Muhammad Ahmad

MahdiMahdistthe MahdiMahdistsMahdist revoltMahdist stateAl-MahdiMahdi of SudanMuhammad Ahmad bin Abd AllahMuhammad Ahmed
Muhammad Ahmad bin Abd Allah (محمد أحمد ابن عبد الله; 12 August 1844 – 22 June 1885) was a Nubian religious leader of the Samaniyya order in Sudan who, as a youth, moved from orthodox religious study to a mystical interpretation of Islam.wikipedia
232 Related Articles

Sudan

🇸🇩SudaneseRepublic of the Sudan
Muhammad Ahmad bin Abd Allah (محمد أحمد ابن عبد الله; 12 August 1844 – 22 June 1885) was a Nubian religious leader of the Samaniyya order in Sudan who, as a youth, moved from orthodox religious study to a mystical interpretation of Islam.
Between 1881 and 1885 the harsh Egyptian reign was eventually met with a successful revolt led by the self-proclaimed Mahdi Muhammad Ahmad, resulting in the establishment of the Caliphate of Omdurman.

Mahdi

Imam MahdiMahdīal-Mahdi
On 29 June 1881, he was proclaimed the Mahdi by his disciples, the messianic redeemer of the Islamic faith.
These have included Muhammad Jaunpuri, founder of the Mahdavia sect; the Báb (Siyyid Ali Muhammad), founder of Bábism; Muhammad Ahmad, who established the Mahdist State in Sudan in the late 19th century; Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, founder of the Ahmadiyya religion; ; and Riaz Ahmed Gohar Shahi.

Ansar (Sudan)

AnsarMahdistAnsaar
From his announcement of the Mahdiyya in June 1881 until 1898, many of the theological and political doctrines of the Mahdiyya were established and promulgated among the growing ranks of the Mahdi's supporters, the Ansars. The Mahdi and a party of his followers, the Ansār (helpers, known in the West as "the Dervishes"), made a long march to Kurdufan.
The Ansar, or followers of the Mahdi, is a Sufi religious movement in the Sudan whose followers are disciples of Muhammad Ahmad (12 August 1844 – 22 June 1885), the self-proclaimed Mahdi.

Abdallahi ibn Muhammad

KhalifaThe KhalifaAbdullahi ibn Muhammad
After Muhammad Ahmad's unexpected death on 22 June 1885, his chief deputy, Abdallahi ibn Muhammad took over the administration of the nascent Mahdist state.
Abdullah Ibn-Mohammed Al-Khalifa or Abdullah al-Khalifa or Abdullahi al-Khalifa, also known as "The Khalifa" (c. عبدالله بن سيد محمد الخليفة; 1846 – November 25, 1899) was a Sudanese Ansar ruler who was one of the principal followers of Muhammad Ahmad.

Osman Digna

They were also joined by the Hadendoa Beja, who were rallied to the Mahdi by an Ansār captain in east of Sudan in 1883, Osman Digna.
1840 – 1926) was a follower of Muhammad Ahmad, the self-proclaimed Mahdi, in Sudan, who became his best known military commander during the Mahdist War.

Battle of Aba

ambushed and nearly annihilatedthe first battle
A military expedition was sent to reassert the government's authority on Aba Island, but the government's forces were ambushed and nearly annihilated by the Mahdi's followers.
The incident saw Mahdist rebels, led by Muhammad Ahmad, who had proclaimed himself the Mahdi, rout Egyptian troops who had landed on Aba Island.

Battle of Shaykan

Battle of El ObeidEl ObeidSheikan
The Ansār, now 40,000 strong, then defeated an 8,000-man Egyptian relief force led by British officer William Hicks at Sheikan, in the battle of El Obeid.
The Battle of Shaykan was fought between Anglo-Egyptian forces under the command of Hicks Pasha and forces of Muhammad Ahmad, the self-proclaimed Mahdi, in the woods of Shaykan near Kashgil near the town of El-Obeid on 3–5 November 1883.

Charles George Gordon

General GordonCharles GordonGordon
The evacuation of Egyptian troops and officials and other foreigners from Sudan was assigned to General Gordon, who had been reappointed governor general with orders to return to Khartoum and organize a withdrawal of the Egyptian garrisons there.
A serious revolt then broke out in the Sudan, led by a Muslim religious leader and self-proclaimed Mahdi, Muhammad Ahmad.

Khedivate of Egypt

EgyptEgyptianKhedivate
His proclamation came during a period of widespread resentment among the Sudanese population towards the oppressive policies of the Turco-Egyptian rulers and was supported by the messianic belief popular among the various Sudanese religious sects of the time.
Meanwhile, a religious rebellion had broken out in the Sudan, led by Muhammad Ahmed, who proclaimed himself the Mahdi.

El-Obeid

El ObeidAl UbayyidAl Obeid
During this period, he also traveled to the province of Kordofan, west of Khartoum, where he visited with the notables of the capital, El-Obeid, who were enmeshed in a power struggle between two rival claimants to the governorship of the province.
It was founded by the pashas of Ottoman Egypt in 1821 but was attacked by the Mahdists in September 1882, and capitulated and was subsequently destroyed in 1883.

Khartoum

Khartoum, SudanKhartoum-basedKhartuom
After much debate the British decided to abandon the Sudan in December 1883, holding only several northern towns and Red Sea ports, such as Khartoum, Kassala, Sannar, and Sawakin.
On 13 March 1884, troops loyal to the Mahdi Muhammad Ahmad started a siege of Khartoum, against defenders led by British General Charles George Gordon.

William Hicks (British soldier)

William HicksHicks PashaCol. William "Billy" Hicks
The Ansār, now 40,000 strong, then defeated an 8,000-man Egyptian relief force led by British officer William Hicks at Sheikan, in the battle of El Obeid.
In 1881, Sudan was controlled by Egypt; Muhammad Ahmad proclaimed himself Mahdi and began conquering neighboring territory and thus threatening the precarious Egyptian control of the territory.

Nubians

Nubian Nubiangenetics
Muhammad Ahmad bin Abd Allah (محمد أحمد ابن عبد الله; 12 August 1844 – 22 June 1885) was a Nubian religious leader of the Samaniyya order in Sudan who, as a youth, moved from orthodox religious study to a mystical interpretation of Islam.
Muhammad Ahmad, 19th century Sufi sheikh and self-proclaimed Mahdi

First and Second Battles of El Teb

El Tebbattle of El TebEl-Teb
Major-General Gerald Graham was sent with a force of 4,000 British soldiers and defeated Digna at El Teb on February 29, but were themselves hard-hit two weeks later at Tamai.
However, the British government under Prime Minister William Ewart Gladstone sought to stay out of affairs in Egyptian-governed Sudan, that was threatened by an uprising led by the Mahdi, Muhammad Ahmad, who declared a Jihad, against the ‘Turks’, represented by the Egyptian troops.

Rudolf Carl von Slatin

Rudolf SlatinRudolf von SlatinRudolf Charles Slatin Pasha
The defeat of Hicks sealed the fate of Darfur, which until then had been effectively defended by Rudolf Carl von Slatin.
Early in 1882 the Rizeigat tribesmen of Southern Darfur rebelled, led by Sheikh Madibbo ibn Ali, a convert to the cause of the religious leader known as the Mahdi Muhammad Ahmad.

Battle of Abu Klea

Abu KleaCamel CorpsAbuklea
This force was attacked by the Hadendoa Beja, or "Fuzzy Wuzzies", twice, first at the Battle of Abu Klea and two days later nearer Metemma.
The Battle of Abu Klea, or the Battle of Abu Tulayh took place between the dates of 16 and 18 January 1885, at Abu Klea, Sudan, between the British Desert Column and Mahdist forces encamped near Abu Klea.

Siege of Khartoum

Khartoumfall of KhartoumRelief of Khartoum
They finally arrived in Khartoum on 28 January 1885 to find the town had fallen during the Battle of Khartoum two days earlier.
The Battle of Khartoum, Siege of Khartoum or Fall of Khartoum was the conquest of Egyptian-held Khartoum by the Mahdist forces led by Muhammad Ahmad.

J. D. H. Stewart

Col. John StewartColonel StewartJohn Stewart
His mobile force under Colonel Stewart then returned to the city after repeated incidents where the 200 or so Egyptian forces under his command would turn and run at the slightest provocation.
He died in September 1884 attempting to run the blockade from the besieged city at the hands of the Manasir tribesmen and followers of Muhammad Ahmad Al-Mahdi.

Fuzzy-Wuzzy

Fuzzy WuzziesFuzzy WuzzyFuzzy-Wuzzies
This force was attacked by the Hadendoa Beja, or "Fuzzy Wuzzies", twice, first at the Battle of Abu Klea and two days later nearer Metemma.
"Fuzzy-Wuzzy" was the term used by British colonial soldiers for the nineteenth-century Beja warriors supporting the Sudanese Mahdi in the Mahdist War.

Abd al-Rahman al-Mahdi

Abd al-MahdiAbd al-RahmanAbd-al-Raḥman Al Mahdi
Muhammed Ahmad's posthumous son, Abd al-Rahman al-Mahdi, whom the British considered important as a popular leader of the Mahdists, became a leader of the neo-Mahdist movement in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.
Abd al-Rahman was the posthumous son of Muhammad Ahmad bin Abd Allah, who had proclaimed himself the Mahdi or redeemer of the Islamic faith in 1881, and died in 1885 a few months after his forces had captured Khartoum.

Baggara

Baggara ArabsShuwaShuwa Arabs
There he gained a large number of recruits, especially from the Baqqara, and notable leaders such as Sheikh Madibbo ibn Ali of Rizeigat and Abdallahi ibn Muhammad of Ta'aisha tribes.
The Baggara of Darfur and Kordofan were the backbone of the Mahdist revolt against Turko-Egyptian rule in Sudan in the 1880s.

Kordofan

Kordofan ProvinceCordofanKurdufan Province
During this period, he also traveled to the province of Kordofan, west of Khartoum, where he visited with the notables of the capital, El-Obeid, who were enmeshed in a power struggle between two rival claimants to the governorship of the province. The Mahdi and a party of his followers, the Ansār (helpers, known in the West as "the Dervishes"), made a long march to Kurdufan.
The Mahdi captured El-Obeid in 1883.

Dervish

dervishesDarvišderwish
The Mahdi and a party of his followers, the Ansār (helpers, known in the West as "the Dervishes"), made a long march to Kurdufan.
Various western historical writers have sometimes used the term dervish rather loosely, linking it to, among other things, the Mahdist uprising in Sudan and other rebellions against colonial powers.

In Desert and Wilderness

novel of the same name
In Desert and Wilderness, a young adult novel by Henryk Sienkiewicz (1912)
In Desert and Wilderness tells the story of two young friends, Staś Tarkowski (14 years old) and Nel Rawlison (8 years old), kidnapped by rebels during Mahdi's rebellion in Sudan.

Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener

Lord KitchenerKitchenerHerbert Kitchener
After the final defeat of the Khalifa by the British under General Kitchener in 1898, Muhammad Ahmad's tomb was destroyed and his bones were thrown into the Nile.
He became Governor of the Egyptian Provinces of Eastern Sudan and Red Sea Littoral (which in practice consisted of little more than the Port of Suakin) in September 1886, and led his forces in action against the followers of the Mahdi at Handub in January 1888, when he was injured in the jaw.