Multan

Multan is famous for its large number of Sufi shrines, including the unique rectangular tomb of Shah Gardez that dates from the 1150s and is covered in blue enameled tiles typical of Multan.
The shrine of Shamsuddin Sabzwari dates from 1330, and has a unique green dome.
The Mausoleum of Shah Ali Akbar dating from the 1580s was built in the regional style that is typical of Multan's shrines.
Multan's Tomb of Shah Rukn-e-Alam is considered to be the earliest Tughluq era monument.
The 15th century Multani Caravanserai in Baku, Azerbaijan, was built to house visiting Multani merchants in the city.
Multan's Shahi Eid Gah Mosque dates from 1735 and is decorated with elaborate and intricate Mughal era frescoes.
Diwan Sawan Mal Chopra, the governor of Multan and Lahore.
Multan's "Bloody Bastion" was the site of fierce fighting during the Siege of Multan in 1848–49.
Multan's Ghanta Ghar dates from the British colonial period, and was built in the Indo-Saracenic style.
Shrine of Hazrat Baha-ud-din Zakariya
Multan's is home to a significant Christian minority.
Multan's Sufi shrines are often decorated during annual Urs festivals. Pictured is the Wali Muhammad Shah shrine.
Multan Cantonment railway station serves as the city's main railway station.
Multan International Airport offers flights throughout Pakistan, and direct flights to Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates.
The tomb of Khawaja Awais Kagha displays use of traditional Multan tile-work on both its exterior and interior.
The shrine of Pir Adil Shah.
Multan Cricket Stadium from outside.

City and capital of Multan Division located in Punjab, Pakistan.

- Multan

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Punjab, Pakistan

One of the four provinces of Pakistan.

Punjab was part of the Vedic Civilization
Location of Punjab, Pakistan and the extent of the Indus Valley Civilisation sites in and around it
Alexander's Indian Campaign
Modern painting of Bulleh Shah (1680–1757), a Punjabi Muslim Sufi poet who has hugely impacted the region
Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s court at Lahore Fort, by August Schoefft
The Sikh Empire (Sarkar-e-Khalsa)
The Faisalabad Clock Tower was built during the rule of the British Empire
At the Wagah border ceremony
Punjab features mountainous terrain near the hill station of Murree.
Sunset in Punjab, during summer
The route from Dera Ghazi Khan to Fort Munro
A demonstration by Punjabis at Lahore, Pakistan, demanding to make Punjabi as official language of instruction in schools of the Punjab.
Punjab assembly, Lahore
Map of the Pakistani Punjab divisions
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GDP by Province
Industrial Zones Punjab, Source:
Government College University, Lahore
Main entrance to The university of Sargodha
Government college for Women, Rawalpindi
University of the Punjab
University of Agriculture, Faisalabad
King Edward Medical University, Lahore
Badshahi Masjid in Lahore
Tomb of Shah Rukn-e-Alam, Multan (1320 AD)
Baba Ram Thaman Shrine
Punjab is famous for various shrines of Sufi saints and Data durbar in particular
Badshahi Mosque, built by Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb at Lahore
Camel saddle created in Multan or in other parts of Pakistan. It is very different from Multani Khussa
Sillanwali woodworking, a wooden horse
Matki earthen pot, a clay vase exhibition
Lahore Fort, a UNESCO World Heritage Site
Various festivals in rural Punjab
Punjabi folk.
Jungle in Sahiwal, Punjab
Badshahi Mosque, Lahore
Tomb of Jahangir, Lahore
Katas Raj Temples (Sardar of Hari Singh's Haveli)
Lahore Museum
Sacred Heart Cathedral, Lahore
Shalimar Gardens
Asaf Khan's Mausoleum
Minar e Pakistan
GPO, Lahore
Clock Tower at Govt College University, Lahore
Faisalabad Clock Tower
Chenab Club, Faisalabad
Faisalabad Railway Station
Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan Auditorium in Faisalabad
Clock Tower in Sialkot.
Faisalabad Pindi Battian Interchange
Irrigation canals in Faisalabad
Hindu temple in Faisalabad
Dhan Gali Bridge
CMH Mosque, Jhelum Cantt
Taxila is a World Heritage Site
Samadhi of Ranjit Singh
Major Akram Memorial, Jhelum
Wheat Fields
A view of Murree, a famous hill station of Punjab
Different shapes of clay pots mostly made in Gujrat
A Fields View from North Punjab
Tilla Jogian Jhelum, scenic peak in Punjab considered sacred by Hindus

Other major cities include Gujranwala, Faisalabad, Multan, Rawalpindi, and Sialkot.

Kashyapa

Revered Vedic sage of Hinduism.

Statue of Kashyapa in Andhra Pradesh, India

The Sindh city Multan (now in Pakistan), also called Mulasthana, has been interpreted alternatively as Kashyapapura in some stories after Kashyap.

Multan Sun Temple

Cunningham's map of the fort complex.

The Sun Temple of Multan was a temple dedicated to Surya, the Hindu Sun God, in the city of Multan.

Trigarta Kingdom

Trigarta kingdom was an ancient kingdom in northern Indian region of the Indian subcontinent with its capital at Prasthala (modern Jalandhar), Multan and Kangra.

Uch

Historic city in the southern part of Pakistan's Punjab province. Uch may have been founded as Alexandria on the Indus, a town founded by Alexander the Great during his invasion of the Indus Valley. Uch was an early stronghold of the Delhi Sultanate during the Muslim conquest of the subcontinent. Also known as home for the Naqvi/Bukhari’s after the migration from Bukhara. Uch was a regional metropolitan centre between the 12th and 17th centuries, and became refuge for Muslim religious scholars fleeing persecution from other lands. Though Uch is now a relatively small city, it is renowned for its intact historic urban fabric, and for its collection of shrines dedicated to Muslim mystics from the 12-15th centuries that are embellished with extensive tile work, and were built in the distinct architectural style of southern Punjab.

The mosque of Makhdoom Jahanian was built in the late 1300s, and is embellished with the blue tile-work typical of southern Punjab.
The mosque of Mahboob Subhani is decorated in the region's vernacular style.
The shrine of Jalaluddin Bukhari is dedicated to Uch's celebrated 13th century Sufi saint.
The Baha'al Halim and Nuriyas tombs were built in the 14th and 16th centuries, respectively.
Several of Uch's monuments were damaged in flooding in the early 19th century, leaving their interiors exposed.
Some of the monuments are undergoing restoration work.

The region around Uch and Multan remained centre of Hindu Vaishnavite and Surya pilgrimage throughout the medieval era.

Muhammad of Ghor

The Sultan of the Ghurid Empire along with his brother Ghiyath ad-Din Muhammad from 1173 to 1202 and as the sole ruler from 1202 to 1206.

Mausoleum of Muhammad of Ghor, built at his gravesite by Pakistani scientist Abdul Qadeer Khan in 1994-1995, in Sohawa Tehsil, Pakistan.
Coinage of Mu'izz al-Din Muhammad. AH 599-602 / 1171-1206 CE. Ghazni mint.
Indian coinage (Pagoda) of Mu'izz al-Din Muhammad, on the model of Gahadavala dynasty coinage. Obverse: Lakshmi seated facing. Reverse: legend in Devanagari: śrima ha/[mi]ra mahama/da sama "Lord Emir Muhammad (ibn) Sam".
Bengal coinage of Bakhtiyar Khalji (1204-1206 CE). Struck in the name of Mu'izz al-Din Muhammad, dated Samvat 1262 (1204 CE). Obverse: Horseman with Nagari legend around: samvat 1262 bhadrapada "August, year 1262". Reverse: Nagari legend: srima ha/ mira mahama /da saamah "Lord Emir Mohammed [ibn] Sam".
Muhammad Ghori's tomb within his mausoleum near Jhelum
[[:File:Hindu_Shahis_Spalapatideva_type,_Kabul_mint.jpg|Bull-and-horseman]] billon coin of Muhammad of Ghor, with his name inscribed in Sanskrit above the bull Nandi. Minted in Delhi or Bada'un, on the model of previous Chauhan and Pala coinage. Obverse: Stylized recumbent bull with Nagari legend around: sri mahamad sam "Lord Mohammed [ibn] Sam". Reverse: Stylized horseman with Nagari legend around: sri hamirah "Lord Emir".

In 1175, Mu'izz captured Multan from its Ismaili Muslim community, and also took Uch the same year.

Indus Valley Civilisation

Bronze Age civilisation in the northwestern regions of South Asia, lasting from 3300 BCE to 1300 BCE, and in its mature form from 2600 BCE to 1900 BCE.

Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro, Sindh province, Pakistan, showing the Great Bath in the foreground. Mohenjo-daro, on the right bank of the Indus River, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, the first site in South Asia to be so declared.
Miniature votive images or toy models from Harappa, c. 2500 BCE. Terracotta figurines indicate the yoking of zebu oxen for pulling a cart and the presence of the chicken, a domesticated jungle fowl.
Major sites and extent of the Indus Valley Civilisation
Alexander Cunningham, the first director general of the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), interpreted a Harappan stamp seal in 1875.
R. D. Banerji, an officer of the ASI, visited Mohenjo-daro in 1919–1920, and again in 1922–1923, postulating the site's far-off antiquity.
John Marshall, the director-general of the ASI from 1902 to 1928, who oversaw the excavations in Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, shown in a 1906 photograph
Early Harappan Period, c. 3300–2600 BCE
Terracotta boat in the shape of a bull, and female figurines. Kot Diji period (c. 2800–2600 BC).
Mature Harappan Period, c. 2600–1900 BCE
Skull of a Harappan, Indian Museum
Harappan weights found in the Indus Valley, (National Museum, New Delhi)
Male dancing torso; 2400-1900 BC; limestone; height: 9.9 cm; National Museum (New Delhi)
red jasper male torso
Stamp seals and (right) impressions, some of them with Indus script; probably made of steatite; British Museum (London)
human deity with the horns, hooves and tail of a bull
Archaeological discoveries suggest that trade routes between Mesopotamia and the Indus were active during the 3rd millennium BCE, leading to the development of Indus–Mesopotamia relations.
Boat with direction-finding birds to find land. Model of Mohenjo-daro seal, 2500–1750 BCE.(National Museum, New Delhi)
Ten Indus characters from the northern gate of Dholavira, dubbed the Dholavira signboard
The Pashupati seal, showing a seated figure surrounded by animals
Swastika seals of Indus Valley Civilisation in British Museum
Late Harappan Period, c. 1900–1300 BCE
Late Harappan figures from a hoard at Daimabad, 2000 BCE (Prince of Wales Museum, Bombay)
Painted pottery urns from Harappa (Cemetery H culture, c. 1900–1300 BCE), National Museum, New Delhi
Impression of a cylinder seal of the Akkadian Empire, with label: "The Divine Sharkalisharri Prince of Akkad, Ibni-Sharrum the Scribe his servant". The long-horned buffalo is thought to have come from the Indus Valley, and testifies to exchanges with Meluhha, the Indus Valley civilisation. Circa 2217–2193 BCE. Louvre Museum.
Ceremonial vessel; 2600-2450 BC; terracotta with black paint; 49.53 × 25.4 cm; Los Angeles County Museum of Art (US)
Cubical weights, standardised throughout the Indus cultural zone; 2600-1900 BC; chert; British Museum (London)
Mohenjo-daro beads; 2600-1900 BC; carnelian and terracotta; British Museum
Ram-headed bird mounted on wheels, probably a toy; 2600-1900 BC; terracotta; Guimet Museum (Paris)
Reclining mouflon; 2600–1900 BC; marble; length: 28 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City)
The Priest-King; 2400–1900 BC; low fired steatite; height: 17.5 cm; National Museum of Pakistan (Karachi)
The Dancing Girl; 2400–1900 BC; bronze; height: 10.8 cm; National Museum (New Delhi)
Seal; 3000–1500 BC; baked steatite; 2 × 2 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City)
Stamp seal and modern impression: unicorn and incense burner (?); 2600-1900 BC; burnt steatite; 3.8 × 3.8 × 1 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art
Seal with two-horned bull and inscription; 2010 BC; steatite; overall: 3.2 x 3.2 cm; Cleveland Museum of Art (Cleveland, Ohio, US)
Seal with unicorn and inscription; 2010 BC; steatite; overall: 3.5 x 3.6 cm; Cleveland Museum of Art

Nearly 100 mi of railway track between Multan and Lahore, laid in the mid 1850s, was supported by Harappan bricks.

Qarmatians

Iranian dynasty of a syncretic branch of Sevener Ismaili Shia Islam.

Qarmatians under Abu Tahir al-Jannabi
Gold dinar minted by the Qarmatians during their occupation of Palestine in the 970s

By the mid 10th century, persecution forced the Qarmatians to leave Egypt and Iraq, and move towards city of Multan in Pakistan.

Lahore

Capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab, is Pakistan's 2nd largest city after Karachi, and is the 26th largest city in the world.

The Lava Temple at the Lahore Fort dates from the Sikh period, and is dedicated to the Hindu deity Lava
The Data Darbar shrine, one of Pakistan's most important, was built to commemorate the patron saint of Lahore, Ali Hujwiri, who lived in the city during the Ghaznavid era in the 11th century.
The Neevin Mosque is one of Lahore's few remaining medieval era buildings.
Grave of Nur Jahan
Lahore's Wazir Khan Mosque is considered to be the most ornately decorated Mughal-era mosque.
The Begum Shahi Mosque was completed in 1614 in honour of Jahangir's mother, Mariam-uz-Zamani.
The iconic Alamgiri Gate of the Lahore Fort was built in 1674, and faces Aurangzeb's Badshahi Mosque.
Wazir Khan Mosque painting by William Carpenter, 1866.
The Sunehri Mosque was built in the Walled City of Lahore in the early 18th century, when the Mughal Empire was in decline.
The Tomb of Asif Khan was one of several monuments plundered for its precious building materials during the Sikh period.
Lahore's Hazuri Bagh is at the centre of an ensemble of Mughal and Sikh era monuments, including the Badshahi Mosque, Lahore Fort, Roshnai Gate, and the Samadhi of Ranjit Singh.
The marble Hazuri Bagh Baradari was built in 1818 to celebrate Ranjit Singh's acquisition of the Koh-i-Noor diamond.
Map of the Old City and environs.
The Shah Alami area of Lahore's Walled City in 1890
Having been constructed in the immediate aftermath of the 1857 Sepoy Mutiny, the design of the Lahore Railway Station was highly militarised in order to defend the structure from any further potential uprisings against British rule.
The Mall, Lahore's pre-independence commercial core, features many examples of colonial architecture.
Sections of the Walled City of Lahore have been under restoration since 2012 in conjunction with the Agha Khan Trust for Culture.
Cityscape of Lahore
The area around the Wazir Khan Mosque exemplifies the Walled City's urban form
Built in 2012, Grand Jamia Mosque in Southern Lahore is a blend of Mughal and modern architecture.
A syncretic architectural style that blends Islamic, Hindu, and Western motifs took root during the colonial era, as shown at Aitchison College.
Much of old Lahore features colonial-era buildings, such as the Tollinton Market.
Lahore's Lawrence Garden was laid in 1862.
Kalma Underpass
Lahore Metrobus
The Orange Line is Pakistan's first metro rail line.
Allama Iqbal International Airport
The Azadi Chowk is located near the Badshahi Mosque.
Lahore Ring Road
Lahore Canal during the spring Basant festival
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Government College University
University of the Punjab
University of Engineering and Technology, Main Block.
Badshahi Mosque
Lahore Fort
Tomb of Jahangir
Shahi Hammam
Samadhi of Ranjit Singh
Gurdwara Dera Sahib
Haveli of Nau Nihal Singh
Hazuri Bagh
Gurdwara Janam Asthan Guru Ram Das
Lahore Museum
Lahore High Court
King Edward Medical University
Islamic Summit Minar
Minar-e-Pakistan
Grand Jamia Mosque
Provincial Assembly of the Punjab
WAPDA House
Arfa Karim tower in Lahore
Expo Centre Lahore
PIA Head Office
Emporium Mall
Wazir Khan Mosque
Badshahi Mosque
Lahore Fort (Shahi Qila)
Minar-e-Pakistan at night
Shalimar Gardens
Pakistan playing against Argentina in 2005.
Gaddafi Stadium is one of the largest stadiums of Pakistan with a capacity of 27,000 spectators.
Gymkhana Club

The city was captured by Nialtigin, the rebellious Governor of Multan, in 1034, although his forces were expelled by Malik Ayaz in 1036.

Mahmud of Ghazni

The founder of the Turkic Ghaznavid dynasty, ruling from 998 to 1030.

Mahmud of Ghazni (center) receives a robe from Caliph Al-Qadir; painting by Rashid-al-Din Hamadani
Fight between Mahmud of Ghazni and Abu 'Ali Simjuri.
Sultan Mahmud and his forces attacking the fortress of Zaranj in 1003 CE. 14th century painting.
Mahmud of Ghazni receiving Indian elephants as tribute (Majmu al-Tawarikh, by Hafiz-i Abru, Herat, 1425).
Captured Indian Raja brought to Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni. Folio from Majmu al-Tavarikh, by Hafiz-i Abru, Herat, 1425.
Ruins of the Somnath temple in the 19th century.
The Kara-Khanid ruler "Ilig Khan" on horse, submitting to Mahmud of Ghazni, who is riding an elephant.
Ghaznavid fortress of Lashkari Bazar in Lashkargah, ancient Bost, southern Afghanistan. It was founded by Mahmud of Ghazni in 998-1030 CE.
Mahmud of Ghazni raided India as far as Somnath, Mathura and Kannauj in Gurjara-Pratihara territory.
Silver jitals of Mahmud of Ghazni with bilingual Arabic and Sanskrit minted in Lahore in 1028 CE. Obverse in Arabic: la ilaha illa'llah muhammad rasulullah sal allahu alayhi wa sallam "There is no God except Allah, and Muhammad is the meassenger of Allah" Reverse in Sanskrit (Sharada script): avyaktam eka muhammada avatāra nrpati mahamuda "There is one Invisible; Muhammad is the avatar; the king is Mahmud".
Coins of Mahmud with the Islamic declaration of faith. Obverse legend with the name of the caliph al-Qadir bi-llah (in the fifth line). Reverse legend: Muhammad Rasul/Allah Yamin al-Daw/la wa-Amin al-Milla/Mahmud.
A painting of the tomb of Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni, in 1839–40, with sandalwood doors long believed to have been plundered from Somnath, which he destroyed in c.1024, but later found to be replicas of the original

Mahmud's first campaign to the south was against an Ismaili state first established at Multan in 965 by a da'i from the Fatimid Caliphate in a bid to curry political favor and recognition with the Abbasid Caliphate; he also engaged elsewhere with the Fatimids.