Multan Sun Temple

Cunningham's map of the fort complex.

Temple dedicated to Surya, the Hindu Sun God, in the city of Multan.

- Multan Sun Temple

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Multan

City and capital of Multan Division located in Punjab, Pakistan.

Multan is famous for its large number of Sufi shrines, including the unique rectangular tomb of Shah Gardez that dates from the 1150s and is covered in blue enameled tiles typical of Multan.
The shrine of Shamsuddin Sabzwari dates from 1330, and has a unique green dome.
The Mausoleum of Shah Ali Akbar dating from the 1580s was built in the regional style that is typical of Multan's shrines.
Multan's Tomb of Shah Rukn-e-Alam is considered to be the earliest Tughluq era monument.
The 15th century Multani Caravanserai in Baku, Azerbaijan, was built to house visiting Multani merchants in the city.
Multan's Shahi Eid Gah Mosque dates from 1735 and is decorated with elaborate and intricate Mughal era frescoes.
Diwan Sawan Mal Chopra, the governor of Multan and Lahore.
Multan's "Bloody Bastion" was the site of fierce fighting during the Siege of Multan in 1848–49.
Multan's Ghanta Ghar dates from the British colonial period, and was built in the Indo-Saracenic style.
Shrine of Hazrat Baha-ud-din Zakariya
Multan's is home to a significant Christian minority.
Multan's Sufi shrines are often decorated during annual Urs festivals. Pictured is the Wali Muhammad Shah shrine.
Multan Cantonment railway station serves as the city's main railway station.
Multan International Airport offers flights throughout Pakistan, and direct flights to Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates.
The tomb of Khawaja Awais Kagha displays use of traditional Multan tile-work on both its exterior and interior.
The shrine of Pir Adil Shah.
Multan Cricket Stadium from outside.

The ancient city was site of the renowned Hindu Multan Sun Temple, and was besieged by Alexander the Great during the Mallian Campaign.

Surya

Sun as well as the solar deity in Hinduism.

An early 20th-century poster of Surya
Surya in a Buddhist Bodh Gaya relief, 2nd century BCE.
Surya on his charriot with horses, Bhaja Caves (1st cent BCE).
wearing a cloak and high boots
Surya means Sun in Indic literature. Above: Sunrise in Uttarakhand, India
Surya (center) is typically depicted holding lotus flowers and riding in a horse-drawn chariot. He is accompanied by his wives (bottom female figures) and children (other male figures). The dawn goddesses (top female figures) are depicted shooting arrows. Circa 9th century CE.
Sun Temple, Modhera
Deo Surya Mandir
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Batara Surya wayang (puppetry) figures
Batara Surya statue, late eighth century, Central Java, Indonesia
8th century ceiling carving of Surya at Pattadakal Virupaksha Hindu temple.
Surya statue from India
Surya statue in National Museum of Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia
Surya with consorts Sanjna and Chhaya
Pongal in Tamil Nadu
Surya festival Makar Sankranti
Surya Narayana

The Sun Temple of Multan (in modern-day Pakistan) contained a revered statue of Surya.

Muhammad ibn Qasim

Umayyad military general in the service of caliph al-Walid I ((r.

Qasim-era Umayyad coinage of Sind, minted in "al-Hind" (India; possibly at Multan), dated 97 AH (c. 715 CE) per obverse circular legend: "In the name of Allah, struck this dirham in al-Hind (India in Abd al-Malik al-Hind coin 715 CE.jpg) in the year seven and ninety"
Rashidun Caliphate (632-661 AD)
Map of expansion of Umayyad Caliphate
The Umayyad Caliphate on the eve of the invasions of Spain and Sindh in 710.
Muhammad ibn Qasim Mosque in Sukkur, Pakistan dedicated to the leader.

No mass conversions to Islam took place and some temples escaped destruction such as the Sun Temple of Multan on payment of jizya.

Samba Purana

One of the Saura Upapuranas.

Konark statue of Sun God wearing central Asian boots

After the customary beginning in Chapter 1, the text consists the narrative of Krishna's son Samba being infected by leprosy after being cursed by sage Durvasa, and subsequently being cured by worshipping Surya in the temple constructed by him in Mitravana on the banks of the Chandrabhaga at what was Multan Sun Temple.

Sharada Peeth

Ruined Hindu temple and ancient centre of learning located in Pakistan administered Kashmir.

Ruins of Sharada Peeth
Architecturally similar Kashmiri temple in Nowshera, Jammu and Kashmir in the 1870s
Thonmi Sambhota, the creator of the Tibetan script
Four-armed statue of the goddess Sharada from the late 9th century AD
View of Neelum Valley from Sharada Peeth, where King Jayasimha's Royal Army would have camped
Adi Shankara, who opened Sharada Peeth's south door
A photograph of Sharada Peeth in 1893 by the British archaeologist Sir Aurel Stein. A Kashmiri Pandit stands at the entrance
Sharada Peeth cella from behind

Significantly, it featured not in his description of Kashmir, but in his list of the most famous Hindu temples in the Indian subcontinent, alongside the Multan Sun Temple, the Sthaneshwar Mahadev Temple, and the Somnath temple.

Konark Sun Temple

A Sun temple at Konark about 35 km northeast from Puri city on the coastline in Puri district, Odisha, India.

Main structure of the Sun Temple
A stone wheel engraved in the walls of the temple. The temple is designed as a chariot consisting of 24 such wheels. Each wheel has a diameter of 9feet, 9inches, with 8spokes.
A lithography plate from James Fergusson's "Ancient Architecture in Hindoostan" (1847) showing part of the main tower still standing
Watercolour painting of two European officers with a dog exploring the interior, 1812
Sound and light show in Konark Temple
Emblem of Odisha
Watercolour "Somnath" drawing of the north side of Konark (1820). It depicts part of the main tower still standing.
Photograph of a general view from the south-west (c.1890).
Main Temple Structure, Konark Sun Temple
Nata mandir
Front view of Nata mandir
A simha-gaja at the entrance
A weathered horse sculpture
Elephants of Konark Temple
A secondary statue of the Sun god
A sculpture on the temple wall
Mayadevi Temple at Konark
Sculpture of a makara on Mayadevi Temple
Vaishnava Temple
Sanctum of the Vaishnava Temple
Carvings on the Sun temple
A sculpture on the temple wall
A sculpture taken from the site at the British Museum
Replica of Sun Temple at Gwalior
Closeup of the motif at the center of a stone wheel
Back Side View of Konark Sun Temple
Rosasala or kitchen of the temple complex
A long exposure photo of the beautiful Sun Temple, Konark, Odisha, at night

Several Puranas mention Surya worship centers in Mundira, which may have been the earlier name for Konark, Kalapriya (Mathura), and Multan (now in Pakistan).

History of Multan

One of the oldest cities in South Asia, though its exact age has yet to be determined.

Siege of Multan by Alexander the Great. André Castaigne (1898-1899).
Map of the Caliphal province of Sind, a province of the Abbasid Caliphate, circa 800 CE.
Map of the Habbarid Emirate and the Multan Emirate, which replaced the Caliphal province of Sind circa 854 CE.
Multan is famous for its large number of Sufi shrines, including the unique rectangular tomb of Shah Gardez that dates from the 1150s and is covered in blue enameled tiles typical of Multan.
The shrine of Shamsuddin Sabzwari dates from 1330, and has a unique green dome.
The Mausoleum of Shah Ali Akbar dating from the 1580s was built in the regional style that is typical of Multan's shrines.
Multan's Tomb of Shah Rukn-e-Alam is considered to be the earliest Tughluq-era monument.
The 15th century Multani caravanserai in Baku, Azerbaijan, was built to house visiting Multani merchants in the city.
The front view of an old colonial building built during the rule of the British Raj.

During this era, the Multan Sun Temple was noted by the 10th-century Arab geographer Al-Muqaddasi to have been located in a most populous part of the city, between the city's ivory and coppersmith bazaars.

Ratha Saptami

Hindu festival that falls on the seventh day (Saptami) in the bright half (Shukla Paksha) of the Hindu month Maagha.

Surya - the Sun god with consorts Saranyu and Chhaya
Surya's chariot
Surya, the Sun God

The Sun Temple at Martand (Jammu and Kashmir) and Sun Temple of Multan are temples, which were destroyed during Muslim conflicts in the past.

Magi

Magi (singular magus ; from Latin magus, cf.

Painting of the Altar of the Magi Hans Pleydenwurff from 1490
Byzantine depiction of the Three Magi in a 6th-century mosaic at Basilica of Sant'Apollinare Nuovo.
Conventional post-12th century depiction of the Biblical magi (Adoração dos Magos by Vicente Gil). Balthasar, the youngest magus, bears frankincense and represents Africa. To the left stands Caspar, middle-aged, bearing gold and representing Asia. On his knees is Melchior, oldest, bearing myrrh and representing Europe.
Brihat Samhita of Varahamihira, 1279 CE palm leaf manuscript, Pratima lakshana, Sanskrit
Chinese Bronzeware script for wu 巫 "shaman".

In India, the Sakaldwipiya Brahmins are considered to be the descendants of the ten Maga (Sanskrit मग) priests who were invited to conduct worship of Mitra (Surya) at Mitravana (Multan), as described in the Samba Purana, Bhavishya Purana and the Mahabharata.

List of Hindu temples in Pakistan

Second largest Hindu pilgrimage in Pakistan, Umarkot Shiv Mandir (famous for its annual Shivrathri festival, which is one of the biggest religious festivals in Pakistan, and the Churrio Jabal Durga Mata Temple (famous for Shivrathri celebrations which is attended by 200,000 pilgrims).

Guru Balpuri Ashram in Thana Bulla Khan
Hawan at Hinglaj Mata temple
Mansehra Shiva Temple
Baba Ram Thaman Shrine in Kasur district
Bavalakh Nath Temple in Jhang
Parbrahm Ashram
Panchmukhi Hanuman Temple in Karachi's Soldier Bazaar
Kalka Cave Temple in Rohri
Sant Nenuram Ashram

Aditya Sun Temple at Suraj Kund