Multinational corporation

multinationalmultinational corporationsmultinational companiesmultinationalsmultinational companytransnational corporationsmulti-nationalMNCWorldwidemultinational enterprise
A multinational corporation (MNC) or worldwide enterprise is a corporate organization that owns or controls production of goods or services in at least one country other than its home country.wikipedia
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Base erosion and profit shifting

BEPSprofit shiftingcorporate tax planning tools
They have also become associated with multinational tax havens and base erosion and profit shifting tax avoidance activities.
Base erosion and profit shifting (BEPS) refers to corporate tax planning strategies used by multinationals to "shift" profits from higher–tax jurisdictions to lower–tax jurisdictions, thus "eroding" the "tax–base" of the higher–tax jurisdictions.

Subsidiary

subsidiarieswholly owned subsidiarysubsidiary company
Subsidiaries are a common feature of business life and most multinational corporations organize their operations in this way.

Dutch East India Company

VOCDutch East Indies CompanyDutch
After the East India Company, came the Dutch East India Company, founded March 20, 1603, which would become the largest company in the world for nearly 200 years.
The VOC is generally considered to be the world's first truly transnational corporation and it was also the first multinational enterprise to issue shares of stock to the public.

Repatriation tax holiday

deemed repatriation taxrepatriation tax holidaystax holiday
In practice, even under an extraterritorial system taxes may be deferred until remittance, with possible repatriation tax holidays, and subject to foreign tax credits.
The theory supporting such an action is that multinational companies headquartered in one country, but which earn income in a second country will be unlikely to bring income from the second country back to their home country if high taxes will be assessed on this income when it is brought back.

International investment agreement

International Investment Lawfair and equitable treatmentInternational Investment Agreement (IIA)
International investment agreement s also facilitate direct investment between two countries, such as the North American Free Trade Agreement and most favored nation status.
The core of the problem lies in the disagreements among countries on who has jurisdiction over the taxable income of multinational corporations.

Transfer pricing

cost-sharing agreementcost sharing agreementmethod used in transfer pricing
Countries generally cannot tax the worldwide revenue of a foreign subsidiary, and taxation is complicated by transfer pricing arrangements with parent corporations.
In practice a great many factors influence the transfer prices that are used by multinational corporations, including performance measurement, capabilities of accounting systems, import quotas, customs duties, VAT, taxes on profits, and (in many cases) simple lack of attention to the pricing.

North American Free Trade Agreement

NAFTANorth American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)North American Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act
International investment agreement s also facilitate direct investment between two countries, such as the North American Free Trade Agreement and most favored nation status.
It prevented Canada from effectively regulating its tar sands industry, and created new legal avenues for transnational corporations to fight environmental legislation.

International trade

foreign tradeglobal tradetrade
These early corporations facilitated colonialism by engaging in international trade and exploration, and creating colonial trading posts.
Advanced technology (including transportation), globalisation, industrialisation, outsourcing and multinational corporations have major impact on the international trade system.

List of multinational corporations

A list (incomplete) of multinational corporations, also known as multinational companies and worldwide or global enterprises.

Global workforce

Global mobility
Global workforce refers to the international labor pool of workers, including those employed by multinational companies and connected through a global system of networking and production, immigrant workers, transient migrant workers, telecommuting workers, those in export-oriented employment, contingent work or other precarious employment.

Neocolonialism

neo-colonialismneocolonialneo-colonial
Some of these critics argue that the operations of multinational corporations in the developing world take place within the broader context of neocolonialism.
The works of Verschave and Beti reported a forty-year, post-independence relationship with France's former colonial peoples, which featured colonial garrisons in situ and monopolies by French multinational corporations, usually for the exploitation of mineral resources.

Decolonization

decolonisationdecolonizeddecolonize
During the process of decolonization, the European colonial charter companies were disbanded, with the final colonial corporation, the Mozambique Company, dissolving in 1972.

Globalization

globalisationglobalizedglobal
The actions of multinational corporations are strongly supported by economic liberalism and free market system in a globalized international society.
In the 17th century, world trade developed further when chartered companies like the British East India Company (founded in 1600) and the Dutch East India Company (founded in 1602, often described as the first multinational corporation in which stock was offered) were established.

Exploitation of labour

exploitationexploitation of workersexploit
Without exception these early corporations created differential economic outcomes between their home country and their colonies via a process of exploiting colonial resources and labour, and investing the resultant profits and net gain in the home country.
More generally, some sort of international regulation of transnational corporations is called for, such as the enforcement of the International Labour Organization's labour standards.

Human rights

human righthuman rights violationshuman rights abuses
Anti-corporate advocates criticize multinational corporations for being without a basis in a national ethos, being ultimately without a specific nationhood, and that this lack of an ethos appears in their ways of operating as they enter into contracts with countries that have low human rights or environmental standards.
Multi-national companies play an increasingly large role in the world, and are responsible for a large number of human rights abuses.

Corporation

corporatecorporationsincorporated
A multinational corporation (MNC) or worldwide enterprise is a corporate organization that owns or controls production of goods or services in at least one country other than its home country.

Organization

organisationorganizationsorganisations
A multinational corporation (MNC) or worldwide enterprise is a corporate organization that owns or controls production of goods or services in at least one country other than its home country.

Black's Law Dictionary

Black's Law Dictionary suggests that a company or group should be considered a multinational corporation if it derives 25% or more of its revenue from out-of-home-country operations.

Public company

Publicpublicly tradedpublicly traded company
Most of the largest and most influential companies of the modern age are publicly traded multinational corporations, including Forbes Global 2000 companies.

Forbes Global 2000

Global 2000Forbes 2000Forbes'' Global 2000 List
Most of the largest and most influential companies of the modern age are publicly traded multinational corporations, including Forbes Global 2000 companies.

Ethics

ethicalmoral philosophyethic
Multinational corporations are subject to criticisms for lacking ethical standards.

Economies of scale

economy of scalescaleeconomics of scale
First of all, MNCs can benefit from the economy of scale by spreading R&D expenditures and advertising costs over their global sales, pooling global purchasing power over suppliers, and utilizing their technological and managerial know-how globally with minimal additional costs.

Research and development

R&DResearch & DevelopmentR & D
First of all, MNCs can benefit from the economy of scale by spreading R&D expenditures and advertising costs over their global sales, pooling global purchasing power over suppliers, and utilizing their technological and managerial know-how globally with minimal additional costs.

Socioeconomics

socioeconomicsocio-economicsocio-economic development
The problem of moral and legal constraints upon the behavior of multinational corporations, given that they are effectively "stateless" actors, is one of several urgent global socioeconomic problems that emerged during the late twentieth century.

Bloomberg Businessweek

BusinessWeekBusiness WeekBloomberg
Coined at least as early as 1991 in Business Week, the conception was theoretically clarified in 1993: that an empirical strategy for defining a stateless corporation is with analytical tools at the intersection between demographic analysis and transportation research.