A report on Multan

Multan is famous for its large number of Sufi shrines, including the unique rectangular tomb of Shah Gardez that dates from the 1150s and is covered in blue enameled tiles typical of Multan.
The shrine of Shamsuddin Sabzwari dates from 1330, and has a unique green dome.
The Mausoleum of Shah Ali Akbar dating from the 1580s was built in the regional style that is typical of Multan's shrines.
Multan's Tomb of Shah Rukn-e-Alam is considered to be the earliest Tughluq era monument.
The 15th century Multani Caravanserai in Baku, Azerbaijan, was built to house visiting Multani merchants in the city.
Multan's Shahi Eid Gah Mosque dates from 1735 and is decorated with elaborate and intricate Mughal era frescoes.
Diwan Sawan Mal Chopra, the governor of Multan and Lahore.
Multan's "Bloody Bastion" was the site of fierce fighting during the Siege of Multan in 1848–49.
Multan's Ghanta Ghar dates from the British colonial period, and was built in the Indo-Saracenic style.
Shrine of Hazrat Baha-ud-din Zakariya
Multan's is home to a significant Christian minority.
Multan's Sufi shrines are often decorated during annual Urs festivals. Pictured is the Wali Muhammad Shah shrine.
Multan Cantonment railway station serves as the city's main railway station.
Multan International Airport offers flights throughout Pakistan, and direct flights to Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates.
The tomb of Khawaja Awais Kagha displays use of traditional Multan tile-work on both its exterior and interior.
The shrine of Pir Adil Shah.
Multan Cricket Stadium from outside.

City and capital of Multan Division located in Punjab, Pakistan.

- Multan

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Coins during the rule of Amirs of Sind, c. 257 -- 421 AH / c. 870 -- 1030 AD

Mansura, Sindh

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Coins during the rule of Amirs of Sind, c. 257 -- 421 AH / c. 870 -- 1030 AD
A Sindhi trade caravan

Mansura (المنصورة), referred to as Brahmanabad (برہمن آباد ; برهمڻ آباد) in later centuries, was the historic capital of the Muslim Caliphate in Sindh, during the eighth century under the Umayyad Caliphate and then Abbasid Caliphate from the year 750 AD to 1006 AD. The city was founded as a central garrison by the Umayyad Forces in Sindh, the city transformed into a very vibrant metropolis during the Abbasid Era surpassing the wealth of Multan in the north and Debal in the south.

A 17th century portrait of Alauddin Khalji

Alauddin Khalji

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Alaud-Dīn Khaljī, also called Alauddin Khilji or Alauddin Ghilji ((r.

Alaud-Dīn Khaljī, also called Alauddin Khilji or Alauddin Ghilji ((r.

A 17th century portrait of Alauddin Khalji
Gold coinage of ‘Ala al-Din Muhammad (AH 695-715 / AD 1296–1316). Dar al-Islam mint. Dated AH 709 (AD 1309–10).
The army of Alaudeen on March to Deccan, a 20th-century artist's impression
Extent of the Delhi Sultanate at the time of Jalaluddin Khalji's ascension (1290)
Sultan Alau'd Din put to Flight; Women of Ranthambhor commit Jauhar, a Rajput painting from 1825
Khalji territory at its maximum extent (dark green) and territory of the Khalji tributaries (light green)
Bilingual coin
Tomb of Alauddin Khalji, Qutb complex, Delhi.
The Hauz-i-Khas
Ruined wall of Siri
Alai Darwaza
Courts to the east of Quwwat ul-Islam mosque, in Qutb complex added by Khalji in 1300 CE.
Alauddin's Madrasa, Qutb complex, Mehrauli, which also has his tomb to the south.
The unfinished Alai Minar
Copper half Gani
Copper half Gani
Billion Gani
Silver Tanka
Silver Tanka Dar al-Islam Mint
Silver Tanka Qila Deogir Mint

This irked Arkali Khan, her elder son and the governor of Multan.

Aurangzeb holding a hawk in c. 1660

Aurangzeb

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The sixth emperor of the Mughal Empire, ruling from July 1658 until his death in 1707.

The sixth emperor of the Mughal Empire, ruling from July 1658 until his death in 1707.

Aurangzeb holding a hawk in c. 1660
A painting from c. 1637 shows the brothers (left to right) Shah Shuja, Aurangzeb and Murad Baksh in their younger years.
The Mughal Army under the command of Aurangzeb recaptures Orchha in October 1635.
A painting from Padshahnama depicts Prince Aurangzeb facing a maddened war elephant named Sudhakar.
Sepoys loyal to the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb maintain their positions around the palace, at Aurangabad, in 1658.
Aurangzeb becomes emperor.
Mughal Empire under Aurangzeb in early 18th century
Aurangzeb compiled Hanafi law by introducing the Fatawa-e-Alamgiri.
Aurangzeb holding a flywhisk
Aurangzeb seated on a golden throne holding a Hawk in the Durbar. Standing before him is his son, Azam Shah.
Aurangzeb Receives Prince Mu'azzam. Chester Beatty Library
Dagger (Khanjar) of Aurangzeb (Badshah Alamgir).
Manuscript of the Quran, parts of which are believed to have been written in Aurangzeb's own hand.
The Birthday of the Grand Mogul Aurangzeb, made 1701–1708 by Johann Melchior Dinglinger.
Josiah Child requests a pardon from Aurangzeb during the Anglo-Mughal War.
By 1690, Aurangzeb was acknowledged as: "emperor of the Mughal Sultanate from Cape Comorin to Kabul".
Aurangzeb spent his reign crushing major and minor rebellions throughout the Mughal Empire.
The tomb of Akbar was pillaged by Jat rebels during the reign of Aurangzeb.
Aurangzeb leads the Mughal Army during the Battle of Satara.
Raja Shivaji at Aurangzeb's Darbar- M V Dhurandhar
Aurangzeb reciting the Quran.
Aurangzeb dispatched his personal imperial guard during the campaign against the Satnami rebels.
Gurudwara Sis Ganj Sahib in Delhi is built at the place where Guru Tegh Bahadur was beheaded.
Zafarnama is the name given to the letter sent by the tenth Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh in 1705 to Aurangzeb. The letter is written in Persian script.
Aurangzeb in a pavilion with three courtiers below.
Bibi Ka Maqbara, the mausoleum of Aurangzeb's wife Dilras Banu Begum, was commissioned by him
Aurangzeb's tomb in Khuldabad, Maharashtra.
Aurangzeb reading the Quran
The unmarked grave of Aurangzeb in the mausoleum at Khuldabad, Maharashtra.
Tughra and seal of Aurangzeb, on an imperial firman
In the year 1689, according to Mughal accounts, Sambhaji was put on trial, found guilty of atrocities and executed.<ref>{{cite book |last=Mehta |first=J. L. |title=Advanced Study in the History of Modern India: Volume One: 1707{{snd}}1813 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=d1wUgKKzawoC&pg=PA50 |access-date=29 September 2012 |date=2005 |publisher=Sterling Publishers |isbn=978-1-932705-54-6 |pages=50–}}</ref><ref name="google2">{{cite book |last=Stein |first=Burton |author-link=Burton Stein |year=2010 |orig-year=First published 1998 |editor-last=Arnold |editor-first=David |editor-link=David Arnold (historian) |title=A History of India |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=QY4zdTDwMAQC&pg=PA180 |publisher=Blackwell Publishers |edition=2nd |page=180 |isbn=978-1-4051-9509-6}}</ref>
Guru Tegh Bahadur was publicly executed in 1675 on the orders of Aurangzeb in Delhi<ref>{{Cite web |url=http://www.allaboutsikhs.com/Sikh-Guru-Ji'/Sri-Guru-Tegh-Bhadur-Sahib-Ji.html |title=A Gateway to Sikhism {{!}} Sri Guru Tegh Bhadur Sahib |website=Gateway to Sikhism |access-date=28 October 2018 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140327223831/http://www.allaboutsikhs.com/Sikh-Guru-Ji'/Sri-Guru-Tegh-Bhadur-Sahib-Ji.html#12 |archive-date=27 March 2014 |url-status=dead}}</ref>
Sarmad Kashani, a Jewish convert to Islam and Sufi mystic was accused of heresy and executed.<ref name="David Cook 2007">{{cite book |last=Cook |first=David |author-link=David Cook (historian) |year=2007 |title=Martyrdom in Islam |publisher=Cambridge University Press |page=80 |isbn=978-0-521-85040-7}}</ref>
Daulatabad cannon
Kalak Bangadi cannon.
One of the Daulatabad cannons
Kilkila cannon
Aurangabad cannon
Seventeenth-century Badshahi Masjid built by Aurangzeb in Lahore.
Bibi ka Maqbara.
Tomb of Sufi saint, Syed Abdul Rahim Shah Bukhari constructed by Aurangzeb.
Shawls manufactured in the Mughal Empire had highly influenced other cultures around the world.
Shawl makers in the Mughal Empire.
Mughal imperial carpet
March of the Great Moghul (Aurangzeb)
François Bernier, was a French physician and traveller, who for 12 years was the personal physician of Aurangzeb. He described his experiences in Travels in the Mughal Empire.
Map of the Mughal Empire by Vincenzo Coronelli (1650–1718) of Venice, who served as Royal Geographer to Louis XIV of France.
French map of the Deccan.
Half rupee
Rupee coin showing full name
Rupee with square area
A copper dam of Aurangzeb
A Mughal trooper in the Deccan.
Aurangzeb leads his final expedition (1705), leading an army of 500,000 troops.
Mughal-era aristocrat armed with a matchlock musket.
Aurangzeb, in later life, hunting with hounds and falconers

He jointly administrated the provinces of Multan and Sindh in 1648–1652 and continued expeditions into the neighboring Safavid territories.

Mahmud of Ghazni (center) receives a robe from Caliph Al-Qadir; painting by Rashid-al-Din Hamadani

Mahmud of Ghazni

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The founder of the Turkic Ghaznavid dynasty, ruling from 998 to 1030.

The founder of the Turkic Ghaznavid dynasty, ruling from 998 to 1030.

Mahmud of Ghazni (center) receives a robe from Caliph Al-Qadir; painting by Rashid-al-Din Hamadani
Fight between Mahmud of Ghazni and Abu 'Ali Simjuri.
Sultan Mahmud and his forces attacking the fortress of Zaranj in 1003 CE. 14th century painting.
Mahmud of Ghazni receiving Indian elephants as tribute (Majmu al-Tawarikh, by Hafiz-i Abru, Herat, 1425).
Captured Indian Raja brought to Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni. Folio from Majmu al-Tavarikh, by Hafiz-i Abru, Herat, 1425.
Ruins of the Somnath temple in the 19th century.
The Kara-Khanid ruler "Ilig Khan" on horse, submitting to Mahmud of Ghazni, who is riding an elephant.
Ghaznavid fortress of Lashkari Bazar in Lashkargah, ancient Bost, southern Afghanistan. It was founded by Mahmud of Ghazni in 998-1030 CE.
Mahmud of Ghazni raided India as far as Somnath, Mathura and Kannauj in Gurjara-Pratihara territory.
Silver jitals of Mahmud of Ghazni with bilingual Arabic and Sanskrit minted in Lahore in 1028 CE. Obverse in Arabic: la ilaha illa'llah muhammad rasulullah sal allahu alayhi wa sallam "There is no God except Allah, and Muhammad is the meassenger of Allah" Reverse in Sanskrit (Sharada script): avyaktam eka muhammada avatāra nrpati mahamuda "There is one Invisible; Muhammad is the avatar; the king is Mahmud".
Coins of Mahmud with the Islamic declaration of faith. Obverse legend with the name of the caliph al-Qadir bi-llah (in the fifth line). Reverse legend: Muhammad Rasul/Allah Yamin al-Daw/la wa-Amin al-Milla/Mahmud.
A painting of the tomb of Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni, in 1839–40, with sandalwood doors long believed to have been plundered from Somnath, which he destroyed in c.1024, but later found to be replicas of the original

Mahmud's first campaign to the south was against an Ismaili state first established at Multan in 965 by a da'i from the Fatimid Caliphate in a bid to curry political favor and recognition with the Abbasid Caliphate; he also engaged elsewhere with the Fatimids.

Map of Ghurid territory circa 1200, at the time of joint rulers Ghiyath al-Din Muhammad and Muhammad of Ghor (respectively ruling west and east of the Hindu Kush). In the west, Ghurid territory extended to Nishapur and Merv,  while Ghurid troops reached as far as Gorgan on the shores of the Caspian Sea.  Eastward, the Ghurids invaded as far as Bengal.

Ghurid dynasty

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Persianate dynasty and a clan of presumably eastern Iranian Tajik origin, which ruled from the 10th-century to 1215.

Persianate dynasty and a clan of presumably eastern Iranian Tajik origin, which ruled from the 10th-century to 1215.

Map of Ghurid territory circa 1200, at the time of joint rulers Ghiyath al-Din Muhammad and Muhammad of Ghor (respectively ruling west and east of the Hindu Kush). In the west, Ghurid territory extended to Nishapur and Merv,  while Ghurid troops reached as far as Gorgan on the shores of the Caspian Sea.  Eastward, the Ghurids invaded as far as Bengal.
The Ghurids originated from Ghor Province in central Afghanistan.
Coinage of Mu'izz al-Din Muhammad. Dated AH 601 (1204/5 CE), Ghazni mint.
Fortress and Ghurid arch of Qala-e-Bost as printed on an Afghan banknote.
The last stand of Rajputs, depicting the Second Battle of Tarain in 1192, between the Chahamanas and the Ghurid Empire.
The two mausoleums of Chisht (the western was built in 1167)
The eastern mausoleum of Chisht (built in 1194)
Ornamental bands on the Minaret of Jam, bearing the 19th Sura of the Koran
Ruins of the Shah-i Mashhad madrasa (built in 1176)
Ghurid arch in Qala-e-Bost

In 1175, Mu'izz al-Din Muhammad captured Multan from its Ismaili Muslim community, and also took Uch by 1176.

Trigarta Kingdom

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Trigarta kingdom was an ancient kingdom in northern Indian region of the Indian subcontinent with its capital at Prasthala (modern Jalandhar), Multan and Kangra.

The shrine of Rukn-e-Alam is one of southern Punjab's most important Sufi shrines

Tomb of Shah Rukn-e-Alam

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The shrine of Rukn-e-Alam is one of southern Punjab's most important Sufi shrines
The mausoleum features buttresses in each of its 8 corners, and incorporates elements of Tughluq military architecture.
The masuoleum decorative elements.
Shah Rukn-e-Alam's grave is surrounded by 72 graves of his descendants and devotees.
Inside the Shrine of Shah Rukn-e-Alam
Detail of the shrine's carved brickwork
The shrine at night
The tomb in 1865
Underside of the shrine's dome
Devotees inside the shrine
External view of the shrine
The shrine's exterior is embellished with a variety of decorative elements
A view of the shrine from its courtyard

The Tomb of Shah Rukn-e-Alam (Punjabi and ) located in Multan, Pakistan, is the mausoleum of the Sufi saint Sheikh Rukn-ud-Din Abul Fateh.

Alauddin Khalji's conquest of Multan

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<mapframe text="Delhi (in present-day India) and Multan (in present-day Pakistan)" width="400" height="400" zoom="5" longitude="74.35" latitude="29.43">

<mapframe text="Delhi (in present-day India) and Multan (in present-day Pakistan)" width="400" height="400" zoom="5" longitude="74.35" latitude="29.43">

"properties": { "marker-symbol": "monument", "title": "Multan" },

Qasim-era Umayyad coinage of Sind, minted in "al-Hind" (India; possibly at Multan), dated 97 AH (c. 715 CE) per obverse circular legend: "In the name of Allah, struck this dirham in al-Hind (India in Abd al-Malik al-Hind coin 715 CE.jpg) in the year seven and ninety"

Muhammad ibn al-Qasim

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Arab military commander in service of the Umayyad Caliphate who led the Muslim conquest of Sindh (part of modern Pakistan), inaugurating the Umayyad campaigns in India.

Arab military commander in service of the Umayyad Caliphate who led the Muslim conquest of Sindh (part of modern Pakistan), inaugurating the Umayyad campaigns in India.

Qasim-era Umayyad coinage of Sind, minted in "al-Hind" (India; possibly at Multan), dated 97 AH (c. 715 CE) per obverse circular legend: "In the name of Allah, struck this dirham in al-Hind (India in Abd al-Malik al-Hind coin 715 CE.jpg) in the year seven and ninety"
Rashidun Caliphate (632-661 AD)
Map of expansion of Umayyad Caliphate
The Umayyad Caliphate on the eve of the invasions of Spain and Sindh in 710.
Muhammad ibn al-Qasim's conquest of Sindh (711-715 CE). 
Desert areas (Registan Desert and Thar Desert)
Zunbils
Kingdom of Sindh (c. 632– 712 CE)
Maitraka Kingdom (c.475–c.776 CE)
Muhammad ibn al-Qasim Mosque in Sukkur, Pakistan, dedicated to the leader.

Soon the capitals of the other provinces, Brahmanabad, Alor (Battle of Aror) and Multan, were captured alongside other in-between towns with only light Muslim casualties.

Silver Tanka of Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq Dated AH 724

Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq

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The founder of the Tughluq dynasty in India, who reigned over the Sultanate of Delhi from 1320 to 1325.

The founder of the Tughluq dynasty in India, who reigned over the Sultanate of Delhi from 1320 to 1325.

Silver Tanka of Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq Dated AH 724
Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq's tomb in Delhi

Alauddin appointed Tughluq as the governor of Multan, and then that of Dipalpur, both in present-day Pakistan.