A report on Multan

Multan is famous for its large number of Sufi shrines, including the unique rectangular tomb of Shah Gardez that dates from the 1150s and is covered in blue enameled tiles typical of Multan.
The shrine of Shamsuddin Sabzwari dates from 1330, and has a unique green dome.
The Mausoleum of Shah Ali Akbar dating from the 1580s was built in the regional style that is typical of Multan's shrines.
Multan's Tomb of Shah Rukn-e-Alam is considered to be the earliest Tughluq era monument.
The 15th century Multani Caravanserai in Baku, Azerbaijan, was built to house visiting Multani merchants in the city.
Multan's Shahi Eid Gah Mosque dates from 1735 and is decorated with elaborate and intricate Mughal era frescoes.
Diwan Sawan Mal Chopra, the governor of Multan and Lahore.
Multan's "Bloody Bastion" was the site of fierce fighting during the Siege of Multan in 1848–49.
Multan's Ghanta Ghar dates from the British colonial period, and was built in the Indo-Saracenic style.
Shrine of Hazrat Baha-ud-din Zakariya
Multan's is home to a significant Christian minority.
Multan's Sufi shrines are often decorated during annual Urs festivals. Pictured is the Wali Muhammad Shah shrine.
Multan Cantonment railway station serves as the city's main railway station.
Multan International Airport offers flights throughout Pakistan, and direct flights to Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates.
The tomb of Khawaja Awais Kagha displays use of traditional Multan tile-work on both its exterior and interior.
The shrine of Pir Adil Shah.
Multan Cricket Stadium from outside.

City and capital of Multan Division located in Punjab, Pakistan.

- Multan

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Pashtun men in Kandahar, Afghanistan

Pashtuns

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Iranian ethnic group who are native to Central Asia and South Asia.

Iranian ethnic group who are native to Central Asia and South Asia.

Pashtun men in Kandahar, Afghanistan
A Pashtun Tribesmen in Kurram, c. 1894 CE
A map of Pashtun tribes
Tents of Afghan nomads in Badghis Province who are known in Pashto language as Kuchian. They migrate from region to region depending on the season (transhumance).
The Arachosia Satrapy and the Pactyan people during the Achaemenid Empire in 500 BCE
Head of a Saka warrior
Pactyans, present day Pashtunistan. The Oriental Empires about 600 B.C., Historical Atlas by William Shepherd (1923-26)
Heads of two males, discovered in Hadda (Pashto: هډه) 10km south of Jalalabad, Afghanistan. Dated 3-4th century CE.
Bactrian document in the Greek script from the 4th century mentioning the word Afghan (αβγανανο): "To Ormuzd Bunukan from Bredag Watanan, the chief of the Afghans"
Afghan Amir Sher Ali Khan (in the center with his son) and his delegation in Ambala, near Lahore, in 1869
Leader of the non-violent Khudai Khidmatgar, also referred to as "the Red shirts" movement, Bacha Khan, standing with Mohandas Gandhi
Malala Yousafzai, a Pashtana, recipient of 2014 Nobel Peace Prize
American diplomat Zalmay Khalilzad with Taliban officials Abdul Ghani Baradar, Abdul Hakim Ishaqzai, Sher Mohammad Abbas Stanikzai and Suhail Shaheen
President Hamid Karzai and Abdul Rahim Wardak
From left to right: Ashraf Ghani Ahmadzai; Anwar ul-Haq Ahady; and Abdullah Abdullah
Imran Khan, Pakistani cricketer-turned-politician and former Prime Minister, belongs to the Niazi tribe.
Pashtun-inhabited areas of Pakistan and Afghanistan (green) in 1980
Ethnolinguistic groups in Pakistan and Afghanistan in 1982
Pashtun female festive dress in Faryab, Afghanistan
Khattak dance involves running and whirling. It is mainly performed in and around the Peshawar area of Pakistan.
Mahmud Tarzi, son of Ghulam Muhammad Tarzi, became the pioneer of Afghan journalism for publishing the first newspaper Seraj al Akhbar.
Shahid Afridi, former captain of the Pakistan national cricket team
Buzkashi in Afghanistan
The Bodhisattva and Chandeka, Hadda, 5th century CE
The Friday Mosque in Kandahar. Adjacent to it is the Shrine of the Cloak(also known as Kirka Sharif), and the tomb of Ahmad Shah Durrani, the 18th century Pashtun conqueror who became the founding father of Afghanistan.
Men doing Islamic salat (praying) outside in the open in the Kunar Province of Afghanistan
Two Pashtane (Pashtun women) from Kuch i tribe pictured in 1967 on the Helmand river (د هلمند سيند)
Queen Soraya of Afghanistan
Zarine Khan, Indian model and actress in Bollywood films
Malala Yousafzai, Pakistani activist for female education and the 2014 Nobel Peace Prize laureate
Madhubala, Indian Bollywood actress and producer

These languages are often found in areas such as Abbottabad, Mansehra, Haripur, Attock, Khanewal, Multan, Dera Ismail Khan and Balochistan.

Topographical map of The Punjab, "Land of 5 Waters"

Second Anglo-Sikh War

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Military conflict between the Sikh Empire and the British East India Company that took place in 1848 and 1849.

Military conflict between the Sikh Empire and the British East India Company that took place in 1848 and 1849.

Topographical map of The Punjab, "Land of 5 Waters"
The Battle of Gujrat, the most decisive battle of the second Anglo-Sikh war
The Battle of Gujrat, the most decisive battle of the second Anglo-Sikh war

On 19 April 1848 Patrick Vans Agnew of the civil service and Lieutenant William Anderson of the Bombay European regiment, having been sent to take charge of Multan from Diwan Mulraj Chopra, were murdered there, and within a short time the Sikh troops joined in open rebellion.

Akbar by Govardhan, c. 1630

Akbar

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The third Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1556 to 1605.

The third Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1556 to 1605.

Akbar by Govardhan, c. 1630
Akbar as a boy
Mughal Empire under Akbar's period (yellow)
Mughal Emperor Akbar training an elephant
Akbar hawking with Mughal chieftains and nobleman accompanied by his guardian Bairam Khan
Young Abdul Rahim Khan-I-Khana son of Bairam Khan being received by Akbar
Mughal Emperor Akbar shoots the Rajput warrior Jaimal during the Siege of Chittorgarh in 1568
Bullocks dragging siege-guns uphill during Akbar's attack on Ranthambhor Fort in 1568
The court of young Akbar, age 13, showing his first imperial act: the arrest of an unruly courtier, who was once a favourite of Akbar's father. Illustration from a manuscript of the Akbarnama
Falcon Mohur of Akbar, minted in Asir. This coin was issued in the name of Akbar, to commemorate the capture of the strategic Asirgarh Fort of the Khandesh Sultanate on 17 January 1601 CE. Legend: "Allah is great, Khordad Ilahi 45, struck at Asir".
Diwan-i-Khas (Hall of Private Audience) in Fatehpur Sikri
Silver coin of Akbar with inscriptions of the Islamic declaration of faith, the declaration reads: "There is no god except Allah, and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah."
Portrait of Empress Mariam-uz-Zamani, commonly known as Jodha Bai, giving birth to Prince Salim, the future emperor Jahangir.
Death of Bahadur Shah of Gujarat at Diu, in front of the Portuguese in 1537
Portuguese ambush against the galleys of Seydi Ali Reis (Akbar's allies) in the Indian Ocean.
The Akbari Mosque, overlooking the Ganges
Portrait of the Mughal Emperor Akbar invocation of a Dua prayer.
The Mughal Emperor Akbar welcomes his son Prince Salim at Fatehpur Sikri, (Akbarnameh).
Akbar holds a religious assembly of different faiths in the Ibadat Khana in Fatehpur Sikri.
Silver square rupee of Akbar, Lahore mint, struck in Aban month of Ilahi
The great Mogul discoursing with a Humble Fakir
Akbar triumphantly enters Surat
Akbar hunting with cheetahs, c. 1602
Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak presenting Akbarnama to Akbar, Mughal miniature
Gate of Akbar's mausoleum at Sikandra, Agra, 1795
Potrait of Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar with Mariam Zamani Begum, drawn as per Akbar's description.

Akbar and his forces occupied Lahore and then seized Multan in the Punjab.

The tomb of Muhammad Shah at Lodi Gardens, New Delhi.

Sayyid dynasty

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The fourth dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate, with four rulers ruling from 1414 to 1451.

The fourth dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate, with four rulers ruling from 1414 to 1451.

The tomb of Muhammad Shah at Lodi Gardens, New Delhi.
Billon Tanka of Khizr Khan INO Firoz Shah Tughlaq
Double falls of Mubarak Shah
Tomb of Mubarak Shah.

Founded by Khizr Khan, a former governor of Multan, they succeeded the Tughlaq dynasty and ruled the sultanate until they were displaced by the Lodi dynasty.

Shrine of Baba Farid in Pakistan

Fariduddin Ganjshakar

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Farīd al-Dīn Masʿūd Ganj-i-Shakar (c.

Farīd al-Dīn Masʿūd Ganj-i-Shakar (c.

Shrine of Baba Farid in Pakistan
Shrine of Baba Farid in Pakistan
The Gurudwara Godri Sahib Baba Farid at Faridkot, Punjab
Portrait of Baba Farid at Indian hospice, Jerusalem.
Room where Baba Farid had performed Chilla at Indian hospice, Jerusalem.
Outdoor plaque about Baba Farid at Indian hospice, Jerusalem
Entrance to the Chilla place of Baba Farid in Girad.
Shrine where Baba Farid had performed Chilla.

Fariduddin Masud was born in 1175 (571 AH) in Kothewal, 10 km from Multan in the Punjab region, to Jamāl-ud-dīn Suleimān and Maryam Bībī (Qarsum Bībī), daughter of Wajīh-ud-dīn Khojendī.

Rukn-e-Alam

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Sheikh Rukn-ud-Din Abul Fateh (Persian: رکن الدین ابوالفتح), commonly known by the title (Shah) Rukn-e-Alam ("Pillar of the World") (1251–1335), was an eminent Sufi saint from Multan in modern-day Pakistan who belonged to Suhrawardiyya Sufi order.

King Chah was affected by Muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent. 
Desert areas (Registan Desert and Thar Desert)
Zunbils
Turk Shahis
Kingdom of Kashmir
Kingdom of Sindh (c. 632– 711 CE) then, Caliphal province of Sind (712-854 CE)
Maitraka Kingdom (c.475–c.776 CE)

Chach of Aror

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Chach (c.

Chach (c.

King Chah was affected by Muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent. 
Desert areas (Registan Desert and Thar Desert)
Zunbils
Turk Shahis
Kingdom of Kashmir
Kingdom of Sindh (c. 632– 711 CE) then, Caliphal province of Sind (712-854 CE)
Maitraka Kingdom (c.475–c.776 CE)

After this victory, he appointed a thakur to govern from Multan, and used his army to settle boundary disputes with Kashmir.

This map of Multan from 1873 shows the prominence of the Multan Fort

Siege of Multan (1818)

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This map of Multan from 1873 shows the prominence of the Multan Fort

The siege of Multan began in March 1818 and lasted until 2 June 1818 as part of the Afghan–Sikh Wars, and saw the Sikh Empire capture the city of Multan (in modern-day Pakistan) from the Durrani Empire.

Portrait by Colesworthey Grant of Diwan Mulraj Chopra held captive in Calcutta (1851)

Diwan Mulraj Chopra

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Portrait by Colesworthey Grant of Diwan Mulraj Chopra held captive in Calcutta (1851)
Mulraj Chopra in a cell with a companion. Painting by Colesworthey Grant (1850)

Mulraj Chopra (1814 - 11 August 1851) was the Diwan (governor) of Multan and leader of a Sikh rebellion against the British which led to the Second Anglo-Sikh War.

Silver Tanka of Khizr Khan INO Muhammad Bin Firoz

Khizr Khan

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The founder of the Sayyid dynasty, the ruling dynasty of the Delhi sultanate, in northern India soon after the invasion of Timur and the fall of the Tughlaq dynasty.

The founder of the Sayyid dynasty, the ruling dynasty of the Delhi sultanate, in northern India soon after the invasion of Timur and the fall of the Tughlaq dynasty.

Silver Tanka of Khizr Khan INO Muhammad Bin Firoz
Silver Tanka of Khizr Khan INO Muhammad Bin Firoz

Khan was Governor of Multan under the Tughlaq ruler, Firuz Shah Tughlaq, and was known to be an able administrator.