Mujahideen

mujahidAfghan mujahideenmujahedinmujaheddinMujahadeenmujahedeenForeign Mujahideenmujahidinjihadistforeign fighters
Mujahideen is the plural form of mujahid''', the term for one engaged in Jihad (literally, “struggle”).wikipedia
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Soviet–Afghan War

Soviet invasion of AfghanistanSoviet invasionSoviet-Afghan War
Its widespread use in English began with reference to the guerrilla-type militant groups led by the Islamist Afghan fighters in the Soviet–Afghan War, and now extends to other jihadist groups in various countries.
Insurgent groups known collectively as the mujahideen, as well as smaller Maoist groups, fought a guerrilla war against the Soviet Army and the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan government, mostly in the rural countryside.

Afghanistan

AfghanIslamic Republic of AfghanistanAfghans
The modern term of mujahideen referring to spiritual Muslim warriors, originates in the 19th century when some tribal leaders in Afghanistan fought against the British attempts to stop raids on India (although initially the British derogatorally called them the Sitana Fanatics). They came from various places such as Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Jordan, Egypt, Iraq and the Palestinian Territories; to quote the summary of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia judgment:
This evoked the Soviet–Afghan War in the 1980s against mujahideen rebels.

Jihad

holy warjihādoffensive jihad
Mujahideen is the plural form of mujahid''', the term for one engaged in Jihad (literally, “struggle”).
A person engaged in jihad is called a mujahid (plural mujahideen).

Islamic Unity of Afghanistan Mujahideen

Peshawar SevenMujahideenSunni Mujahideen
Eventually, the seven main mujahideen parties allied as the political bloc called Islamic Unity of Afghanistan Mujahideen.
The Islamic Unity of Afghanistan Mujahideen, also known as the Seven Party Mujahideen Alliance or Peshawar Seven, was an alliance formed in 1988 (see Alliance Formation below) by the seven Afghan mujahideen parties fighting against the Soviet-backed Democratic Republic of Afghanistan forces in the Soviet–Afghan War.

Guerrilla warfare

guerrillaguerrillasguerrilla war
Its widespread use in English began with reference to the guerrilla-type militant groups led by the Islamist Afghan fighters in the Soviet–Afghan War, and now extends to other jihadist groups in various countries.
In the 20th century, other communist leaders, including North Vietnamese Ho Chi Minh, often used and developed guerrilla warfare tactics, which provided a model for their use elsewhere, leading to the Cuban "foco" theory and the anti-Soviet Mujahadeen in Afghanistan.

Democratic Republic of Afghanistan

AfghanistanRepublic of AfghanistanDRA
Arguably the best-known mujahideen outside the Islamic world, various loosely aligned Afghan opposition groups initially rebelled against the government of the pro-Soviet Democratic Republic of Afghanistan (DRA) during the late 1970s.
The Karmal era, lasting from 1979 to 1986, is best known for the Soviet war effort in Afghanistan against mujahideen insurgents.

Afghan Arabs

Afghan ArabArab AfghanArab volunteers
These foreign fighters became known as "Afghan Arabs" and their efforts were coordinated by Abdullah Yusuf Azzam.
The term Afghan Arabs (also known as Arab-Afghans) refers mostly to Arab and other Muslim Islamist mujahideen who came to Afghanistan during and following the Soviet–Afghan War to help fellow Muslims fight Soviets and pro-Soviet Afghans.

Osama bin Laden

Bin LadenUsama bin LadenOsama
Osama bin Laden, originally from a wealthy family in Saudi Arabia, was a prominent organizer and financier of an all-Arab Islamist group of foreign volunteers; his Maktab al-Khadamat funnelled money, arms, and Muslim fighters from around the Muslim world into Afghanistan, with the assistance and support of the Saudi and Pakistani governments.
He was born in Saudi Arabia and studied at university in the country until 1979, when he joined Mujahideen forces in Pakistan fighting against the Soviet Union in Afghanistan.

Abdullah Yusuf Azzam

Abdullah AzzamAbdallah AzzamAbdallah 'Azzam
These foreign fighters became known as "Afghan Arabs" and their efforts were coordinated by Abdullah Yusuf Azzam.
Azzam preached both defensive and offensive jihad by Muslims to help the Afghan mujahideen against the Soviet invaders.

Mohammed Omar

Mullah OmarMullah Mohammed OmarMullah Muhammad Omar
After several years of devastating fighting, a village mullah named Mohammed Omar organized a new armed movement with the backing of Pakistan.
Mullah Mohammed Omar (ملا محمد عمر, Mullā Muḥammad 'Umar; c. 1960 – 23 April 2013), widely known as Mullah Omar, was an Afghan mujahideen commander who founded the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan in 1996.

Afghan Civil War (1992–1996)

civil warAfghan Civil WarCivil war in Afghanistan (1992–1996)
However, the mujahideen did not establish a united government, and many of the larger mujahideen groups began to fight each other over power in Kabul.
On 25 April 1992, a civil war had ignited between three, later five or six, mujahideen armies, when Hezb-e Islami Gulbuddin led by Gulbuddin Hekmatyar and supported by Pakistan’s Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) refused to form a coalition government with other mujahideen groups and tried to conquer Kabul for themselves.

Taliban

Afghan Talibanthe TalibanTaleban
This movement became known as the Taliban ("students" in Pashto), referring to how most Taliban had grown up in refugee camps in Pakistan during the 1980s and were taught in the Saudi-backed Wahhabi madrassas, religious schools known for teaching a fundamentalist interpretation of Islam.
Under the leadership of Mohammed Omar, the movement spread throughout most of Afghanistan, sequestering power from the Mujahideen warlords.

Maktab al-Khidamat

Maktab al-KhadamatMakhtab al-KhidamatMaktab al-Khidmat
Osama bin Laden, originally from a wealthy family in Saudi Arabia, was a prominent organizer and financier of an all-Arab Islamist group of foreign volunteers; his Maktab al-Khadamat funnelled money, arms, and Muslim fighters from around the Muslim world into Afghanistan, with the assistance and support of the Saudi and Pakistani governments.
The Maktab al-Khidamat, also Maktab Khadamāt al-Mujāhidīn al-'Arab (Arabic: مكتب الخدمات or مكتب خدمات المجاهدين العرب, MAK), also known as the Afghan Services Bureau, was founded in 1984 by Abdullah Azzam, Wa'el Hamza Julaidan, Osama bin Laden and Ayman al-Zawahiri to raise funds and recruit foreign mujahidin for the war against the Soviets in Afghanistan.

People's Mujahedin of Iran

MEKMujahideen-e-KhalqPMOI
While more than one group in Iran have called themselves mujahideen, the most famous is the People's Mujahedin of Iran (PMOI), an Iraq-based Islamic Socialist militant organization that advocates the overthrow of Iran's current government.
One of the first persons to address Iran on Radio Tehran was a MEK spokesman who congratulated the country for the revolution and hailed "His highness Ayatollah Khomeini as a glorious mojahed".

Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan

withdrawaltroop withdrawalwithdrew from Afghanistan
In 1989 the Soviet Union withdrew its forces from Afghanistan.
During this period, the military and intelligence organizations of the USSR worked with the government of Mohammad Najibullah to improve relations between the government in Kabul and the leaders of rebel factions.

War on terror

War on TerrorismGlobal War on TerrorismGlobal War on Terror
The 1990s are a transitional period between the Mujahideen outfits forming part of the proxy wars between the Cold War superpowers and the emergence of contemporary jihadism in the wake of the US "War on Terror" and the "Arab Spring".
In 1984, the Reagan administration, which had significantly expanded the CIA-run program of funding the Jihadi militants in Afghanistan, employed the term "war against terrorism" to pass legislation aimed at countering terrorist groups in the wake of the 1983 Beirut barracks bombing that killed 241 U.S. and 58 French peacekeepers.

Abu Sayyaf

Abu Sayyaf GroupWarren RodwellASG
The conflict is ongoing; casualty statistics vary for the conflict however the conservative estimates of the Uppsala Conflict Data Program indicate that at least 6,015 people were killed in armed conflict between the Government of Philippines and ASG, BIFM, MILF, and MNLF factions between 1989 and 2012. Abu Sayyaf is an Islamic separatist group in the southern Philippines, formed in 1991.
Some Abu Sayyaf members studied or worked in Saudi Arabia and developed ties to mujahadeen, while fighting and training in the war against the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.

Philippines

FilipinoPhilippinePhilippine Islands
Abu Sayyaf is an Islamic separatist group in the southern Philippines, formed in 1991.
These expeditionary forces had also spread to other Sultanates such as nearby Brunei and had taught local mujahideen new fighting tactics and techniques on how to forge modern cannons.

Pakistan

Islamic Republic of PakistanPAKPakistani
They came from various places such as Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Jordan, Egypt, Iraq and the Palestinian Territories; to quote the summary of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia judgment:
While building up the country's nuclear program, increasing Islamisation, and the rise of a homegrown conservative philosophy, Pakistan helped subsidise and distribute US resources to factions of the mujahideen against the USSR's intervention in communist Afghanistan.

Caucasian Front (militant group)

Caucasian FrontCaucasus FrontCaucasian Mujahadeen
In the last months of 2007, the influence of foreign fighters became apparent again when Dokka Umarov proclaimed the Caucasus Emirate being fought for by the Caucasian Mujahadeen, a pan-Caucasian Islamic state of which Chechnya was to be a province.
The Caucasian Front also called Caucasus Front or the Caucasian Mujahadeen, was formally established in May 2005 as an Islamic structural unit of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria's armed forces by the decree of the separatist President of Chechnya Abdul-Halim Sadulayev during the Second Chechen War.

Abu al-Walid

Abu al-Walid al-Ghamdi
The Russians also succeeded in killing the most prominent mujahideen commanders, most notably Ibn al-Khattab and Abu al-Walid.
Abu al-Walid (ابو الوليد, also transliterated as Abu al-Waleed and also called Abu al-Walid al-Ghamdi or simply Abu Walid; 1967 – 16 April 2004), was a Saudi Arabian of the Ghamd tribe who fought as a "mujahid" volunteer in Central Asia, the Balkans, and the North Caucasus.

Demographics of Afghanistan

AfghanAfghansDemography of Afghanistan
Arguably the best-known mujahideen outside the Islamic world, various loosely aligned Afghan opposition groups initially rebelled against the government of the pro-Soviet Democratic Republic of Afghanistan (DRA) during the late 1970s.

Proxy war

proxy warsproxyproxies
The 1990s are a transitional period between the Mujahideen outfits forming part of the proxy wars between the Cold War superpowers and the emergence of contemporary jihadism in the wake of the US "War on Terror" and the "Arab Spring".
This encouraged the American practice of arming insurgent forces, such as the funneling of supplies to the mujahideen during the Soviet–Afghan War.

Second Chechen War

war in ChechnyaChechen WarChechnya
The term mujahideen has often been used to refer to all separatist fighters in the case of the First and Second Chechen Wars.
In August and September 1999, Shamil Basayev (in association with the Saudi-born Ibn al-Khattab, Commander of the Mujahedeen) led two armies of up to 2,000 Chechen, Dagestani, Arab and international mujahideen and Wahhabist militants from Chechnya into the neighboring Republic of Dagestan.

Hizbul Mujahideen

Hizb-ul-MujahideenHizb al-MujahideenHizbul Mujahideen (HIM)
Most noticeable of these groups are Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT), Jaish-e-Mohammed (JeM), Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front (JKLF), Hizbul Mujahideen and Harkat-ul-Mujahideen (HuM).
Hizb-ul-Mujahideen (حزب المجاھدین, Ḥizb al-Mujāhidīn, meaning "Party of Holy Warriors" or "Party of Mujahideen") is a pro-Pakistani separatist organization that is active in the regions of north-east Pakistan and seeks for the integration of Jammu and Kashmir with Pakistan as an Islamic state.