Multi-model database

multi-modelMulti-Model DBMS
Most database management systems are organized around a single data model that determines how data can be organized, stored, and manipulated.wikipedia
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ArangoDB

ArangoDB Inc.
ArangoDB – document (JSON), graph, key-value
ArangoDB is a native multi-model database system developed by ArangoDB Inc. The database system supports three data models (key/value, documents, graphs) with one database core and a unified query language AQL (ArangoDB Query Language).

Graph database

graph databasesgraphgraph data processing
NoSQL databases use a variety of data models, with document, graph, and key-value models being popular. For some time, databases have primarily supported only one model, such as: relational database, document-oriented database, graph database or triplestore.
Also in the 2010s, multi-model databases that supported graph models (and other models such as relational database or document-oriented database) became available, such as OrientDB, ArangoDB, and MarkLogic (starting with its 7.0 version).

Couchbase Server

CouchbaseMembase
Couchbase – document (JSON), key-value, N1QL
Couchbase Server, originally known as Membase, is an open-source, distributed (shared-nothing architecture) multi-model NoSQL document-oriented database software package that is optimized for interactive applications.

Oracle Database

OracleOracle 10gOracle 8i
Oracle Database – relational, document (JSON and XML), graph triplestore, property graph, key-value, objects
Oracle Database (commonly referred to as Oracle RDBMS or simply as Oracle) is a multi-model database management system produced and marketed by Oracle Corporation.

NoSQL

structured storagekey/value storenon-relational
Due to increasing requirements for horizontal scalability and fault tolerance, NoSQL databases became prominent after 2009. However, prior to the dominance of Relational data modeling from about 1980 to 2005 the hierarchical database model was commonly used, and since 2000 or 2010, many NoSQL models that are non-relational including Documents, triples, key-value stores and graphs are popular.
Multi-model database

Comparison of multi-model databases

Comparison of multi-model databases
Comparison of multi-model databases (database management systems).

MarkLogic

MarkLogic Corporation
MarkLogic – document (XML and JSON), graph triplestore, binary, SQL
The MarkLogic product is considered a multi-model NoSQL database for its ability to store, manage, and search JSON and XML documents and semantic data (RDF triples).

Cosmos DB

Azure Cosmos DBDocument DBMicrosoft Cosmos DB
Cosmos DB – document (JSON), key-value, SQL

DataStax

Datastax – key-value, tabular, graph

SAP HANA

HANAHANA initiative
SAP HANA – relational, document (JSON), graph, streaming

Database model

data design modeldatabasedata model
Most database management systems are organized around a single data model that determines how data can be organized, stored, and manipulated.

Relational model

relationalrelational data modelrelationships
The relational data model became popular after its publication by Edgar F. Codd in 1970.

Edgar F. Codd

E. F. CoddCoddE.F. Codd
The relational data model became popular after its publication by Edgar F. Codd in 1970.

Scalability

scalablescalescale-out
Due to increasing requirements for horizontal scalability and fault tolerance, NoSQL databases became prominent after 2009.

Fault tolerance

fault-tolerantfault tolerantfault-tolerance
Due to increasing requirements for horizontal scalability and fault tolerance, NoSQL databases became prominent after 2009.

Document-oriented database

document databasedocumentdocument-oriented
NoSQL databases use a variety of data models, with document, graph, and key-value models being popular. For some time, databases have primarily supported only one model, such as: relational database, document-oriented database, graph database or triplestore.

Relational database

relational databasesrelationaldatabase constraints
For some time, databases have primarily supported only one model, such as: relational database, document-oriented database, graph database or triplestore.

Triplestore

triple storetriple patterns
For some time, databases have primarily supported only one model, such as: relational database, document-oriented database, graph database or triplestore.

Third normal form

3NF3NF databasesthird
The Relational model and notion of third normal form were the de facto standard for all data storage.

Hierarchical database model

hierarchical databasehierarchical modelhierarchical
However, prior to the dominance of Relational data modeling from about 1980 to 2005 the hierarchical database model was commonly used, and since 2000 or 2010, many NoSQL models that are non-relational including Documents, triples, key-value stores and graphs are popular.

Web search engine

search enginesearch enginessearch
Arguably, geospatial data, temporal data and text data are also separate models, though indexed, queryable text data is generally termed a "search engine" rather than a database.

Object-relational database

object-relational database management systemobject-relationalORDBMS
The idea of multi-model databases can be traced back to Object-Relational Data Management Systems (ORDBMS) in the early 1990s and in a more broader scope even to federated and integrated DBMSs in the early 1980s.

Polyglot persistence

Polyglot''' persistence
A Multi-model database is most directly a response to the "polyglot persistence" approach of knitting together multiple database products, each handing a different model, to achieve a multi-model capability as described by Martin Fowler.

EnterpriseDB

EDB Postgres Advanced Server
EnterpriseDB – document (XML and JSON), key-value