Multiple discovery

independently discoveredindependentlymultiple independent discoverymultiple inventionan approach similararrive at a new idea around the same timeindependent discoveriesindependent inventionindependent inventorindependently developed
The concept of multiple discovery (also known as simultaneous invention) is the hypothesis that most scientific discoveries and inventions are made independently and more or less simultaneously by multiple scientists and inventors.wikipedia
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Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

LeibnizGottfried LeibnizGottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz
Commonly cited examples of multiple independent discovery are the 17th-century independent formulation of calculus by Isaac Newton, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz and others, described by A. Rupert Hall; the 18th-century discovery of oxygen by Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Joseph Priestley, Antoine Lavoisier and others; and the theory of evolution of species, independently advanced in the 19th century by Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace.
As a representative of the seventeenth-century tradition of rationalism, Leibniz's most prominent accomplishment was conceiving the ideas of differential and integral calculus, independently of Isaac Newton's contemporaneous developments.

Heroic theory of invention and scientific development

The heroic theory of invention and scientific developmentheroic inventorheroic theory" of invention and discovery
The concept of multiple discovery opposes a traditional view—the "heroic theory" of invention and discovery.
A competing hypothesis ("multiple discovery") is that most inventions and scientific discoveries are made independently and simultaneously by multiple inventors and scientists.

Calculus

infinitesimal calculusdifferential and integral calculusclassical calculus
Commonly cited examples of multiple independent discovery are the 17th-century independent formulation of calculus by Isaac Newton, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz and others, described by A. Rupert Hall; the 18th-century discovery of oxygen by Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Joseph Priestley, Antoine Lavoisier and others; and the theory of evolution of species, independently advanced in the 19th century by Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace.
He is now regarded as an independent inventor of and contributor to calculus.

List of multiple discoveries

List of independent discoveriesList of multiple discoveries: Fourteenth centuryList of multiple discoveries: seventeenth century
Multiple independent discoveries show an increased incidence beginning in the 17th century.
Historians and sociologists have remarked the occurrence, in science, of "multiple independent discovery".

Discovery (observation)

discoverydiscoveriesdiscovered
Robert K. Merton defined such "multiples" as instances in which similar discoveries are made by scientists working independently of each other.

Historic recurrence

cyclicalconstantly recurringcycle
The paradigm of recombinant conceptualization (see above)—more broadly, of recombinant occurrences—that explains multiple discovery in science and the arts, also elucidates the phenomenon of historic recurrence, wherein similar events are noted in the histories of countries widely separated in time and geography.
An example of the mechanism is the ubiquitous phenomenon of multiple independent discovery in science and technology, which has been described by Robert K. Merton and Harriet Zuckerman.

Robert K. Merton

Robert MertonMertonMerton's theory of deviance
Robert K. Merton defined such "multiples" as instances in which similar discoveries are made by scientists working independently of each other.

Evolutionary epistemology

evolutionary epistemologistevolutionary theory of knowledge
Multiple discoveries in the history of science provide evidence for evolutionary models of science and technology, such as memetics (the study of self-replicating units of culture), evolutionary epistemology (which applies the concepts of biological evolution to study of the growth of human knowledge), and cultural selection theory (which studies sociological and cultural evolution in a Darwinian manner).

Charles Darwin

DarwinDarwinianCharles Robert Darwin
Commonly cited examples of multiple independent discovery are the 17th-century independent formulation of calculus by Isaac Newton, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz and others, described by A. Rupert Hall; the 18th-century discovery of oxygen by Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Joseph Priestley, Antoine Lavoisier and others; and the theory of evolution of species, independently advanced in the 19th century by Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace.

Invention

inventorinventionsinventors
What holds for discoveries, also goes for inventions.

Cultural selection theory

Multiple discoveries in the history of science provide evidence for evolutionary models of science and technology, such as memetics (the study of self-replicating units of culture), evolutionary epistemology (which applies the concepts of biological evolution to study of the growth of human knowledge), and cultural selection theory (which studies sociological and cultural evolution in a Darwinian manner).

Logology (science)

Logology (science of science)logologySagan effect
Historians and sociologists have remarked the occurrence, in science, of "multiple independent discovery".

Stigler's law of eponymy

Stigler's lawbeforeBoyer's law
Often, several people will arrive at a new idea around the same time, as in the case of calculus.

Hundredth monkey effect

Hundredth Monkeysweet potato washingThe Hundredth Monkey

List of Nobel laureates

Nobel laureateNobel laureatesNobel Prize laureate
When Nobel laureates are announced annually—especially in physics, chemistry, physiology, medicine, and economics—increasingly, in the given field, rather than just a single laureate, there are two, or the maximally permissible three, who often have independently made the same discovery.

Science

scientificsciencesscientific knowledge
Historians and sociologists have remarked on the occurrence, in science, of "multiple independent discovery".

Isaac Newton

NewtonSir Isaac NewtonNewtonian
Commonly cited examples of multiple independent discovery are the 17th-century independent formulation of calculus by Isaac Newton, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz and others, described by A. Rupert Hall; the 18th-century discovery of oxygen by Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Joseph Priestley, Antoine Lavoisier and others; and the theory of evolution of species, independently advanced in the 19th century by Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace.

Oxygen

OO 2 molecular oxygen
Commonly cited examples of multiple independent discovery are the 17th-century independent formulation of calculus by Isaac Newton, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz and others, described by A. Rupert Hall; the 18th-century discovery of oxygen by Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Joseph Priestley, Antoine Lavoisier and others; and the theory of evolution of species, independently advanced in the 19th century by Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace.

Carl Wilhelm Scheele

Carl ScheeleScheeleKarl Scheele
Commonly cited examples of multiple independent discovery are the 17th-century independent formulation of calculus by Isaac Newton, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz and others, described by A. Rupert Hall; the 18th-century discovery of oxygen by Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Joseph Priestley, Antoine Lavoisier and others; and the theory of evolution of species, independently advanced in the 19th century by Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace.

Joseph Priestley

PriestleyJoseph PriestlyPriestly
Commonly cited examples of multiple independent discovery are the 17th-century independent formulation of calculus by Isaac Newton, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz and others, described by A. Rupert Hall; the 18th-century discovery of oxygen by Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Joseph Priestley, Antoine Lavoisier and others; and the theory of evolution of species, independently advanced in the 19th century by Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace.

Antoine Lavoisier

LavoisierAntoine-Laurent LavoisierAntoine Laurent Lavoisier
Commonly cited examples of multiple independent discovery are the 17th-century independent formulation of calculus by Isaac Newton, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz and others, described by A. Rupert Hall; the 18th-century discovery of oxygen by Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Joseph Priestley, Antoine Lavoisier and others; and the theory of evolution of species, independently advanced in the 19th century by Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace.