Muhammad

Prophet MuhammadMohammedMohammadMuhammedProphetProphet MohammedProphet Muhammedthe ProphetMuḥammadMahomet
Muhammad (مُحَمَّد, ; c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE) was an Arab religious, social and political leader and the founder of Islam.wikipedia
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Islam

IslamicMuslimMuslims
Muhammad (مُحَمَّد, ; c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE) was an Arab religious, social and political leader and the founder of Islam.
Islam is an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God (Allah), and that Muhammad is a messenger of God.

Muhammad in Islam

MuhammadProphet MuhammadMohammed
According to Islamic doctrine, he was a prophet, sent to present and confirm the monotheistic teachings preached previously by Adam, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and other prophets.
Muslims believe that the Quran, the central religious text of Islam, was revealed to Muhammad by God, and that Muhammad was sent to restore Islam, which they believe to be the unaltered original monotheistic faith of Adam, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and other prophets.

Mecca

MakkahMecca, Saudi ArabiaMakka
Born approximately 570CE (Year of the Elephant) in the Arabian city of Mecca, Muhammad was orphaned at the age of six.
It is the birthplace of Muhammad, a cave 3 km from Mecca was the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran, and a pilgrimage to it, known as the Hajj, is obligatory for all able Muslims.

Year of the Elephant

570 CE, approximatelyAam-ul-feelelephant war
Born approximately 570CE (Year of the Elephant) in the Arabian city of Mecca, Muhammad was orphaned at the age of six.
According to some Islamic resources, it was in this year that Muhammad (مُـحَـمَّـد, consonant letters: m-ħ-m-d) was born.

Jesus in Islam

JesusIsaIslamic view of Jesus
According to Islamic doctrine, he was a prophet, sent to present and confirm the monotheistic teachings preached previously by Adam, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and other prophets.
In Islam, Jesus is believed to have been the precursor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad, attributing the name Ahmad to someone who would follow him.

Sunnah

SunnaSunnatprophetic tradition
Besides the Quran, Muhammad's teachings and practices (sunnah), found in the Hadith and sira (biography) literature, are also upheld and used as sources of Islamic law (see Sharia).
Sunnah (سُنَّة, plural سُنَن ), also sunna or sunnat, is the body of literature which discusses and prescribes the traditional customs and practices of the Islamic community, both social and legal, often but not necessarily based on the verbally transmitted record of the teachings, deeds and sayings, silent permissions (or disapprovals) of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, as well as various reports about Muhammad's companions.

Hadith

HadithsahadithḤadīth
Besides the Quran, Muhammad's teachings and practices (sunnah), found in the Hadith and sira (biography) literature, are also upheld and used as sources of Islamic law (see Sharia).
Ḥadīth ( or ; حديث, pl. aḥādīth, أحاديث,, also "Traditions") in Islam refers to the record of the words, actions, and the silent approval of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

Constitution of Medina

Charter of MedinaMedina Chartersimilar contract
In Medina, Muhammad united the tribes under the Constitution of Medina.
The Constitution of Medina (دستور المدينة, Dustūr al-Madīnah), also known as the Charter of Medina (صحيفة المدينة, Ṣaḥīfat al-Madīnah; or: ميثاق المدينة, Mīthāq al-Madīnah "Covenant of Medina"), was drawn up on behalf of the Islamic prophet Muhammad shortly after his arrival at Medina (then known as Yathrib) in 622 CE (or 1 AH), following the Hijra from Mecca.

Migration to Abyssinia

emigratedemigrated to AbyssiniaFirst Hijra
He sent some of his followers to Abyssinia in 615 to shield them from prosecution, before he and his followers migrated from Mecca to Medina (then known as Yathrib) in 622.
The Migration to Abyssinia (الهجرة إلى الحبشة, al-hijra ʾilā al-habaša), also known as the First Hegira (هِجْرَة hijrah), was an episode in the early history of Islam, where Prophet Muhammad's first followers (the Sahabah) fled from the persecution of the ruling Quraysh tribe of Mecca.

Conquest of Mecca

conquered Meccaconqueredconquer Mecca
In December 629, after eight years of intermittent fighting with Meccan tribes, Muhammad gathered an army of 10,000 Muslim converts and marched on the city of Mecca.
The conquest of Mecca refers to the event when Mecca was conquered by Muslims led by Muhammad in December 629 or January 630 AD, (Julian), 10-20 Ramadan, 8 AH.

Ibn Hisham

Ibn HishāmAbdel Malik ibn Hischam
Although the work was lost, this sira was used at great length by Ibn Hisham and to a lesser extent by Al-Tabari.
Abu Muhammad 'Abd al-Malik bin Hisham ibn Ayyub al-Himyari al-Mu'afiri al-Baṣri, or Ibn Hisham, edited the biography of Islamic prophet Muhammad written by Ibn Ishaq.

Sources of sharia

Sources of Islamic lawsourcesis based
Besides the Quran, Muhammad's teachings and practices (sunnah), found in the Hadith and sira (biography) literature, are also upheld and used as sources of Islamic law (see Sharia).
The scriptural sources of traditional Sunni jurisprudence are the Qur'an, believed by Muslims to be the direct and unaltered word of God, and the Sunnah, consisting of words and actions attributed to the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the hadith literature.

Islamic calendar

AHHijriHijri calendar
This event, the Hijra, marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar, also known as the Hijri Calendar.
During that year, Muhammad and his followers migrated from Mecca to Medina and established the first Muslim community (ummah), an event commemorated as the Hijra.

Arabs

ArabArab peopleArabian
Muhammad (مُحَمَّد, ; c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE) was an Arab religious, social and political leader and the founder of Islam.
After the death of Prophet Muhammad in 632, Rashidun armies launched campaigns of conquest, establishing the Caliphate, or Islamic Empire, one of the largest empires in history.

Ibn Ishaq

Muhammad ibn IshaqIbn IsḥāqIbn Iṣḥaq
The earliest surviving written sira (biographies of Muhammad and quotes attributed to him) is Ibn Ishaq's Life of God's Messenger written c. 767 CE (150 AH).
Ibn Ishaq collected oral traditions that formed the basis of an important biography of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

Persecution of Muslims by Meccans

persecution of Muslims by the MeccansHeavily beating himhostility from Meccan
The followers of Muhammad were initially few in number, and experienced hostility from Meccan polytheists.
Muhammad was protected somewhat by the influence of his family.

Hadith studies

isnadmuhaddithMatn
Muslim scholars on the other hand typically place a greater emphasis on the hadith literature instead of the biographical literature, since hadiths maintain a verifiable chain of transmission (isnad); the lack of such a chain for the biographical literature makes it less verifiable in their eyes.
Hadith studies (علم الحديث ʻilm al-ḥadīth "science of hadith", also science of hadith, or science of hadith criticism) consist of several religious disciplines used in the study and evaluation of the Islamic hadith — i.e. the record of the words, actions, and the silent approval of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad, by Muslim scholars.

Abu Talib ibn Abd al-Muttalib

Abu TalibAbi TalibAbu Talib ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib
He was raised under the care of his paternal grandfather Abd al-Muttalib, and upon his death, by his uncle Abu Talib.
He was a brother of Muhammad's father, 'Abdullāh, who had died before Muhammad's birth.

Farewell Pilgrimage

The Farewell Pilgrimagehis last pilgrimageFarewell ''Hajj
In 632, a few months after returning from the Farewell Pilgrimage, he fell ill and died.
The Farewell Pilgrimage, 632 CE (10 AH), is the final and only Hajj ('Pilgrimage') in which the Islamic Nabi (Prophet) Muhammad participated.

Al-Nasa'i

An-Nasa'iNasa'iAbd ar-Rahman al-Nasai
Hadiths were compiled several generations after his death by followers including Muhammad al-Bukhari, Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj, Muhammad ibn Isa at-Tirmidhi, Abd ar-Rahman al-Nasai, Abu Dawood, Ibn Majah, Malik ibn Anas, al-Daraqutni.
undefined 829 – 915 CE), full name Abū `Abd ar-Raḥmān Aḥmad ibn Shu`ayb ibn Alī ibn Sīnān al-Nasā'ī, ( variant: Abu Abdel-rahman Ahmed ibn Shua'ib ibn Ali ibn Sinan ibn Bahr ibn Dinar Al-Khurasani); he was a noted collector of hadith (sayings of Muhammad), of Persian origin, and the author of "As-Sunan" one of the six canonical hadith collections recognized by Sunni Muslims.

Tawhid

monotheismOneness of GodTawheed
According to Islamic doctrine, he was a prophet, sent to present and confirm the monotheistic teachings preached previously by Adam, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and other prophets.
Aside from the supreme name "Allah" and the neologism ar-Rahman (referring to the divine beneficence that creates and maintains the universe) and a few other specific names like al-Maalik al-Mulook ('King of Kings') in an authentic narration of Muhammad, other names may be shared by both God and human beings.

Al-Waqidi

WaqidiAl-WaqediAl-Waqid
Another early history source is the history of Muhammad's campaigns by al-Waqidi (death 207 of Muslim era), and the work of his secretary Ibn Sa'd al-Baghdadi (death 230 of Muslim era).
Al-Waqidi was an early Muslim historian and biographer of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, specializing in his military campaigns.

Islamic schools and branches

Islamic conservatismdenominationbranches of Islam
He is viewed as the final prophet of God in all the main branches of Islam, though some modern denominations diverge from this belief.
Muslim groups who either ascribe divine characteristics to some figures of Islamic history (usually a member of Muhammad's family, Ahl al-Bayt) or hold beliefs deemed deviant by mainstream Shi'i theology were called Ghulat.

Mawlid

Milad un NabiMuhammad's birthdayMaulidur Rasul
Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāshim, was born in Mecca about the year 570 and his birthday is believed to be in the month of Rabi' al-awwal.
Mawlid or Mawlid al-Nabi al-Sharif (مَولِد النَّبِي, sometimes simply called in colloquial Arabic مولد, among other vernacular pronunciations; sometimes ميلاد, ) is the observance of the birthday of Islamic prophet Muhammad which is commemorated in Rabi' al-awwal, the third month in the Islamic calendar.

Prophets and messengers in Islam

Islamic prophetprophetprophets
According to Islamic doctrine, he was a prophet, sent to present and confirm the monotheistic teachings preached previously by Adam, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and other prophets.
The final and most important prophet in Islam is Muhammad (Muhammad ibn ʿAbdullāh), who Muslims believe to be the "Seal of the Prophets" (Khatam an-Nabiyyin, i.e. the last prophet), to whom the Qur'an was revealed in a series of revelations (and written down by his companions).