Multiple sub-Nyquist sampling encoding

MUSEHi-Vision1035i30MUSE/Hi-Vision
MUSE (Multiple sub-Nyquist sampling encoding), was an analog high-definition television standard, using dot-interlacing and digital video compression to deliver 1125-line high definition video signals to the home.wikipedia
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High-definition television

HDTVhigh definitionHD
MUSE (Multiple sub-Nyquist sampling encoding), was an analog high-definition television standard, using dot-interlacing and digital video compression to deliver 1125-line high definition video signals to the home.
HDTV as is known today first started official broadcasting in 1989 in Japan, under the MUSE/Hi-Vision analog system.

High-definition video

HDhigh definitionhigh-definition
MUSE (Multiple sub-Nyquist sampling encoding), was an analog high-definition television standard, using dot-interlacing and digital video compression to deliver 1125-line high definition video signals to the home.
Modern HD specifications date to the early 1980s, when Japanese engineers developed the HighVision 1,125-line interlaced TV standard (also called MUSE) that ran at 60 frames per second.

HD-MAC

1152i25Mac HD
The EBU development and deployment of B-MAC, D-MAC and much later on HD-MAC were made possible by Hi-Vision's technical success.
In September, 1988, the Japanese performed the first High Definition broadcasts of the Olympic games, using their Hi-Vision system (NHK produced material using this format since 1982).

W-VHS

W-VHS allowed home recording of Hi-Vision programmes.
The format was originally introduced in 1994 for use with Japan's Hi-Vision, an early analog high-definition television system.

ISDB

ISDB-TISDB-SIntegrated Service Digital Broadcasting-Terrestrial
Japan has since switched to a digital HDTV system based on ISDB, but the original MUSE-based BS Satellite channel 9 (NHK BS Hi-vision) was broadcast until September 30, 2007.
ISDB replaced NTSC-J analog television system and the previously used MUSE Hi-vision analogue HDTV system in Japan, and will be replacing NTSC, PAL-M and PAL-N in South America and the Philippines.

LaserDisc

LDlaser disclaserdiscs
There were a few MUSE laserdisc players available in Japan: Pioneer HLD-XØ, HLD-X9, HLD-1000, HLD-V500, HLD-V700; Sony HIL-1000, HIL-C1 and HIL-C2EX; the last two ones have OEM versions made by Panasonic, LX-HD10 and LX-HD20.
Encoded using NHK's MUSE "Hi-Vision" analogue TV system, MUSE discs would operate like standard LaserDiscs but would contain high-definition 1,125-line (1,035 visible lines) (Sony HDVS) video with a 5:3 aspect ratio.

Data compression

compressionvideo compressioncompressed
MUSE (Multiple sub-Nyquist sampling encoding), was an analog high-definition television standard, using dot-interlacing and digital video compression to deliver 1125-line high definition video signals to the home.

Interlaced video

interlacedinterlaceinterlacing
The country began broadcasting wideband analog HDTV signals in 1989 using 1035 active lines interlaced in the standard 2:1 ratio (1035i) with 1125 lines total.

NHK Science & Technology Research Laboratories

NHKNHK Science & Technical Research LaboratoriesNHK Technical Research Labs
MUSE, a compression system for Hi-Vision signals, was developed by NHK Science & Technology Research Laboratories in the 1980s, employed 2-dimensional filtering, dot-interlacing, motion-vector compensation and line-sequential color encoding with time compression to 'fold' an original 20 MHz source Hi-Vision signal into a bandwidth of 8.1 MHz.

Single-sideband modulation

SSBsingle sidebandsingle-sideband
Japanese broadcast engineers immediately rejected conventional vestigial sideband broadcasting.

Super high frequency

SHFSHF-bandcentimetric
Japanese broadcast engineers had been studying the various HDTV broadcast types for some time. It was initially thought that SHF, EHF or optic fiber would have to be used to transmit HDTV due to the high bandwidth of the signal, and HLO-PAL would be used for terrestrial broadcast. HLO-PAL is a conventionally constructed composite signal (Y+C, like NTSC and PAL)., and uses a phase alternating by line with half-line offset carrier encoding of the wideband/narrowband chroma components. Only the very lowest part of the wideband chroma component overlapped the high-frequency chroma. The narrowband chroma was completely separated from luminance. PAF, or phase alternating by field (like the first NTSC color system trial) was also experimented with, and it gave much better decoding results, but NHK abandoned all composite encoding systems. Because of the use of satellite transmission, Frequency modulation (FM) should be used with power-limitation problem. FM incurs triangular noise, so if a sub-carrierred composite signal is used with FM, demodulated chroma signal has more noise than luminance. Because of this, they looked at other options, and decided to use Y/C component emission for satellite. At one point, it seemed that FCFE (frame conversion fineness enhanced), I/P conversion compression system, would be chosen, but MUSE was ultimately picked.

Extremely high frequency

millimeter wavemillimeter-waveEHF
Japanese broadcast engineers had been studying the various HDTV broadcast types for some time. It was initially thought that SHF, EHF or optic fiber would have to be used to transmit HDTV due to the high bandwidth of the signal, and HLO-PAL would be used for terrestrial broadcast. HLO-PAL is a conventionally constructed composite signal (Y+C, like NTSC and PAL)., and uses a phase alternating by line with half-line offset carrier encoding of the wideband/narrowband chroma components. Only the very lowest part of the wideband chroma component overlapped the high-frequency chroma. The narrowband chroma was completely separated from luminance. PAF, or phase alternating by field (like the first NTSC color system trial) was also experimented with, and it gave much better decoding results, but NHK abandoned all composite encoding systems. Because of the use of satellite transmission, Frequency modulation (FM) should be used with power-limitation problem. FM incurs triangular noise, so if a sub-carrierred composite signal is used with FM, demodulated chroma signal has more noise than luminance. Because of this, they looked at other options, and decided to use Y/C component emission for satellite. At one point, it seemed that FCFE (frame conversion fineness enhanced), I/P conversion compression system, would be chosen, but MUSE was ultimately picked.

Optical fiber

fiber opticfiber opticsfibre optic
Japanese broadcast engineers had been studying the various HDTV broadcast types for some time. It was initially thought that SHF, EHF or optic fiber would have to be used to transmit HDTV due to the high bandwidth of the signal, and HLO-PAL would be used for terrestrial broadcast. HLO-PAL is a conventionally constructed composite signal (Y+C, like NTSC and PAL)., and uses a phase alternating by line with half-line offset carrier encoding of the wideband/narrowband chroma components. Only the very lowest part of the wideband chroma component overlapped the high-frequency chroma. The narrowband chroma was completely separated from luminance. PAF, or phase alternating by field (like the first NTSC color system trial) was also experimented with, and it gave much better decoding results, but NHK abandoned all composite encoding systems. Because of the use of satellite transmission, Frequency modulation (FM) should be used with power-limitation problem. FM incurs triangular noise, so if a sub-carrierred composite signal is used with FM, demodulated chroma signal has more noise than luminance. Because of this, they looked at other options, and decided to use Y/C component emission for satellite. At one point, it seemed that FCFE (frame conversion fineness enhanced), I/P conversion compression system, would be chosen, but MUSE was ultimately picked.

Frequency modulation

FMfrequency modulatedfrequency-modulated
Japanese broadcast engineers had been studying the various HDTV broadcast types for some time. It was initially thought that SHF, EHF or optic fiber would have to be used to transmit HDTV due to the high bandwidth of the signal, and HLO-PAL would be used for terrestrial broadcast. HLO-PAL is a conventionally constructed composite signal (Y+C, like NTSC and PAL)., and uses a phase alternating by line with half-line offset carrier encoding of the wideband/narrowband chroma components. Only the very lowest part of the wideband chroma component overlapped the high-frequency chroma. The narrowband chroma was completely separated from luminance. PAF, or phase alternating by field (like the first NTSC color system trial) was also experimented with, and it gave much better decoding results, but NHK abandoned all composite encoding systems. Because of the use of satellite transmission, Frequency modulation (FM) should be used with power-limitation problem. FM incurs triangular noise, so if a sub-carrierred composite signal is used with FM, demodulated chroma signal has more noise than luminance. Because of this, they looked at other options, and decided to use Y/C component emission for satellite. At one point, it seemed that FCFE (frame conversion fineness enhanced), I/P conversion compression system, would be chosen, but MUSE was ultimately picked.

Companding

compandercompandedcompandor
DPCM Audio compression format: DPCM quasi-instantaneous companding

Signal-to-noise ratio

signal to noise ratioSNRsignal-to-noise
Approximately 3 kW of power would be required, in order to get 40 dB of signal to noise ratio for a composite FM signal in the 22 GHz band.

Luminance

cd/m 2 brightnessluminous
To overcome this limitation, it was decided to use a separate transmission of Y and C.

Chrominance

chromachroma signalcolor
To overcome this limitation, it was decided to use a separate transmission of Y and C.

YUV

YY'UVluminance-chrominance model
The three terms of the ratio are: the number of brightness ("luminance" "luma" or Y) samples, followed by the number of samples of the two color ("chroma") components: U/Cb then V/Cr, for each complete sample area.

Sampling (signal processing)

sampling ratesamplingsample rate
The three terms of the ratio are: the number of brightness ("luminance" "luma" or Y) samples, followed by the number of samples of the two color ("chroma") components: U/Cb then V/Cr, for each complete sample area.

Compositing

compositedcompositorcomposite
In these cases, the fourth number means the sampling frequency ratio of a key channel.

MPEG-1 Audio Layer II

MP22II
It used differential audio transmission (differential pulse-code modulation) that was not psychoacoustics-based like MPEG-1 Layer II.

NICAM

Nicam StereoNear Instantaneous Companded Audio MultiplexNICAM digital stereo
Like the PAL NICAM stereo system, it used near-instantaneous companding (as opposed to Syllabic-companding like the dbx system uses) and non-linear 13-bit digital encoding at a 32 kHz sample rate.

Dbx (noise reduction)

dbxDBX Noise ReductionDBX noise reduction system
Like the PAL NICAM stereo system, it used near-instantaneous companding (as opposed to Syllabic-companding like the dbx system uses) and non-linear 13-bit digital encoding at a 32 kHz sample rate.

Cathode-ray tube

CRTcathode ray tubecathode ray tubes
MUSE's "1125 lines" are an analog measurement, which includes non-video "scan lines" during which a CRT's electron beam returns to the top of the screen to begin scanning the next field.