Multiprocessing

multiprocessormulti-processormulti-processingtightly coupledmultiple processorsmultiprocessorsloosely coupled multiprocessingmulti-core systemsMulticore Programmingmultiprocessor computer system
Multiprocessing is the use of two or more central processing units (CPUs) within a single computer system.wikipedia
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Computer multitasking

multitaskingmulti-taskingmultitask
When used with this definition, multiprocessing is sometimes contrasted with multitasking, which may use just a single processor but switch it in time slices between tasks (i.e. a time-sharing system).
Even on multiprocessor computers, multitasking allows many more tasks to be run than there are CPUs.

Flynn's taxonomy

In Flynn's taxonomy, multiprocessors as defined above are MIMD machines.
Since the rise of multiprocessing central processing units (CPUs), a multiprogramming context has evolved as an extension of the classification system.

Symmetric multiprocessing

SMPsymmetric multiprocessorD825" modular data processing system
Systems that treat all CPUs equally are called symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) systems.
Symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) involves a multiprocessor computer hardware and software architecture where two or more identical processors are connected to a single, shared main memory, have full access to all input and output devices, and are controlled by a single operating system instance that treats all processors equally, reserving none for special purposes.

Non-uniform memory access

NUMAccNUMACC-NUMA
In systems where all CPUs are not equal, system resources may be divided in a number of ways, including asymmetric multiprocessing (ASMP), non-uniform memory access (NUMA) multiprocessing, and clustered multiprocessing.
Non-uniform memory access (NUMA) is a computer memory design used in multiprocessing, where the memory access time depends on the memory location relative to the processor.

Asymmetric multiprocessing

asymmetricAMPasymmetric multiprocessor
In systems where all CPUs are not equal, system resources may be divided in a number of ways, including asymmetric multiprocessing (ASMP), non-uniform memory access (NUMA) multiprocessing, and clustered multiprocessing.
Multiprocessing is the use of more than one CPU in a computer system.

Central processing unit

CPUprocessorprocessors
Multiprocessing is the use of two or more central processing units (CPUs) within a single computer system. According to some on-line dictionaries, a multiprocessor is a computer system having two or more processing units (multiple processors) each sharing main memory and peripherals, in order to simultaneously process programs.
One technology used for this purpose was multiprocessing (MP).

Process (computing)

processprocessesprocessing
At the operating system level, multiprocessing is sometimes used to refer to the execution of multiple concurrent processes in a system, with each process running on a separate CPU or core, as opposed to a single process at any one instant.
On later systems with multiple processors, multiple programs may run concurrently in parallel.

Multi-core processor

multi-coredual-corequad-core
There are many variations on this basic theme, and the definition of multiprocessing can vary with context, mostly as a function of how CPUs are defined (multiple cores on one die, multiple dies in one package, multiple packages in one system unit, etc.).
A multi-core processor implements multiprocessing in a single physical package.

Software lockout

locked out
Software lockout
In multiprocessor computer systems, software lockout is the issue of performance degradation due to the idle wait times spent by the CPUs in kernel-level critical sections.

Motorola 68000

68000M68000MC68000
The Model 16 has 3 microprocessors, an 8-bit Zilog Z80 CPU running at 4MHz, a 16-bit Motorola 68000 CPU running at 6MHz and an Intel 8021 in the keyboard.
Multiprocessing control: TAS, test-and-set, performed an indivisible bus operation, permitting semaphores to be used to synchronize several processors sharing a single memory

Computer

computerscomputer systemdigital computer
Multiprocessing is the use of two or more central processing units (CPUs) within a single computer system.

Die (integrated circuit)

diedieschips
There are many variations on this basic theme, and the definition of multiprocessing can vary with context, mostly as a function of how CPUs are defined (multiple cores on one die, multiple dies in one package, multiple packages in one system unit, etc.).

Chip carrier

PLCCpackageplastic leaded chip carrier
There are many variations on this basic theme, and the definition of multiprocessing can vary with context, mostly as a function of how CPUs are defined (multiple cores on one die, multiple dies in one package, multiple packages in one system unit, etc.).

Computer case

casetower casecomputer cases
There are many variations on this basic theme, and the definition of multiprocessing can vary with context, mostly as a function of how CPUs are defined (multiple cores on one die, multiple dies in one package, multiple packages in one system unit, etc.).

Computer data storage

main memorystoragememory
According to some on-line dictionaries, a multiprocessor is a computer system having two or more processing units (multiple processors) each sharing main memory and peripherals, in order to simultaneously process programs.

Operating system

operating systemsOScomputer operating system
At the operating system level, multiprocessing is sometimes used to refer to the execution of multiple concurrent processes in a system, with each process running on a separate CPU or core, as opposed to a single process at any one instant.

Time-sharing

timesharingtime sharingtime-sharing system
When used with this definition, multiprocessing is sometimes contrasted with multitasking, which may use just a single processor but switch it in time slices between tasks (i.e. a time-sharing system).

Parallel computing

parallelparallel processingparallelism
Multiprocessing doesn't necessarily mean that a single process or task uses more than one processor simultaneously; the term parallel processing is generally used to denote that scenario.

MIMD

hypercubeHypercube interconnection networkmassively parallel
In Flynn's taxonomy, multiprocessors as defined above are MIMD machines.

Message passing

message-passingmessagesmessage
As they are normally construed to be tightly coupled (share memory), multiprocessors are not the entire class of MIMD machines, which also contains message passing multicomputer systems.

Luigi Federico Menabrea

MenabreaLuigi MenabreaMenabrea, Luigi Federico
Possibly the first expression of the idea of multiprocessing was written by Luigi Federico Menabrea in 1842, about Charles Babbage's analytical engine (as translated by Ada Lovelace): "the machine can be brought into play so as to give several results at the same time, which will greatly abridge the whole amount of the processes."

Charles Babbage

BabbageBabbage, CharlesBabbage engines
Possibly the first expression of the idea of multiprocessing was written by Luigi Federico Menabrea in 1842, about Charles Babbage's analytical engine (as translated by Ada Lovelace): "the machine can be brought into play so as to give several results at the same time, which will greatly abridge the whole amount of the processes."

Analytical Engine

Babbage's Analytical Enginemechanicalmechanical computer
Possibly the first expression of the idea of multiprocessing was written by Luigi Federico Menabrea in 1842, about Charles Babbage's analytical engine (as translated by Ada Lovelace): "the machine can be brought into play so as to give several results at the same time, which will greatly abridge the whole amount of the processes."

Ada Lovelace

Augusta Ada King (née Byron), Countess of LovelaceAdaAda Augusta
Possibly the first expression of the idea of multiprocessing was written by Luigi Federico Menabrea in 1842, about Charles Babbage's analytical engine (as translated by Ada Lovelace): "the machine can be brought into play so as to give several results at the same time, which will greatly abridge the whole amount of the processes."

Computer cluster

clusterclusteringclusters
In systems where all CPUs are not equal, system resources may be divided in a number of ways, including asymmetric multiprocessing (ASMP), non-uniform memory access (NUMA) multiprocessing, and clustered multiprocessing.