Mughal rulers, from Babur to Aurangzeb, with the Mughal ancestor Timur seated in the middle. On the left: Shah Jahan, Akbar and Babur, with Abu Sa'id of Samarkand and Timur's son, Miran Shah. On the right: Aurangzeb, Jahangir and Humayun, and two of Timur's other offspring Umar Shaykh and Muhammad Sultan. Created c. 1707–12
Horsemen of the invading Maratha Empire
Shah Alam II on horseback
Portrait of Bahadur Shah II
Coin of Aurangzeb, minted in Kabul, dated 1691/2
Miniature painting - Portrait of an Old Mughal Courtier Wearing Muslin
Muslim Lady Reclining or An Indian Girl with a Hookah, painted in Dacca, 18th century
Ruins of the Great Caravanserai in Dhaka.
Ghulam Hamdani Mushafi, the poet first believed to have coined the name "Urdu" around 1780 AD for a language that went by a multiplicity of names before his time.
Mir Taqi Mir, an Urdu poet of the 18th century Mughal Empire
The Taj Mahal in the 1870s
Badshahi Mosque, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan
Buland Darwaza in Fatehpur Sikiri, Agra, India
Lalbagh Fort aerial view in Dhaka, Bangladesh
Shalimar Bagh in Srinagar, Kashmir, India
Illustration by the 17th-century Mughal artist Ustad Mansur
"Alexander Visits the Sage Plato in His Mountain Cave"; illustration by the 16th-century Indian artist Basawan, in a folio from a quintet of the 13th-century Indian poet Amir Khusrau Dihlavi
Folio from Farhang-i-Jahangiri, a Persian dictionary compiled during the Mughal era.
Mughal matchlock rifle, 16th century.
Mughal musketeer, 17th century.
The remnants of the empire in 1751

In the west, the term "Mughal" was used for the emperor, and by extension, the empire as a whole.

The Mughal Empire was founded by Babur (reigned 1526–1530), a Central Asian ruler who was descended from the Turco-Mongol conqueror Timur (the founder of the Timurid Empire) on his father's side, and from Genghis Khan on his mother's side.

Idealized portrait of Babur, early 17th century

Babur

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The founder of the Mughal Empire in the Indian subcontinent.

The founder of the Mughal Empire in the Indian subcontinent.

Idealized portrait of Babur, early 17th century
Babur Family Tree
17th-century portrait of Babur
Coin minted by Babur during his time as ruler of Kabul. Dated 1507/8
Babur leaves for Hindustan from Kabul
The meeting between Babur and Sultan Ali Mirza near Samarkand
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Mughal artillery and troops in action during the Battle of Panipat (1526)
Babur encounters the Jain statues at the Urvah valley in Gwalior in 1527. He ordered them to be destroyed
Babur crossing the Indus River
Babur and his heir Humayun
Bobur Square, Andijan, Uzbekistan in 2012
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He was a descendant of Timur and Genghis Khan through his father and mother respectively.

Humayun (b. 1508; d. 1556) — with Maham Begum — succeeded Babur as the second Mughal Emperor

A contemporary court portrait of Nader Shah by Mohammad Reza Hendi (c. 1740), now in London's Victoria and Albert Museum

Nader Shah

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The founder of the Afsharid dynasty of Iran and one of the most powerful rulers in Iranian history, ruling as shah of Iran (Persia) from 1736 to 1747, when he was assassinated during a rebellion.

The founder of the Afsharid dynasty of Iran and one of the most powerful rulers in Iranian history, ruling as shah of Iran (Persia) from 1736 to 1747, when he was assassinated during a rebellion.

A contemporary court portrait of Nader Shah by Mohammad Reza Hendi (c. 1740), now in London's Victoria and Albert Museum
Statue of Nader Shah at the Naderi Museum
Painting of Nader Shah
Nader Shah and two of his sons
Afsharid forces negotiate with a Mughal Nawab.
The flank march of Nader's army at Battle of Khyber pass has been called a "military masterpiece" by the Russian general & historian Kishmishev
At the Battle of Karnal, Nader crushed an enormous Mughal army six times greater than his own
Silver coin of Nader Shah, minted in Dagestan, dated 1741/2 (left = obverse; right = reverse)
portrait of Reza Qoli Mirza Afshar
The Battle of Kars (1745) was the last major field battle Nader fought in his spectacular military career
A Western view of Nader in his later years from a book by Jonas Hanway (1753). The background shows a tower of skulls.
Nader Shah's dagger with a small portion of his jewelry. Now part of the Iranian Crown Jewels.

Nader idolized Genghis Khan and Timur, the previous conquerors from Central Asia.

There is a story that says, having demanded the daughter of his defeated enemy Muhammad Shah, the Emperor of Delhi, to marry his son Nasrullah, he received the answer that a royal lineage up to the 7th generation was required for marriage with a princess from the House of Timur.

Shah Alam II in his old life in (1790s – 1800s) era Portation.

Shah Alam II

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Shah Alam II in his old life in (1790s – 1800s) era Portation.
Mughal era illustration of Pir Ghazi of Bengal, during the 18th century.
Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II negotiates with the British East India Company, after the arrival of Suffren.
A silver Rupee struck in the name of Shah Alam
Shah Alam II blinded by Ghulam Qadir
The tomb of Shah Alam II, in Mehrauli, Delhi.
Imad-ul-Mulk was the regent imposed by the Maratha Confederacy in 1757, who assassinated Alamgir II and prominent members of the imperial family, within the Maratha controlled city of Delhi; Shah Alam II managed to escape to safety with the Nawab of Awadh.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.britannica.com/biography/Alamgir-II|title=ʿĀlamgīr II - Mughal emperor|access-date=27 July 2018}}</ref>
Mir Jafar, his son Miran and Ramnarian refused to submit to Shah Alam II, who initiated the Bengal War causing the eventual intervention of the British East India Company.
Shuja-ud-Daula served as the leading Nawab Vizier of the Mughal Empire, during the Third Battle of Panipat and the Battle of Buxar
Nawab of Bengal, Mir Qasim defected to Shah Alam II.
Mirza Najaf Khan, the commander-in-chief of the Mughal Army.
Shah Alam II granting Robert Clive the "Diwani rights of Bengal, Behar and Odisha" in return for the annexed territories of the Nawab of Awadh after the Battle of Buxar, on 12 August 1765 at the Benares.
A member of the British East India Company enjoying a Durbar.
The Royal Chamber in the Public Audience Hall in the Middle of Yazdah Darreh, with the Ruler, Alam Bahador Badshah, and the Great Commanders, a page from the Lady Coote Album.
A Firman issued by the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II, dated 1776.
The newly reestablished Mughal Army during the reign of Shah Alam II.
A Mughal infantryman.
Large Mughal Army encampments during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II.
Pierre André de Suffren ally of Hyder Ali and also Shah Alam II.
Hyder Ali was bestowed the title Shams ul-Mulk and Amir ud-Daula by Shah Alam II, his pro-French policies were a continuation of the Mughal Empire's policies during the Seven Years' War.
Map of India in 1765, before the fall of Nawabs and Princely states nominally allied to the emperor (mainly in Green).
Map of India in 1795, 11 years before the death of Shah Alam II

Shah Alam II (25 June 1728 – 19 November 1806), also known by his birth name Ali Gohar (or Ali Gauhar), was the seventeenth Mughal Emperor and the son of Alamgir II.

The Mughal Emperor no longer had the military power to enforce his will, but he commanded respect as a dignified member of the House of Timur in the length and breadth of the country.

Genghis Khan as portrayed in a 14th-century Yuan era album; now located in the National Palace Museum, Taipei, Taiwan. The original version was in black and white; produced by the Mongol painter Ho-li-hosun in 1278 under the commission of Kublai Khan.

Genghis Khan

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The founder and first Great Khan (Emperor) of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death.

The founder and first Great Khan (Emperor) of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death.

Genghis Khan as portrayed in a 14th-century Yuan era album; now located in the National Palace Museum, Taipei, Taiwan. The original version was in black and white; produced by the Mongol painter Ho-li-hosun in 1278 under the commission of Kublai Khan.
Burkhan Khaldun mountain
Autumn at the Onon River, Mongolia, the region where Temüjin was born and grew up
The locations of the Mongolian tribes during the Khitan Liao dynasty (907–1125)
Jurchen inscription (1196) in Mongolia relating to Genghis Khan's alliance with the Jin against the Tatars
Genghis Khan and Toghrul Khan, illustration from a 15th-century Jami' al-tawarikh manuscript
Genghis Khan proclaimed Khagan of all Mongols. Illustration from a 15th-century Jami' al-tawarikh manuscript.
Mongol Empire c. 1207
Battle between Mongol warriors and the Chinese
Genghis Khan entering Beijing.
Khwarazmian Empire (green) c. 1200, on the eve of the Mongol invasions
Genghis Khan watches in amazement as the Khwarezmi Jalal ad-Din prepares to ford the Indus.
Significant conquests and movements of Genghis Khan and his generals
Gold dinar of Genghis Khan, struck at the Ghazna (Ghazni) mint, dated 1221/2
Western Xia dynasty, Jin/Jurchen dynasty, Song dynasty and Kingdom of Dali in 1142
Mongol Empire in 1227 at Genghis Khan's death
Genghis Khan (center) at the coronation of his son Ögedei, Rashid al-Din, early 14th century
Expansion of the Mongol Empire 1206–1294
Mural of siege warfare, Genghis Khan Exhibit in San Jose, California, US
Reenactment of Mongol battle
Genghis Khan on the reverse of a Kazakh 100 tenge collectible coin.
Portrait on a hillside in Ulaanbaatar, 2006
Genghis Khan Monument in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, China
Invasions like the Battle of Baghdad by his grandson are treated as brutal and are seen negatively in Iraq. This illustration is from a 14th-century Jami' al-tawarikh manuscript.
Genghis Khan and Great Khans of the Yuan dynasty, late 13th and early 14th-century Yuan paintings
16th century Ottoman miniature of Genghis Khan
A bust of Genghis Khan adorns a wall in the presidential palace in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.
Statue of Genghis Khan at his mausoleum, Inner Mongolia, China
Monument in Hulunbuir, Inner Mongolia, China
The actor LeKain in the role of Genghis Khan

Although the famous Mughal emperors were proud descendants of Genghis Khan and particularly Timur, they clearly distanced themselves from the Mongol atrocities committed against the Khwarizim Shahs, Turks, Persians, the citizens of Baghdad and Damascus, Nishapur, Bukhara and historical figures such as Attar of Nishapur and many other notable Muslims.