Multiple-camera setup

Multi-cameraMultipleMulti cameraMulti-camera setupMulticamera setupMultiple-cameraMulticameraMultiple cameramulti-cammulticam
The multiple-camera setup, multiple-camera mode of production, multi-camera or simply multicam is a method of filmmaking and video production.wikipedia
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Single-camera setup

Single-cameraSingle cameraSingle
It is often contrasted with single-camera setup, which uses one camera. While the multiple-camera format dominated US sitcom production in the 1970s and 1980s, there has been a recent revival of the single-camera format with programs such as Malcolm in the Middle (2000–2006), Scrubs (2001–2010), Entourage (2004–2011), My Name Is Earl (2005–2009), Everybody Hates Chris (2005–2009), It's Always Sunny in Philadelphia (2005–present), 30 Rock (2006–2013), Glee (2009–2015), Modern Family (2009–present), The Middle (2009–2018), Community (2009–2015), Parks and Recreation (2009–2015), Raising Hope (2010–2014), and Louie (2010–2015).
The single-camera setup originally developed during the birth of the classical Hollywood cinema in the 1910s and has remained the standard mode of production for cinema; in television, both single cameras and multiple-camera productions are common.

Camera control unit

CCU
The camera currently being recorded to the line cut is indicated by a tally light controlled by a camera control unit (CCU) on the camera as a reference both for the actors and the camera operators.

Desi Arnaz

DesiDesi Arnaz, Sr.Desi Arnez
Although it is often claimed that the multiple-camera setup was pioneered for television by Desi Arnaz and cinematographer Karl Freund on I Love Lucy in 1951, other filmed television shows had already used it, including the CBS comedy The Amos 'n Andy Show, which was filmed at the Hal Roach Studios and was on the air four months earlier.
Karl Freund, Arnaz's cameraman, and even Arnaz himself have been credited with the development of the multiple-camera setup production style using adjacent sets in front of a live audience that became the standard for subsequent situation comedies.

CBS

CBS TelevisionColumbia Broadcasting SystemCBS-TV
Although it is often claimed that the multiple-camera setup was pioneered for television by Desi Arnaz and cinematographer Karl Freund on I Love Lucy in 1951, other filmed television shows had already used it, including the CBS comedy The Amos 'n Andy Show, which was filmed at the Hal Roach Studios and was on the air four months earlier.
This was the making of the Ball-Arnaz Desilu empire, and became the template for series production to this day; it also served as the template for some television conventions that continue to exist including the use of a multiple cameras to film scenes, the use of a studio audience and the airing of past episodes for syndication to other television outlets.

Tally light

The camera currently being recorded to the line cut is indicated by a tally light controlled by a camera control unit (CCU) on the camera as a reference both for the actors and the camera operators.
For television productions with more than one camera in a multiple-camera setup, the tally lights are generally illuminated automatically by a vision mixer trigger that is fed to a tally breakout board and then to a special video router designed for tally signals.

Soap opera

soap operassoapdaytime drama
It is also a virtual necessity for regular, high-output shows like daily soap operas.
Stylistically, these series most closely resemble UK soap operas in that they are nearly always shot on videotape, are mainly recorded in a studio and use a multi-camera setup.

I Love Lucy

colorizations of ''I Love Lucycolorized a number of episodesI Love Laquita
Although it is often claimed that the multiple-camera setup was pioneered for television by Desi Arnaz and cinematographer Karl Freund on I Love Lucy in 1951, other filmed television shows had already used it, including the CBS comedy The Amos 'n Andy Show, which was filmed at the Hal Roach Studios and was on the air four months earlier.
I Love Lucy's pioneering use of three cameras led to it becoming the standard technique for the production of most sitcoms filmed in front of an audience.

Desilu Productions

DesiluDesilu StudiosLucille Ball Productions
Desilu's innovation was to use 35mm film instead of 16mm and to film with a multiple-camera setup before a live studio audience.
Desilu is often credited with being the first television studio to shoot on film instead of making a live broadcast or to shoot on film with a multiple-camera setup.

Golden Age of Television

golden ageTelevision's Golden AgeAmerican Golden Age of Television
Before the pre-filmed continuing series became the dominant dramatic form on American television, the earliest anthology programs (see the Golden Age of Television) utilized multiple camera methods.
I Love Lucy, in particular, took extensive steps toward matching the quality of the radio writing with a cinematic look worthy of feature films; to this effect, they established a multi-camera setup (a revolutionary process that would become an industry standard in the decades to come) to allow for a live studio audience, hired cinematographer Karl Freund to oversee filming,and recorded the series on movie-quality 35 mm film (the relatively high cost prevented the show from being filmed in color as Lucille Ball and Desi Arnaz had originally hoped).

Jerry Fairbanks

Jerry Fairbanks Productions
The technique was developed for television by Hollywood short-subject veteran Jerry Fairbanks, assisted by producer-director Frank Telford, and first seen on the anthology series The Silver Theater, another CBS program, in February 1950.
He broke new ground in television by inventing for NBC in 1947 the Multi-Cam multiple-camera setup of production, assisted by producer-director Frank Telford, which is still used by sitcoms today.

Amos 'n' Andy

Amos and AndyAmos 'n AndyThe Amos 'n' Andy Show
Although it is often claimed that the multiple-camera setup was pioneered for television by Desi Arnaz and cinematographer Karl Freund on I Love Lucy in 1951, other filmed television shows had already used it, including the CBS comedy The Amos 'n Andy Show, which was filmed at the Hal Roach Studios and was on the air four months earlier.
Produced at the Hal Roach Studios for CBS, the show was among the first television series to be filmed with a multicamera setup, four months before I Love Lucy used the technique.

Professional video camera

TV cameracameratelevision camera
Several cameras—either film or professional video cameras—are employed on the set and simultaneously record or broadcast a scene.

30 Rock

TGS with Tracy Jordan30 Rock: The WebisodesThe Girlie Show'' (fictional show)
While the multiple-camera format dominated US sitcom production in the 1970s and 1980s, there has been a recent revival of the single-camera format with programs such as Malcolm in the Middle (2000–2006), Scrubs (2001–2010), Entourage (2004–2011), My Name Is Earl (2005–2009), Everybody Hates Chris (2005–2009), It's Always Sunny in Philadelphia (2005–present), 30 Rock (2006–2013), Glee (2009–2015), Modern Family (2009–present), The Middle (2009–2018), Community (2009–2015), Parks and Recreation (2009–2015), Raising Hope (2010–2014), and Louie (2010–2015).
30 Rock episodes were produced in a single-camera setup (with the exception of the two live episodes that were taped in the multiple-camera setup), and were filmed in New York.

All in the Family

Archie Bunker's PlaceArchie Bunker's chairAll in the Family'': "Sammy's Visit
Sitcoms shot with the multiple camera setup include nearly all of Lucille Ball's TV series, as well as Mary Kay and Johnny, The Dick Van Dyke Show, The Mary Tyler Moore Show, All in the Family, Three's Company, Cheers, The Cosby Show, Seinfeld, Friends, Will & Grace, Everybody Loves Raymond, The King of Queens, Two and a Half Men, The Big Bang Theory, Mike & Molly, Mom, 2 Broke Girls, and One Day at a Time.
Lear employed the multiple-camera format of shooting in front of an audience, but used tape, whereas previous multiple-camera shows like Mary Tyler Moore had used film.

Three's Company

Three’s Company Come and Knock on Our Door
Sitcoms shot with the multiple camera setup include nearly all of Lucille Ball's TV series, as well as Mary Kay and Johnny, The Dick Van Dyke Show, The Mary Tyler Moore Show, All in the Family, Three's Company, Cheers, The Cosby Show, Seinfeld, Friends, Will & Grace, Everybody Loves Raymond, The King of Queens, Two and a Half Men, The Big Bang Theory, Mike & Molly, Mom, 2 Broke Girls, and One Day at a Time.
A Multicamera setup of three cameras was used.

Mork & Mindy

Mork and MindyMorkBehind the Camera: The Unauthorized Story of 'Mork & Mindy
In the late 1970s, Garry Marshall was credited with adding the fourth camera (known then as the "X" Camera, and occasionally today known as the "D" Camera) to the multi-camera set-up for his series Mork & Mindy.

Virtual cinematography

fully virtual cinematographyinteractive cinematographyModern computer animation
This includes a wide variety of subjects like photographing real objects, often with stereo or multi-camera setup, for the purpose of recreating them as three-dimensional objects and algorithms for automated creation of real and simulated camera angles.

Light stage

A light stage or light cage is equipment used for shape, texture, reflectance and motion capture often with structured light and a multi-camera setup.

One Day at a Time (2017 TV series)

One Day at a TimeOne Day at a Time (2017)One Day at a Time'' (2017 TV series)
Sitcoms shot with the multiple camera setup include nearly all of Lucille Ball's TV series, as well as Mary Kay and Johnny, The Dick Van Dyke Show, The Mary Tyler Moore Show, All in the Family, Three's Company, Cheers, The Cosby Show, Seinfeld, Friends, Will & Grace, Everybody Loves Raymond, The King of Queens, Two and a Half Men, The Big Bang Theory, Mike & Molly, Mom, 2 Broke Girls, and One Day at a Time.
Like most Norman Lear sitcoms, it is recorded with a multiple-camera setup in front of a live studio audience.

Mary Kay and Johnny

Mary Kay Jones and Johnny StearnsThe Mary Kay and Johnny Show
Sitcoms shot with the multiple camera setup include nearly all of Lucille Ball's TV series, as well as Mary Kay and Johnny, The Dick Van Dyke Show, The Mary Tyler Moore Show, All in the Family, Three's Company, Cheers, The Cosby Show, Seinfeld, Friends, Will & Grace, Everybody Loves Raymond, The King of Queens, Two and a Half Men, The Big Bang Theory, Mike & Molly, Mom, 2 Broke Girls, and One Day at a Time.

Cheers

Bud'moCheers RestaurantsCheers'' (sitcom)
Sitcoms shot with the multiple camera setup include nearly all of Lucille Ball's TV series, as well as Mary Kay and Johnny, The Dick Van Dyke Show, The Mary Tyler Moore Show, All in the Family, Three's Company, Cheers, The Cosby Show, Seinfeld, Friends, Will & Grace, Everybody Loves Raymond, The King of Queens, Two and a Half Men, The Big Bang Theory, Mike & Molly, Mom, 2 Broke Girls, and One Day at a Time.

The Cosby Show

Cosby ShowElvin TibideauxBill Cosby Show
Sitcoms shot with the multiple camera setup include nearly all of Lucille Ball's TV series, as well as Mary Kay and Johnny, The Dick Van Dyke Show, The Mary Tyler Moore Show, All in the Family, Three's Company, Cheers, The Cosby Show, Seinfeld, Friends, Will & Grace, Everybody Loves Raymond, The King of Queens, Two and a Half Men, The Big Bang Theory, Mike & Molly, Mom, 2 Broke Girls, and One Day at a Time.

Everybody Loves Raymond

Everyone Loves RaymondAmy BaroneEverybody Loves Raymond: The Laugh Laugh
Sitcoms shot with the multiple camera setup include nearly all of Lucille Ball's TV series, as well as Mary Kay and Johnny, The Dick Van Dyke Show, The Mary Tyler Moore Show, All in the Family, Three's Company, Cheers, The Cosby Show, Seinfeld, Friends, Will & Grace, Everybody Loves Raymond, The King of Queens, Two and a Half Men, The Big Bang Theory, Mike & Molly, Mom, 2 Broke Girls, and One Day at a Time.

Friends

Central PerkF.R.I.E.N.D.SFriends (TV series)
Sitcoms shot with the multiple camera setup include nearly all of Lucille Ball's TV series, as well as Mary Kay and Johnny, The Dick Van Dyke Show, The Mary Tyler Moore Show, All in the Family, Three's Company, Cheers, The Cosby Show, Seinfeld, Friends, Will & Grace, Everybody Loves Raymond, The King of Queens, Two and a Half Men, The Big Bang Theory, Mike & Molly, Mom, 2 Broke Girls, and One Day at a Time.

Seinfeld

Kramer vs. Kramer: Kenny to Cosmocurseeponymous sitcom
Sitcoms shot with the multiple camera setup include nearly all of Lucille Ball's TV series, as well as Mary Kay and Johnny, The Dick Van Dyke Show, The Mary Tyler Moore Show, All in the Family, Three's Company, Cheers, The Cosby Show, Seinfeld, Friends, Will & Grace, Everybody Loves Raymond, The King of Queens, Two and a Half Men, The Big Bang Theory, Mike & Molly, Mom, 2 Broke Girls, and One Day at a Time.