Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq

Zia-ul-HaqZia ul HaqZia ul-HaqGeneral Zia-ul-HaqGeneral ZiaGeneral Muhammad Zia-ul-HaqZiaGeneral Zia Ul-HaqMuhammad Zia ul-HaqGeneral Zia ul Haq
Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq (12 August 1924 – 17 August 1988) was a military dictator who became the 6th President of Pakistan after declaring martial law in 1977.wikipedia
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Operation Fair Play

martial lawFair Playcoup d'état
Following civil disorder, Zia deposed Bhutto in a military coup and declared martial law on 5 July 1977.
Operation Fair Play was the code name for the 5 July 1977 coup by Pakistan Chief of Army Staff General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, overthrowing the government of Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto.

Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq's Islamization

Zia-ul-Haq's IslamizationIslamizationIslamisation
Domestically, Zia passed broad-ranging legislation as part of Pakistan's Islamization, curbed civil liberties, and heightened press censorship.
"Sharization" or "Islamisation" was the "primary" policy, or "centerpiece" of the government of General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, the ruler of Pakistan from 1977 until his death in 1988.

China–Pakistan relations

Chinabilateral relationstwo nations
On the foreign front, Zia also bolstered ties with China and the United States, and emphasised Pakistan's role in the Islamic world, while relations with India worsened amid the Siachen conflict and accusations that Pakistan was aiding the Khalistan movement.
In 1986, President Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq visited China to improve diplomatic relations, and Pakistan was one of only two countries, alongside Cuba, to offer crucial support to the PRC after the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989.

Zulfikar Ali Bhutto

Zulfiqar Ali BhuttoBhuttoZulfikar Bhutto
In recognition, Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto appointed Zia Chief of Army Staff in 1976.
On 5 July that same year, Bhutto was deposed in a military coup by his appointed army chief Zia-ul-Haq, before being controversially tried and executed by the Supreme Court of Pakistan in 1979 for authorising the murder of a political opponent.

Pakistan and weapons of mass destruction

atomic bomb projectPakistannuclear deterrence
He also escalated Pakistan's atomic bomb project, and instituted industrialisation and deregulation, helping Pakistan's economy become the fastest-growing in South Asia.
Eventually, the supervision passed to Lt General Zahid Ali Akbar Khan in President General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq's Administration.

List of presidents of Pakistan

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Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq (12 August 1924 – 17 August 1988) was a military dictator who became the 6th President of Pakistan after declaring martial law in 1977.
The first president was a retired military officer, four others were incumbent military officers of which three gained power through successful military coups in Pakistan's history – Ayub Khan in 1958, Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq in 1977 and Pervez Musharraf in 1999.

Martial law

martial law administratormilitary rulemilitary government
Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq (12 August 1924 – 17 August 1988) was a military dictator who became the 6th President of Pakistan after declaring martial law in 1977.
The fourth was imposed by the General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq on 5 July 1977.

Soviet–Afghan War

Soviet invasion of AfghanistanSoviet invasionSoviet-Afghan War
Assuming the presidency in 1978, Zia played a major role in the Soviet–Afghan War.
Pakistani President Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq's ties with the U.S. had been strained during Jimmy Carter's presidency due to Pakistan's nuclear program and the execution of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto in April 1979, but Carter told National Security Adviser Zbigniew Brzezinski and Secretary of State Cyrus Vance as early as January 1979 that it was vital to "repair our relationships with Pakistan" in light of the unrest in Iran.

President of Pakistan

PresidentPakistani Presidentpresidency
Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq (12 August 1924 – 17 August 1988) was a military dictator who became the 6th President of Pakistan after declaring martial law in 1977.
The events leading to it resulted in military intervention by chief of army staff General Zia-ul-Haq and Chairman Joint Chiefs Admiral Mohammad Shariff.

Ghulam Jilani Khan

At the time of his nominating the successor to the outgoing Chief of Army Staff General Tikka Khan, the Lieutenant Generals in order of seniority were: Muhammad Shariff, Akbar Khan, Aftab Ahmed, Azmat Baksh Awan, Ibrahim Akram, Abdul Majeed Malik, Ghulam Jilani Khan, and Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq.
Ghulam Jilani Khan (1925–1999), undefined, was a three-star lieutenant general officer in the Pakistan Army who served as the fourteenth Governor of Punjab Province and eleventh Defence Secretary of Pakistan in the military government of President General Zia-ul-Haq.

Eighth Amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan

Eighth Amendmentdismissed8th
After lifting martial law and holding non-partisan elections in 1985, Zia appointed Muhammad Khan Junejo Prime Minister but accumulated more presidential powers via the Eighth Amendment to the Constitution.
The eighth amendment was drafted and later enforced by the technocratic-military government of General Zia-ul-Haq.

Pakistan

Islamic Republic of PakistanPAKPakistani
Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq was born in a Punjabi Arain family in Jalandhar, Punjab Province of the British India, on 12 August 1924 as the second child of Muhammad Akbar, who worked as a staff clerk in the Army GHQ of India Command of British Armed Forces in Delhi and Shimla, prior to the independence of Pakistan from British colonial rule in 1947.
Democracy ended with a military coup in 1977 against the leftist PPP, which saw General Zia-ul-Haq become the president in 1978.

Fazal Ilahi Chaudhry

Fazal IlahiFazal Elahi ChaudhryChaudhry
However, the senior most at that time, Lieutenant-General Mohammad Shariff, though promoted to General, was made the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee, a constitutional post akin to President Fazal Ilahi Chaudhry. In 1978, Zia pressured President Fazal Ilahi Chaudhry to appoint General Anwar Shamim as Chief of Air Staff; and Admiral Karamat Rahman Niazi as Chief of Naval Staff in 1979.
Fazal Elahi Chaudhry (Punjabi, undefined; 1 January 1904 – 2 June 1982), was a politician who served as the 5th President of Pakistan from 1973 until 1978, prior to the martial law led by Chief of Army Staff General Zia-ul-Haq.

Pakistan Peoples Party

PPPPakistan People's PartyPakistan Democratic Alliance
Dissidence also increased within the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP), and the murder of leading dissident Ahmed Raza Kasuri's father led to public outrage and intra-party hostility as Bhutto was accused of masterminding the crime.
It dominated the politics of Pakistan during the 1970s, suffering a temporary decline during the military dictatorship of Zia-ul-Haq.

Khalid Mahmud Arif

K.M. ArifKM ArifGeneral Khalid Mahmud Arif
However, Zia's Chief of Army Staff General Khalid Mahmud Arif contradicted Zia's statement when Arif noted that the coup had already been planned, and the senior leadership of Pakistan Armed Forces had solid information.
General Khalid Mahmud Arif (خالد محمود عارف b. in 1930) Sbt., NI(M), LOM, popularly known as K.M. Arif, was a four-star rank army general in the Pakistan Army, serving as the vice-chief of army staff under President Zia-ul-Haq, who retained the command of the army since 1976.

National Awami Party

NAPAll-Pakistan National Awami PartyBangladesh National Awami Party
Initially targeting leader of the opposition Vali Khan and his opposition National Awami Party (NAP), also a socialist party.
The leaders of the NAP, including Khan Abdul Wali Khan, were only released during the regime of General Zia-ul-Haq.

Chief of Army Staff (Pakistan)

Chief of Army Staffarmy chiefArmy Commander
In recognition, Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto appointed Zia Chief of Army Staff in 1976. However, Zia's Chief of Army Staff General Khalid Mahmud Arif contradicted Zia's statement when Arif noted that the coup had already been planned, and the senior leadership of Pakistan Armed Forces had solid information.
In 1977, General Zia-ul-Haq was the first army chief who carefully planned a coup against Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto when the right wing opposition instigated popular demonstration after the general elections held in 1977.

Pakistan National Alliance

PNAconservative allianceBhutto rivals
On 8 January 1977, a large number of opposition political parties grouped to form the Pakistan National Alliance (PNA).
After months of spontaneous violent political activism, the martial law came in effect under chief of army staff General Zia-ul-Haq who made call for a political retribution.

Ijaz-ul-Haq

Muhammad Ijaz-ul-HaqEjazul HaqHaq
Zia is survived by his sons, Muhammad Ijaz-ul-Haq, (born 1953), who went into politics and became a cabinet minister in the government of Nawaz Sharif, and Anwar-ul-Haq (born 1960) and his daughters, Zain (born 1972), a special needs child, Rubina Saleem, who is married to a Pakistani banker and has been living in the United States since 1980, and Quratulain Zia who currently lives in London, and is married to Pakistani doctor, Adnan Majid.
A graduate of Southern Illinois University, Ijaz worked as a banker prior to entering in politics in 1988, following the assassination of his father General Zia-ul-Haq, Pakistan's then-President of Pakistan.

Tajammul Hussain Malik

T.H. MalikTajamül Hussain Malik
Zia planned the Coup d'état carefully, as he knew Bhutto had integral intelligence in the Pakistan Armed Forces, and many officers, including Chief of Air Staff Air Marshal Zulfiqar Ali Khan and Major-General Tajammul Hussain Malik, GOC of 23rd Mountain Division, Major-General Naseerullah Babar, DG of Directorate-General for the Military Intelligence (DGMI) and Vice-Admiral Syed Mohammad Ahsan, were loyal to Bhutto.
He was the commanding officer of Pakistani forces at the Battle of Hilli during the Indo-Pakistani war of 1971, and headed a failed coup attempt against the regime of Zia-ul-Haq in 1980 which resulted in a court-martial held by Judge Advocate General Branch of Pakistan Defence Forces headed by General Zia-ul-Haq.

Karamat Rahman Niazi

K.R. NiaziK. R. Niazi
In 1978, Zia pressured President Fazal Ilahi Chaudhry to appoint General Anwar Shamim as Chief of Air Staff; and Admiral Karamat Rahman Niazi as Chief of Naval Staff in 1979.
In 1979, he took over the command of the Pakistan Navy as its Chief of Naval Staff and worked in close coordination with President Zia-ul-Haq on the matters of national security throughout the 1980s.

Anwar Shamim

Anvar Shamim
In 1978, Zia pressured President Fazal Ilahi Chaudhry to appoint General Anwar Shamim as Chief of Air Staff; and Admiral Karamat Rahman Niazi as Chief of Naval Staff in 1979.
During his tenureship, he played an influential role in the Zia administration, advising President Zia on policy matters involving the national security.

Military dictatorship

juntamilitary regimemilitary junta
Nusrat Bhutto, the wife of the deposed Prime Minister, filed a suit against Zia's military regime, challenging the validity of the July 1977 military coup.
In Pakistan, ruling Generals Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq (1977–1988) and Pervez Musharraf (1999–2008) have held referendums to elect themselves President of Pakistan for additional terms forbidden by the constitution.

Mohammad Shariff (admiral)

Mohammad ShariffM.S. KhanMuhammad Shariff
Immediately, the Chief of Naval Staff Admiral Mohammad Shariff announced his and the navy's strong support for Zia and his military government.
After retiring from the military in 1980, Shariff was appointed as chairman of Federal Public Service Commission while he continued his role as military adviser to President Zia-ul-Haq until 1988 when he retired from public service.

1977 Pakistani general election

1977general elections1977 general elections
Bhutto called fresh elections, and PNA participated fully in those elections.
The Chief of Army Staff Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq subsequently called a secret meeting of senior military officials to plan a coup, which was successfully executed with the government overthrown and parliament dissolved, resulting in Pakistan entering its third period of military rule.