A report on Multan

Multan is famous for its large number of Sufi shrines, including the unique rectangular tomb of Shah Gardez that dates from the 1150s and is covered in blue enameled tiles typical of Multan.
The shrine of Shamsuddin Sabzwari dates from 1330, and has a unique green dome.
The Mausoleum of Shah Ali Akbar dating from the 1580s was built in the regional style that is typical of Multan's shrines.
Multan's Tomb of Shah Rukn-e-Alam is considered to be the earliest Tughluq era monument.
The 15th century Multani Caravanserai in Baku, Azerbaijan, was built to house visiting Multani merchants in the city.
Multan's Shahi Eid Gah Mosque dates from 1735 and is decorated with elaborate and intricate Mughal era frescoes.
Diwan Sawan Mal Chopra, the governor of Multan and Lahore.
Multan's "Bloody Bastion" was the site of fierce fighting during the Siege of Multan in 1848–49.
Multan's Ghanta Ghar dates from the British colonial period, and was built in the Indo-Saracenic style.
Shrine of Hazrat Baha-ud-din Zakariya
Multan's is home to a significant Christian minority.
Multan's Sufi shrines are often decorated during annual Urs festivals. Pictured is the Wali Muhammad Shah shrine.
Multan Cantonment railway station serves as the city's main railway station.
Multan International Airport offers flights throughout Pakistan, and direct flights to Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates.
The tomb of Khawaja Awais Kagha displays use of traditional Multan tile-work on both its exterior and interior.
The shrine of Pir Adil Shah.
Multan Cricket Stadium from outside.

City and capital of Multan Division located in Punjab, Pakistan.

- Multan

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Lahore

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Capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab, is Pakistan's 2nd largest city after Karachi, and is the 26th largest city in the world.

Capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab, is Pakistan's 2nd largest city after Karachi, and is the 26th largest city in the world.

The Lava Temple at the Lahore Fort dates from the Sikh period, and is dedicated to the Hindu deity Lava
The Data Darbar shrine, one of Pakistan's most important, was built to commemorate the patron saint of Lahore, Ali Hujwiri, who lived in the city during the Ghaznavid era in the 11th century.
The Neevin Mosque is one of Lahore's few remaining medieval era buildings.
Grave of Nur Jahan
Lahore's Wazir Khan Mosque is considered to be the most ornately decorated Mughal-era mosque.
The Begum Shahi Mosque was completed in 1614 in honour of Jahangir's mother, Mariam-uz-Zamani.
The iconic Alamgiri Gate of the Lahore Fort was built in 1674, and faces Aurangzeb's Badshahi Mosque.
Wazir Khan Mosque painting by William Carpenter, 1866.
The Sunehri Mosque was built in the Walled City of Lahore in the early 18th century, when the Mughal Empire was in decline.
The Tomb of Asif Khan was one of several monuments plundered for its precious building materials during the Sikh period.
Lahore's Hazuri Bagh is at the centre of an ensemble of Mughal and Sikh era monuments, including the Badshahi Mosque, Lahore Fort, Roshnai Gate, and the Samadhi of Ranjit Singh.
The marble Hazuri Bagh Baradari was built in 1818 to celebrate Ranjit Singh's acquisition of the Koh-i-Noor diamond.
Map of the Old City and environs.
The Shah Alami area of Lahore's Walled City in 1890
Having been constructed in the immediate aftermath of the 1857 Sepoy Mutiny, the design of the Lahore Railway Station was highly militarised in order to defend the structure from any further potential uprisings against British rule.
The Mall, Lahore's pre-independence commercial core, features many examples of colonial architecture.
Sections of the Walled City of Lahore have been under restoration since 2012 in conjunction with the Agha Khan Trust for Culture.
Cityscape of Lahore
The area around the Wazir Khan Mosque exemplifies the Walled City's urban form
Built in 2012, Grand Jamia Mosque in Southern Lahore is a blend of Mughal and modern architecture.
A syncretic architectural style that blends Islamic, Hindu, and Western motifs took root during the colonial era, as shown at Aitchison College.
Much of old Lahore features colonial-era buildings, such as the Tollinton Market.
Lahore's Lawrence Garden was laid in 1862.
Kalma Underpass
Lahore Metrobus
The Orange Line is Pakistan's first metro rail line.
Allama Iqbal International Airport
The Azadi Chowk is located near the Badshahi Mosque.
Lahore Ring Road
Lahore Canal during the spring Basant festival
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Government College University
University of the Punjab
University of Engineering and Technology, Main Block.
Badshahi Mosque
Lahore Fort
Tomb of Jahangir
Shahi Hammam
Samadhi of Ranjit Singh
Gurdwara Dera Sahib
Haveli of Nau Nihal Singh
Hazuri Bagh
Gurdwara Janam Asthan Guru Ram Das
Lahore Museum
Lahore High Court
King Edward Medical University
Islamic Summit Minar
Minar-e-Pakistan
Grand Jamia Mosque
Provincial Assembly of the Punjab
WAPDA House
Arfa Karim tower in Lahore
Expo Centre Lahore
PIA Head Office
Emporium Mall
Wazir Khan Mosque
Badshahi Mosque
Lahore Fort (Shahi Qila)
Minar-e-Pakistan at night
Shalimar Gardens
Pakistan playing against Argentina in 2005.
Gaddafi Stadium is one of the largest stadiums of Pakistan with a capacity of 27,000 spectators.
Gymkhana Club

The city was captured by Nialtigin, the rebellious Muslim Governor of Multan, in 1034, although his forces were expelled by Malik Ayaz in 1036.

Punjab, Pakistan

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One of the four provinces of Pakistan.

One of the four provinces of Pakistan.

Punjab was part of the Vedic Civilization
Location of Punjab, Pakistan and the extent of the Indus Valley Civilisation sites in and around it
Alexander's Indian Campaign
Modern painting of Bulleh Shah (1680–1757), a Punjabi Muslim Sufi poet who has hugely impacted the region
Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s court at Lahore Fort, by August Schoefft
The Sikh Empire (Sarkar-e-Khalsa)
The Faisalabad Clock Tower was built during the rule of the British Empire
At the Wagah border ceremony
Punjab features mountainous terrain near the hill station of Murree.
Sunset in Punjab, during summer
The route from Dera Ghazi Khan to Fort Munro
A demonstration by Punjabis at Lahore, Pakistan, demanding to make Punjabi as official language of instruction in schools of the Punjab.
Punjab assembly, Lahore
Map of the Pakistani Punjab divisions
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GDP by Province
Industrial Zones Punjab, Source:
Government College University, Lahore
Main entrance to The university of Sargodha
Government college for Women, Rawalpindi
University of the Punjab
University of Agriculture, Faisalabad
King Edward Medical University, Lahore
Badshahi Masjid in Lahore
Tomb of Shah Rukn-e-Alam, Multan (1320 AD)
Baba Ram Thaman Shrine
Punjab is famous for various shrines of Sufi saints and Data durbar in particular
Badshahi Mosque, built by Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb at Lahore
Camel saddle created in Multan or in other parts of Pakistan. It is very different from Multani Khussa
Sillanwali woodworking, a wooden horse
Matki earthen pot, a clay vase exhibition
Lahore Fort, a UNESCO World Heritage Site
Various festivals in rural Punjab
Punjabi folk.
Jungle in Sahiwal, Punjab
Badshahi Mosque, Lahore
Tomb of Jahangir, Lahore
Katas Raj Temples (Sardar of Hari Singh's Haveli)
Lahore Museum
Sacred Heart Cathedral, Lahore
Shalimar Gardens
Asaf Khan's Mausoleum
Minar e Pakistan
GPO, Lahore
Clock Tower at Govt College University, Lahore
Faisalabad Clock Tower
Chenab Club, Faisalabad
Faisalabad Railway Station
Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan Auditorium in Faisalabad
Clock Tower in Sialkot.
Faisalabad Pindi Battian Interchange
Irrigation canals in Faisalabad
Hindu temple in Faisalabad
Dhan Gali Bridge
CMH Mosque, Jhelum Cantt
Taxila is a World Heritage Site
Samadhi of Ranjit Singh
Major Akram Memorial, Jhelum
Wheat Fields
A view of Murree, a famous hill station of Punjab
Different shapes of clay pots mostly made in Gujrat
A Fields View from North Punjab
Tilla Jogian Jhelum, scenic peak in Punjab considered sacred by Hindus

Other major cities include Faisalabad, Rawalpindi, Gujranwala, Multan, and Sialkot.

Sindh

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One of the four provinces of Pakistan.

One of the four provinces of Pakistan.

The Priest-King from Mohenjo-daro, 4000 years old, in the National Museum of Pakistan
Extent and major sites of the Indus Valley Civilization in pre-modern Pakistan and India 3000 BC
Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro
Sindh captured by the Umayyads:
Makli Hill is one of the largest necropolises in the world.
Sindh became part of the Bombay Presidency in 1909.
Shrine of Lal Shahbaz Qalandar
Devotee at Panchmukhi Hanuman Temple in Karachi
Peninsula of Manora
Sindhri is among top 10 mango varieties in the world
Sindh ibex in Kirthar National Park
Indus river dolphin
Lansdowne Railway Bridge
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A view of Karachi downtown, the capital of Sindh province
Qayoom Abad Bridge Karachi
Navalrai Market Clock Tower Hyderabad
Sukkur skyline along the shores of the River Indus
Dayaram Jethmal College (D.J. College), Karachi in the 19th century
National Academy of Performing Arts, Karachi
Children in a rural area of Sindh, 2012
Sant Nenuram Ashram
Archaeological ruins at Moenjodaro, Sindh, Pakistan
The ruins of an ancient mosque at Bhambore
Sindhi women collecting water from a reservoir on the way to Mubarak Village
Huts in the Thar desert
Caravan of merchants in the Indus River Valley
Sukkur Bridge
Gorakh Hill Station
Faiz Mahal, Khairpur
Ranikot Fort, one of the largest forts in the world
Chaukhandi tombs
Remains of 9th century Jain temple in Bhodesar near Nagarparkar.
Karachi Beach
Qasim fort
Kot Diji
Bakri Waro Lake, Khairpur
National Museum of Pakistan
Kirthar National Park
alt=Karoonjhar Mountains, Tharparkar|Karoonjhar Mountains, Tharparkar
Shah Jahan Mosque, Thatta
Tomb of Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai
Keenjhar Lake
Lal Shahbaz Qalandar

The Brahman dynasty ruled a vast territory that stretched from Multan in the north to the Rann of Kutch, Alor was their capital.

Delhi Sultanate

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Islamic empire based in Delhi that stretched over large parts of South Asia for 320 years .

Islamic empire based in Delhi that stretched over large parts of South Asia for 320 years .

Map of the Delhi Sultanate at its zenith under the Turko–Indian Tughlaq dynasty.
Delhi Sultanate from 1206 to 1290 AD under the Mamluk dynasty.
Alai Gate and Qutub Minar were built during the Mamluk and Khalji dynasties of the Delhi Sultanate.
Delhi Sultanate from 1321 to 1330 AD under the Tughlaq dynasty. After 1330, various regions rebelled against the Sultanate and the kingdom shrank.
Daulatabad Fort in the 1700s
A base metal coin of Muhammad bin Tughlaq that led to an economic collapse.
The Mahmud Gawan Madrasah built by the resultant Bahmanid kingdom
Delhi Sultanate during Babur's invasion.
The Qutb Minar (left, begun c. 1200) next to the Alai Darwaza gatehouse (1311); Qutb Complex in Delhi
Tomb of Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq (d. 1325), Delhi
Screen of the Adhai Din Ka Jhonpra mosque, Ajmer, {{circa|1229}}; Corbel arches, some cusped.
Mausoleum of Iltutmish, Delhi, by 1236, with corbel arches
Possibly the first "true" arches in India; Tomb of Balban (d. 1287) in Delhi
Pavilions in the Hauz Khas Complex, Delhi
The Sheesh Gumbad in the Lodi Gardens, Delhi
Tomb of Sikander Lodi in the Lodi Gardens, Delhi
The Somnath Temple in Gujarat was repeatedly destroyed by Muslim armies and rebuilt by Hindus. It was destroyed by Delhi Sultanate's army in 1299 CE.<ref name=eaton200080>Eaton (2000), Temple desecration in pre-modern India Frontline, p. 73, item 16 of the Table, Archived by Columbia University</ref>
The Kashi Vishwanath Temple was destroyed by the army of Qutb-ud-din Aibak.<ref name="SPUday2005">{{cite book |author=S. P. Udayakumar |title=Presenting the Past: Anxious History and Ancient Future in Hindutva India |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=XjkEERJrRdwC&pg=PA99 |date=1 January 2005 |publisher=Greenwood Publishing Group |isbn=978-0-275-97209-7 |pages=99 }}</ref>
Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji, the military general of Delhi Sultan Qutb al-Din Aibak, was responsible for the destruction of Nalanda university.<ref>History of Ancient India: Earliest Times to 1000 A. D.; Radhey Shyam Chaurasia, Atlantic, 2009 [p191]</ref>
The armies of Delhi Sultanate led by Muslim Commander Malik Kafur plundered the Meenakshi Temple and looted it of its valuables.<ref name="Ernst2004p109">{{cite book|author=Carl W. Ernst| title=Eternal Garden: Mysticism, History, and Politics at a South Asian Sufi Center| url=https://books.google.com/books?id=9bNAAQAAIAAJ|year=2004|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=978-0-19-566869-8|page=109}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|author=Sarojini Chaturvedi|title=A short history of South India|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=qXcwAQAAIAAJ| year=2006|publisher= Saṁskṛiti|isbn=978-81-87374-37-4|page=209}}</ref><ref name="Eraly2015chid">{{cite book|author=Abraham Eraly|title=The Age of Wrath: A History of the Delhi Sultanate|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=vyEoAwAAQBAJ&pg=PT155| year=2015|publisher= Penguin Books|isbn=978-93-5118-658-8|pages=155–156}}</ref>
Kakatiya Kala Thoranam (Warangal Gate) built by the Kakatiya dynasty in ruins; one of the many temple complexes destroyed by the Delhi Sultanate.
Rani ki vav is a stepwell, built by the Chaulukya dynasty, located in Patan; the city was sacked by Sultan of Delhi Qutb-ud-din Aybak between 1200 and 1210, and again by the Allauddin Khilji in 1298.{{sfn|Lal|1950|p=84}}
Artistic rendition of the Kirtistambh at Rudra Mahalaya Temple. The temple was destroyed by Alauddin Khalji.<ref name="Burgess1874">{{cite book|last1=Burgess|last2=Murray|title=Photographs of Architecture and Scenery in Gujarat and Rajputana|chapter-url=https://archive.org/stream/photographsofarc00murr#page/n17/mode/2up|access-date=23 July 2016|year=1874|publisher=Bourne and Shepherd|page=19|chapter=The Rudra Mala at Siddhpur}}</ref>
Exterior wall reliefs at Hoysaleswara Temple. The temple was twice sacked and plundered by the Delhi Sultanate.<ref name="Bradnock2000p959">{{cite book|author1=Robert Bradnock|author2=Roma Bradnock|title=India Handbook|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=2hCFDsTbmhoC|year=2000|publisher=McGraw-Hill |isbn=978-0-658-01151-1|page=959}}</ref>

Iltutmish conquered Multan and Bengal from contesting Muslim rulers, as well as Ranthambore and Siwalik from the Hindu rulers.

Mausoleum of Muhammad of Ghor, built at his gravesite by Pakistani scientist Abdul Qadeer Khan in 1994-1995, in Sohawa Tehsil, Pakistan.

Muhammad of Ghor

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The Sultan of the Ghurid Empire from 1173 to 1206.

The Sultan of the Ghurid Empire from 1173 to 1206.

Mausoleum of Muhammad of Ghor, built at his gravesite by Pakistani scientist Abdul Qadeer Khan in 1994-1995, in Sohawa Tehsil, Pakistan.
Coinage of Mu'izz al-Din Muhammad. AH 599-602 / 1171-1206 CE. Ghazni mint.
Indian coinage (Pagoda) of Mu'izz al-Din Muhammad, on the model of Gahadavala dynasty coinage. Obverse: Lakshmi seated facing. Reverse: legend in Devanagari: śrima ha/[mi]ra mahama/da sama "Lord Emir Muhammad (ibn) Sam".
Bengal coinage of Bakhtiyar Khalji (1204-1206 CE). Struck in the name of Mu'izz al-Din Muhammad, dated Samvat 1262 (1204 CE). Obverse: Horseman with Nagari legend around: samvat 1262 bhadrapada "August, year 1262". Reverse: Nagari legend: srima ha/ mira mahama /da saamah "Lord Emir Mohammed [ibn] Sam".
Muhammad Ghori's tomb within his mausoleum near Jhelum
[[:File:Hindu_Shahis_Spalapatideva_type,_Kabul_mint.jpg|Bull-and-horseman]] billon coin of Muhammad of Ghor, with his name inscribed in Sanskrit above the bull Nandi. Minted in Delhi or Bada'un, on the model of previous Chauhan and Pala coinage. Obverse: Stylized recumbent bull with Nagari legend around: sri mahamad sam "Lord Mohammed [ibn] Sam". Reverse: Stylized horseman with Nagari legend around: sri hamirah "Lord Emir".

In 1175, Mu'izz crossed the Indus plain through Gomal Pass and captured Multan from its Ismaili Muslim community, and also took Uch (situated between Chenab and Jhelum rivers) by 1176.

Old City building Multan

Nasir ad-Din Qabacha

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Old City building Multan

Nasir-ud-Din Qabacha or Kaba-cha was the Muslim of Multan, appointed by Mu'izz al-Din Muhammad ibn Sam in 1203.

Uch

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Historic city in the southern part of Pakistan's Punjab province. Uch may have been founded as Alexandria on the Indus, a town founded by Alexander the Great during his invasion of the Indus Valley. Uch was an early stronghold of the Delhi Sultanate during the Muslim conquest of the subcontinent. Also known as home for the Naqvi/Bukhari’s after the migration from Bukhara. Uch was a regional metropolitan centre between the 12th and 17th centuries, and became refuge for Muslim religious scholars fleeing persecution from other lands. Though Uch is now a relatively small city, it is renowned for its intact historic urban fabric, and for its collection of shrines dedicated to Muslim mystics from the 12-15th centuries that are embellished with extensive tile work, and were built in the distinct architectural style of southern Punjab.

Historic city in the southern part of Pakistan's Punjab province. Uch may have been founded as Alexandria on the Indus, a town founded by Alexander the Great during his invasion of the Indus Valley. Uch was an early stronghold of the Delhi Sultanate during the Muslim conquest of the subcontinent. Also known as home for the Naqvi/Bukhari’s after the migration from Bukhara. Uch was a regional metropolitan centre between the 12th and 17th centuries, and became refuge for Muslim religious scholars fleeing persecution from other lands. Though Uch is now a relatively small city, it is renowned for its intact historic urban fabric, and for its collection of shrines dedicated to Muslim mystics from the 12-15th centuries that are embellished with extensive tile work, and were built in the distinct architectural style of southern Punjab.

The mosque of Makhdoom Jahanian was built in the late 1300s, and is embellished with the blue tile-work typical of southern Punjab.
The mosque of Mahboob Subhani is decorated in the region's vernacular style.
The shrine of Jalaluddin Bukhari is dedicated to Uch's celebrated 13th century Sufi saint.
The Baha'al Halim and Nuriyas tombs were built in the 14th and 16th centuries, respectively.
Several of Uch's monuments were damaged in flooding in the early 19th century, leaving their interiors exposed.
Some of the monuments are undergoing restoration work.

The region around Uch and Multan remained centre of Hindu Vaishnavite and Surya pilgrimage throughout the medieval era.

Sikh Empire

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State originating in the Indian subcontinent, formed under the leadership of Ranjit Singh, who established an empire based in the Punjab.

State originating in the Indian subcontinent, formed under the leadership of Ranjit Singh, who established an empire based in the Punjab.

Sikh Empire in 1839 (shown on map with modern national borders)
Sikh Empire in 1839 (shown on map with modern national borders)
Nawab Jassa Singh Ahluwalia
Nawab Baghel Singh
The expanding empire in 1809 CE. The Cis-Sutlej states are visible south of the Sutlej river
Ranjit Singh holding court in 1838 CE
Indian subcontinent in 1805 CE.
Nanakshahi coins of Sikh empire
The Samadhi of Ranjit Singh is located in Lahore, Pakistan, adjacent to the iconic Badshahi Mosque
Ranjit Singh, {{Circa|1830}}.<ref>Miniature painting from the photo album of princely families in the Sikh and Rajput territories by Colonel James Skinner (1778–1841)</ref>
{{center|1=Ranjit Singh listening to Guru Granth Sahib being recited near the Akal Takht and Golden Temple, Amritsar, Punjab, India.}}
Sikh warrior helmet with butted mail neckguard, 1820–1840, iron overlaid with gold with mail neckguard of iron and brass

It was divided into four provinces: Lahore, in Punjab, which became the Sikh capital; Multan, also in Punjab; Peshawar; and Kashmir from 1799 to 1849.

Territory of the Delhi Mamluk Dynasty.

Mamluk dynasty (Delhi)

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Founded in Northern India by Qutb ud-Din Aibak, a Turkic Mamluk slave-general of the Ghurid Empire from Central Asia.

Founded in Northern India by Qutb ud-Din Aibak, a Turkic Mamluk slave-general of the Ghurid Empire from Central Asia.

Territory of the Delhi Mamluk Dynasty.
Coin of Ghiyath al-Din 'Iwad, Governor of Bengal, AH 614-616 AD 1217-1220. Struck in the name of Shams al-Din Iltutmish, Sultan of Dehli.
Tomb of Iltutmish (r. 1211–1236) in the Qutub Minar complex.
The Quwwat-ul-Islam ("Might of Islam") mosque, at the Qutb complex in Delhi, started in 1193 CE by Qutb-ud-din-Aibak to mark his victory over the Rajputs
Intricate stone carvings on the cloister columns at Quwwat ul-Islam Mosque, Qutb complex, Delhi. These are recuperated Hindu pillars sporting Hindu iconography.
The Adhai Din Ka Jhonpra mosque in Ajmer was started in 1192 and completed in 1199 by Qutb al-Din Aibak.
thumb|Decoration inside the Marble Mehrab at Sultan Ghari

Taj-ud-Din Yildoz became the ruler of Ghazni, Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji got Bengal and Nasir-ud-Din Qabacha became the sultan of Multan.

Cunningham's map of the fort complex.

Multan Sun Temple

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Cunningham's map of the fort complex.

The Sun Temple of Multan was a temple dedicated to Surya, the Hindu Sun God, in the city of Multan.