A report on Muscogee and Spanish Florida

Muscogee Creek bandolier bag, c. 1820, Birmingham Museum of Art
Etowah Mound C, was part of a precontact Mississippian culture site, occupied by ancestors of the Muscogee people from c. 1000–1550 CE, in Cartersville, Georgia
Spanish Florida after Pinckney's Treaty in 1795
Hernando de Soto and his men burn Mabila, after a surprise attack by Chief Tuskaloosa and his people in 1540; painting by Herb Roe, 2008
Narváez expedition in 1528, Apalachee Bay.
The protohistoric King Site, occupied during the mid-1500s
Florida from the 1502 Cantino planisphere
A raiding party against Spanish missions in Florida passes the Ocmulgee trading post
Juan Ponce de León claimed Florida for Spain in 1513
Yamacraw leader Tomochichi and nephew in 1733
An excerpt from the British–American Mitchell Map, showing northern Spanish Florida, the old mission road from St. Augustine to St. Mark's, and text describing the Carolinian raids of 1702–1706.
Yamacraw Creek Native Americans meet with the trustee of the colony of Georgia in England, July 1734. Notice the Native American boy (in a blue coat) and woman (in a red dress) in European clothing.
The expanded West Florida territory in 1767.
William Augustus Bowles (1763–1805) was also known as Estajoca, his Muscogee name.
Under Spanish rule, Florida was divided by the natural separation of the Suwannee River into West Florida and East Florida. (map: Carey & Lea, 1822)
Painting (1805) of Benjamin Hawkins on his plantation, instructing Muscogee Creek in European technology
The Great Comet of 1811, as drawn by William Henry Smyth
The New Madrid earthquake was interpreted by the Muscogee to support the Shawnee's resistance.
Menawa was one of the principal leaders of the Red Sticks. After the war, he continued to oppose white encroachment on Muscogee lands, visiting Washington, D.C. in 1826 to protest the treaty of Indian Springs. Painted by Charles Bird King, 1837.
Depiction of Red Eagle's surrender to Andrew Jackson after the Battle of Horseshoe Bend. Jackson was so impressed with Weatherford's boldness that he let him go.
Charles Bird King's portrait of William McIntosh
Members of the Creek Nation in Oklahoma around 1877. They included men of mixed Creek, European and African ancestry.
Selocta (or Shelocta) was a Muscogee chief.
Muscogee Creek land cessions 1733–1832
Ceded area as deemed by the Treaty of Fort Jackson in 1814
Muscogee Creek bike messenger, originally from Okmulgee, Oklahoma
Micah Wesley, Muscogee Creek-Kiowa artist and DJ

The missions were destroyed by Carolina and Creek raiders in a series of raids from 1702 to 1704, further reducing and dispersing the native population of Florida and reducing Spanish control over the area.

- Spanish Florida

In the 17th century, Franciscan friars in Spanish Florida built missions along Apalachee Bay.

- Muscogee
Muscogee Creek bandolier bag, c. 1820, Birmingham Museum of Art

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Flag of the Apalachee Nation

Apalachee

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The Apalachee are a Native American people who historically lived in the Florida Panhandle.

The Apalachee are a Native American people who historically lived in the Florida Panhandle.

Flag of the Apalachee Nation
Tribal territory of the Apalachee during the 17th century highlighted
A proposed route for the first leg of the de Soto Expedition, based on Charles M. Hudson map of 1997
Gilmer Bennett, former Chief of the Talimali Band of Apalachee

The survivors dispersed, and over time many Apalachee integrated with other groups, particularly the Creek Confederacy, while others relocated to other Spanish territories, and some remained in what is now Louisiana.

San Luis de Talimali, the western capital of Spanish Florida from 1656 to 1704, is a National Historic Landmark in Tallahassee, Florida.

Seminole

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The Seminole are a Native American people who developed in Florida in the 18th century.

The Seminole are a Native American people who developed in Florida in the 18th century.

Coeehajo, Chief, 1837, Smithsonian American Art Museum
Sign at Bill Baggs Cape Florida State Park commemorating hundreds of enslaved African Americans who in the early 1820s escaped from this area to freedom in the Bahamas.
Seminole woman, painted by George Catlin, 1834
Seminole family of tribal elder, Cypress Tiger, at their camp near Kendall, Florida, 1916. Photo taken by botanist, John Kunkel Small
Seminole patchwork shawl made by Susie Cypress from Big Cypress Indian Reservation, ca. 1980s
Seminoles' Thanksgiving meal mid-1950s
A Seminole spearing a garfish from a dugout, Florida, 1930
Seminole clipper ship card

The Seminole people emerged in a process of ethnogenesis from various Native American groups who settled in Spanish Florida beginning in the early 1700s, most significantly northern Muscogee Creeks from what is now Georgia and Alabama.

A plaque showing the locations of a third of the missions between 1565 and 1763

Spanish missions in Florida

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A plaque showing the locations of a third of the missions between 1565 and 1763
Modern map showing the approximate location of Spanish missions and the connecting Camino Real across northern Florida

Beginning in the second half of the 16th century, the Kingdom of Spain established a number of missions throughout La Florida in order to convert the Native Americans to Christianity, to facilitate control of the area, and to prevent its colonization by other countries, in particular, England and France.

It collapsed in the aftermath of Queen Anne's War, when colonists from the Province of Carolina, along with their Creek allies, killed or kidnapped much of the remaining native population of Spanish Florida except in areas near St. Augustine and Pensacola.

Portrait by Ralph Eleaser Whiteside Earl, c. undefined 1835

Andrew Jackson

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American lawyer, general, and statesman who served as the seventh president of the United States from 1829 to 1837.

American lawyer, general, and statesman who served as the seventh president of the United States from 1829 to 1837.

Portrait by Ralph Eleaser Whiteside Earl, c. undefined 1835
Young Jackson Refusing to Clean Major Coffin's Boots (1876 lithograph)
Notice of reward offered by Jackson for return of an enslaved man
General Andrew Jackson as pictured in Harper's Magazine, Vol 28, "War with the Creek Indians", page 605, 1864
In the Treaty of Fort Jackson, the Muscogee surrendered large parts of present-day Alabama and Georgia.
General Andrew Jackson by John Wesley Jarvis, c. undefined 1819
The Battle of New Orleans. General Andrew Jackson stands on the parapet of his defenses as his troops repulse attacking Highlanders, by painter Edward Percy Moran in 1910.
Jackson at the Battle of New Orleans, painted by Thomas Sully in 1845 from an earlier portrait he had completed from life in 1824
Trial of Robert Ambrister during the Seminole War. Ambrister was one of two British subjects executed by General Jackson. (1848)
Teracotta bust of General Jackson by William Rush, 1819
Jackson in 1824, painted by Thomas Sully
1828 election results
President Andrew Jackson
New York: Ritchie & Co. (1860)
Jackson's Indian Removal Act and subsequent treaties resulted in the forced removal of the major tribes of the Southeast from their traditional territories, many along the Trail of Tears.
Portrait of Jackson by Earl, 1830
William C. Rives, Jackson's Minister to France, successfully negotiated a reparations treaty with France in 1831.
1832 election results
1833 Democratic cartoon shows Jackson destroying the "Devil's Bank"
Richard Lawrence's attempt on Jackson's life, as depicted in an 1835 etching
USS Porpoise (1836), a brig ship laid down in 1835 and launched in May 1836; used in the U.S. Exploring Expedition
A New York newspaper blamed the Panic of 1837 on Andrew Jackson, depicted in spectacles and top hat.
Mezzotint after a Daguerreotype of Jackson by Mathew Brady, April 15, 1845
Tennessee Gentleman, portrait of Jackson, c. 1831, from the collection of The Hermitage
Andrew Jackson as Grand Master of Tennessee, 1822
Equestrian statue of Jackson, Jackson County Courthouse, Kansas City, Missouri, commissioned by Judge Harry S. Truman
Jackson portrait on obverse $20 bill
2-cent red stamp
2-cent green stamp
The tomb of Andrew and Rachel Jackson located at The Hermitage

The subsequent Treaty of Fort Jackson required the Creek surrender of vast lands in present-day Alabama and Georgia.

He seems to have been planning a military operation to conquer Spanish Florida and drive the Spanish from Texas.

Detail from a 1733 map showing the Apalachee Province (roughly the eastern end of what is now called the Florida Panhandle). Ayubale is marked "Ayavalla"; the locations of many mission villages are of uncertain accuracy.

Apalachee massacre

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Detail from a 1733 map showing the Apalachee Province (roughly the eastern end of what is now called the Florida Panhandle). Ayubale is marked "Ayavalla"; the locations of many mission villages are of uncertain accuracy.
Reconstructed church at San Luis de Apalachee; Ayubale's church may have resembled it

The Apalachee massacre was a series of raids by English colonists from the Province of Carolina and their Indian allies against a largely peaceful population of Apalachee Indians in northern Spanish Florida that took place in 1704, during Queen Anne's War.

Moore's raiding expedition was preceded and followed by other raiding activity that was principally conducted by English-allied Creeks.

Clockwise from top:
Damage to the United States Capitol after the burning of Washington

Mortally wounded Isaac Brock spurs on the York Volunteers at the battle of Queenston Heights

USS Constitution vs HMS Guerriere

The death of Tecumseh in 1813

Andrew Jackson defeats the British assault on New Orleans in 1815

War of 1812

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Clockwise from top:
Damage to the United States Capitol after the burning of Washington

Mortally wounded Isaac Brock spurs on the York Volunteers at the battle of Queenston Heights

USS Constitution vs HMS Guerriere

The death of Tecumseh in 1813

Andrew Jackson defeats the British assault on New Orleans in 1815
Upper and Lower Canada, circa 1812
Map showing the general distribution of Indian tribes in the Northwest Territory in the early 1790s
American expansion in the Indiana Territory
James Madison, the fourth President of the United States (1809–1817). Madison was the leader of the Democratic-Republican Party, whose power base came from southern and western states.
Depiction of a British private soldier (left) and officer (right) of the period
Governor General George Prévost was urged to maintain a defensive strategy as British forces were already preoccupied with the Napoleonic Wars.
Northern theatre, War of 1812
American surrender of Detroit, August 1812
Oliver Hazard Perry's message to William Henry Harrison after the Battle of Lake Erie began as such: "We have met the enemy and they are ours".
Laura Secord providing advance warning to James FitzGibbon, which led to a British-Iroquois victory at the Battle of Beaver Dams, June 1813
Fencibles, militia, and Mohawks repel an American attack on Montreal, Battle of the Chateauguay, October 1813
American infantry prepare to attack during the Battle of Lundy's Lane
Unsuccessful British assault on Fort Erie, 14 August 1814
Defeat at Plattsburgh led Prévost to call off the invasion of New York.
The Upper Mississippi River during the War of 1812:
The Royal Navy's North American squadron was based in Halifax, Nova Scotia and Bermuda. At the start of the war, the squadron had one ship of the line, seven frigates, nine sloops as well as brigs and schooners.
USS Constitution defeats in a single-ship engagement. The battle was an important victory for American morale.
Captain Broke leads the boarding party to USS Chesapeake (1799). The British capture of Chesapeake was one of the bloodiest contests in the age of sail.
The Battle of Valparaíso ended the American naval threat to British interests in the south Pacific Ocean.
The capture of USS President was the last naval duel to take place during the conflict, with its combatants unaware of the signing of the Treaty of Ghent several weeks prior.
Marines aboard USS Wasp (1814) engage, June 1814. During the war, sloops of the United States Navy scored several victories against British sloops.
Baltimore Clippers were a series of schooners used by American privateers during the war.
A map of the American coastline. British naval strategy was to protect their shipping in North America and enforce a naval blockade on the United States.
The only known photograph of a Black Refugee, c. 1890. During the war, a number of African Americans slaves escaped aboard British ships, settling in Canada (mainly in Nova Scotia) or Trinidad.
Map of the Chesapeake Campaign
Admiralty House, at Mount Wyndham, Bermuda, where the Chesapeake campaign was planned
An artist's rendering of the bombardment at Fort McHenry during the Battle of Baltimore. Watching the bombardment from a truce ship, Francis Scott Key was inspired to write the four-stanza poem that later became "The Star-Spangled Banner".
In 1813, Creek warriors attacked Fort Mims and killed 400 to 500 people. The massacre became a rallying point for Americans.
Creek forces were defeated at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend, bringing an end to the Creek War.
American forces repelled a British assault on New Orleans in January 1815. The battle occurred before news of a peace treaty reached the United States.
A political caricature of delegates from the Hartford Convention deciding whether to leap into the hands of the British, December 1814. The convention led to widespread fears that the New England states might attempt to secede from the United States.
Depiction of the signing of the Treaty of Ghent, which formally ended the war between the British Empire and the United States
United States per capita GDP 1810–1815 in constant 2009 dollars
The Royal Naval Dockyard, Bermuda
Fort Henry at Kingston in 1836. Built from 1832 to 1836, the fort was one of several works undertaken to improve the colonies' defences.
Independence Day celebrations in 1819. In the United States, the war was followed by the Era of Good Feelings, a period that saw nationalism and a desire for national unity rise throughout the country.

The War of 1812 (18 June 1812 – 17 February 1815) was fought by the United States of America and its indigenous allies against the United Kingdom and its allies in British North America, with limited participation by Spain in Florida.

Carl Benn notes that the War Hawks' desire to annex the Canadas was similar to the enthusiasm for the annexation of Spanish Florida by inhabitants of the American South as both expected war to facilitate expansion into long-desired lands and end support for hostile tribes (Tecumseh's Confederacy in the North and the Creek in the South).

Map of European colonies in America, 1702

Queen Anne's War

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The second in a series of French and Indian Wars fought in North America involving the colonial empires of Great Britain, France, and Spain; it took place during the reign of Anne, Queen of Great Britain.

The second in a series of French and Indian Wars fought in North America involving the colonial empires of Great Britain, France, and Spain; it took place during the reign of Anne, Queen of Great Britain.

Map of European colonies in America, 1702
Philip of Anjou proclaimed as the King of Spain in November 1700. A dispute over his succession led to war between the Grand Alliance and the Bourbon alliance.
Stone fortifications of Port Royal, Acadia, 1702. Few settlements had stone fortification at the start of the war.
Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville sought to establish a relationship with natives in the Mississippi watershed as a result of the last war with England.
New French raid on Deerfield, Massachusetts in February, 1704
In June 1704, a force of 500 New Englanders raided the settlement of Grand-Pré, defended by the Acadian and Mi'kmaq militia.
The evacuation of French forces from Port Royal after the English captured the settlement. The fall of Port Royal ended French control over the eastern peninsula of Acadia.
Hendrick Tejonihokarawa, a Mohawk chief, was successful in gaining support from Anne, Queen of Great Britain, to launch an expedition to take Quebec City.
In 1705, Daniel d'Auger de Subercase, the Governor of Plaisance, led a French and Mi'kmaq expedition against English settlements in Newfoundland.
Map of European colonies in North America. Areas in purple were territories France ceded to England in the Treaty of Utrecht, the peace treaty that concluded the war.
Shortly after the war, the French established the Fortress of Louisbourg. The fortified settlement was located to the north of the ceded Acadian territory, on Cape Breton Island.
The Battle of Norridgewock during Dummer's War, August 1724. After portions of Acadia were ceded, the British faced resistance from Abenaki and Mi'kmaq tribes.

1) In the south, Spanish Florida and the English Province of Carolina attacked one another, and English colonists engaged French colonists based at Fort Louis de la Louisiane (near present-day Mobile, Alabama), with Indian bands allied on each side. The southern war did not result in significant territorial changes, but it resulted in seriously decimating the Indian population of Spanish Florida and parts of southern Georgia, with destruction of the network of Spanish missions in Florida.

The Muscogee (Creek), Yamasee, and Chickasaw were armed and led by English colonists, and they dominated these conflicts at the expense of the Choctaw, Timucua, and Apalachee.

A depiction of Moore during the Apalachee massacre in the Ocmulgee Mounds National Historical Park

James Moore (governor)

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James Moore (c.

James Moore (c.

A depiction of Moore during the Apalachee massacre in the Ocmulgee Mounds National Historical Park
A depiction of Moore during the Apalachee massacre in the Ocmulgee Mounds National Historical Park

He is best known for leading several invasions of Spanish Florida during Queen Anne's War, including attacks in 1704 and 1706 which wiped out most of the Spanish missions in Florida.

In 1704, Moore led an expedition of 50 colonists and 1,000 Muscogee, Yamasee, and other allied Indians, into western Florida, leading to the Apalachee massacre.

Overview map of the Yamasee War

Yamasee War

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Overview map of the Yamasee War
A c. 1724 English copy of a deerskin Catawba map of the tribes between Charleston (left) and Virginia (right) following the Yamasee War.

The Yamasee War (also spelled Yamassee or Yemassee) was a conflict fought in South Carolina from 1715–1717 between British settlers from the Province of Carolina and the Yamasee and a number of other allied Native American peoples, including the Muscogee, Cherokee, Catawba, Apalachee, Apalachicola, Yuchi, Savannah River Shawnee, Congaree, Waxhaw, Pee Dee, Cape Fear, Cheraw, and others.

Factors included the trading system, trader abuses, the Indian slave trade, the depletion of deer, increasing Indian debts in contrast to increasing wealth among some colonists, the spread of rice plantation agriculture, French power in Louisiana offering an alternative to British trade, long-established Indian links to Spanish Florida, power struggles among Indian groups, and recent experiences in military collaboration among previously distant tribes.

Image of Roberto, Yamasee Roman Catholic martyr (d. 1740)

Yamasee

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The Yamasees (also spelled Yamassees or Yemassees ) were a multiethnic confederation of Native Americans who lived in the coastal region of present-day northern coastal Georgia near the Savannah River and later in northeastern Florida.

The Yamasees (also spelled Yamassees or Yemassees ) were a multiethnic confederation of Native Americans who lived in the coastal region of present-day northern coastal Georgia near the Savannah River and later in northeastern Florida.

Image of Roberto, Yamasee Roman Catholic martyr (d. 1740)

The Yamasees usually did not convert to Christianity and remained somewhat separated from the Catholic Christian Indians of Spanish Florida.

These Yamasees continued to inhabit Florida until 1727, when the combination of a smallpox epidemic and raids by Col. John Palmer (leading fifty Carolinian militiamen and one hundred Indians) eventually led the many of the remaining Yamasees to disperse, with some joining the Seminole or Creek.