Muscovy Company

Russia CompanyRussianCompany of Merchant AdventurersEnglish merchantsMoscow Trading CompanyMuscovyMuscovy Company of LondonMuscovy Trading CompanyRussiaRussian Company
The Muscovy Company (also called the Russian Company or the Muscovy Trading Company Московская компания) was an English trading company chartered in 1555.wikipedia
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Company of Merchant Adventurers to New Lands

Company of Merchant AdventurersMerchant AdventurersCompany of Merchants for the Discovery of Regions Unknown
The Muscovy Company traces its roots to the Company of Merchant Adventurers to New Lands (in full: "Mystery and Company of Merchant Adventurers for the Discovery of Regions, Dominions, Islands, and Places unknown") founded in 1551 by Richard Chancellor, Sebastian Cabot and Sir Hugh Willoughby, who decided to look for the Northeast Passage to China.
It led to the commencement of English trade with Russia, Persia and elsewhere, and became known informally, and later formally, as the Muscovy Company.

Joint-stock company

joint stock companyJSCjoint stock
It was the first major chartered joint stock company, the precursor of the type of business that would soon flourish in England, and became closely associated with such famous names as Henry Hudson and William Baffin.
Muscovy Company, which had a monopoly on trade between Moscow and London, was chartered soon after in 1555.

Henry Hudson

HudsonHendrik HudsonHudson, Henry
It was the first major chartered joint stock company, the precursor of the type of business that would soon flourish in England, and became closely associated with such famous names as Henry Hudson and William Baffin.
In 1607, the Muscovy Company of England hired Hudson to find a northerly route to the Pacific coast of Asia.

William Baffin

Baffin
It was the first major chartered joint stock company, the precursor of the type of business that would soon flourish in England, and became closely associated with such famous names as Henry Hudson and William Baffin.
Over the next two years, Baffin served in the Muscovy Company-controlled whale-fishery off Spitzbergen.

Ivan the Terrible

Ivan IVIvan IV of RussiaIvan IV, the Terrible, Grand Prince of Moscow
The region had just recently been added to Muscovy, and when Czar Ivan IV heard of Chancellor's arrival, he immediately invited the exotic guest to visit Moscow for an audience at the royal court. In 1567, when Muscovy was faring badly in the Livonian War (1558–1583), Czar Ivan IV asked Jenkinson to sound out Queen Elizabeth I of England as a marriage prospect, providing a possible refuge for him if he was forced to flee the country.
Ivan was a patron of trade (he gave monopoly to Muscovy Company), and the founder of Russia's first publishing house, the Moscow Print Yard.

Arkhangelsk

ArchangelskArchangelArkangelsk
He reached the harbour of Nikolo-Korelsky Monastery on the Northern Dvina river (near the present-day Arkhangelsk, which would be eventually founded in 1584 to service the growing trade).
Trade privileges were granted to English merchants in 1555, leading to the founding of the Company of Merchant Adventurers, which began sending ships annually into the estuary of the Northern Dvina.

Anthony Jenkinson

Anthony Jenkinson succeeded Chancellor as the main trader of the Muscovy Company.
Jenkinson was a traveller and explorer on behalf of the Muscovy Company and the English crown.

Richard Chancellor

Diccon Chancellorreached
The Muscovy Company traces its roots to the Company of Merchant Adventurers to New Lands (in full: "Mystery and Company of Merchant Adventurers for the Discovery of Regions, Dominions, Islands, and Places unknown") founded in 1551 by Richard Chancellor, Sebastian Cabot and Sir Hugh Willoughby, who decided to look for the Northeast Passage to China.
No stigma attached to Chancellor, and the Muscovy Company, as the association was now called, sent him again to the White Sea in 1555.

Sebastian Cabot (explorer)

Sebastian CabotSebastiano CabotoCabot
The Muscovy Company traces its roots to the Company of Merchant Adventurers to New Lands (in full: "Mystery and Company of Merchant Adventurers for the Discovery of Regions, Dominions, Islands, and Places unknown") founded in 1551 by Richard Chancellor, Sebastian Cabot and Sir Hugh Willoughby, who decided to look for the Northeast Passage to China.
After this he acted as an advisor for "English ventures for discovery of the Northwest Passage. He became governor of the Muscovy Company in 1553 and, along with John Dee, helped it prepare for an expedition led by Sir Hugh Willoughby and Richard Chancellor. He was made life-governor of the "Company of Merchant Adventurers", and equipped the 1557 expedition of Steven Borough. By February 1557 he was replaced as governor of the Muscovy Company. He was recorded as receiving a quarterly pension, which he was first paid in person. Someone picked up for him in June and September 1557, and no one was paid in December, suggesting that he had died by then.

White Sea

WhiteBelomorskyBeloe More
He penetrated the White Sea, where the local fishermen were amazed by the great size of his Western-built ship.
In 1555 Queen Mary issued a charter authorising the Muscovy Company to trade with Russia via the White Sea route.

Stephen Borough

Steven BoroughStephen Burrough
Shortly after Chancellor's death in 1556, the Muscovy Company sent another voyage to discover the Northeast Passage, this time led by Steven Borough.
He was master of the first English ship to reach the White Sea in 1553 and open trade with Russia on behalf of the Muscovy Company.

Nikolo-Korelsky Monastery

He reached the harbour of Nikolo-Korelsky Monastery on the Northern Dvina river (near the present-day Arkhangelsk, which would be eventually founded in 1584 to service the growing trade).
The Nikolo-Karelsky Monastery flourished after the establishment of the Muscovy Company, as the bulk of their trade passed through the local harbour.

Spitsbergen

SpitzbergenVestspitsbergenWest Spitsbergen
The primary and most profitable whaling grounds of this joint-stock company came to be centered around Spitsbergen in the early 17th century, and the company's royal charter of 1613 granted a monopoly on whaling in Spitsbergen, based on the (erroneous) claim that Hugh Willoughby had discovered the land in 1553.
Shortly after whaling began (1611), the Danish—Norwegian crown in 1616 claimed ownership of Jan Mayen and the Spitsbergen islands, as all of Svalbard was then known, but in 1613, the English Muscovy Company had done the same.

Boris Godunov

Boris GudonovBoris GodunowBoris Gudunov
This unease between the Muscovy Company and Russia continued to the end of the sixteenth century, under the anti-English dominated courts of Fyodor Ivanovich and Boris Godunov.
Godunov encouraged English merchants to trade with Russia by exempting them from duties.

St. Andrew's Anglican Church, Moscow

St. Andrew's Anglican ChurchSt Andrew's, MoscowSt Andrew, Moscow
It still supports St. Andrew's Anglican Church, Moscow.
It continues the tradition of Anglican worship in Moscow that started in 1553 when Tsar Ivan the Terrible first allowed the English merchants of the Russia Company permission to worship according to their own beliefs.

Hugh Willoughby

Sir Hugh WilloughbyWilloughbyHugh
The Muscovy Company traces its roots to the Company of Merchant Adventurers to New Lands (in full: "Mystery and Company of Merchant Adventurers for the Discovery of Regions, Dominions, Islands, and Places unknown") founded in 1551 by Richard Chancellor, Sebastian Cabot and Sir Hugh Willoughby, who decided to look for the Northeast Passage to China. The primary and most profitable whaling grounds of this joint-stock company came to be centered around Spitsbergen in the early 17th century, and the company's royal charter of 1613 granted a monopoly on whaling in Spitsbergen, based on the (erroneous) claim that Hugh Willoughby had discovered the land in 1553.
Initially called the Company of Merchant Adventurers to New Lands, the trade organization became better known as the Muscovy Company.

Mary I of England

Mary IQueen MaryMary
The Company of Merchant Adventurers to New Lands was rechartered as the Muscovy Company by Mary I of England in 1555, and in the same year Chancellor left for Russia again.
She granted a royal charter to the Muscovy Company, whose first governor was Sebastian Cabot, and commissioned a world atlas from Diogo Homem.

Elizabeth I of England

Elizabeth IQueen Elizabeth IQueen Elizabeth
In 1567, when Muscovy was faring badly in the Livonian War (1558–1583), Czar Ivan IV asked Jenkinson to sound out Queen Elizabeth I of England as a marriage prospect, providing a possible refuge for him if he was forced to flee the country.
English merchant and explorer Anthony Jenkinson, who began his career as a representative of the Muscovy Company, became the queen's special ambassador to the court of Ivan the Terrible.

Alexis of Russia

Tsar AlexisAlexei MikhailovichAlexis I
In 1646, Tsar Alexei I rescinded the exemption of the Muscovy Company from Russian customs, in response to the company's alleged support of the Parliamentarians in the English Civil War.
He also banned all English merchants from his country (notably members of the Muscovy Company) and provided financial assistance to "the disconsolate widow of that glorious martyr, King Charles I."

History of Basque whaling

Basque whalersBasque whalingBasques
The next year, 1612, they dispatched a single ship under the command of Juan de Erauso and piloted by the Englishman Nicholas Woodcock, a former employee of the Muscovy Company of London who had made two prior voyages to Spitsbergen (1610–11).

Trading company

trading companiesmerchant housessales and trading companies
The Muscovy Company (also called the Russian Company or the Muscovy Trading Company Московская компания) was an English trading company chartered in 1555.

Chartered company

chartered companiescharteredcharter companies
It was the first major chartered joint stock company, the precursor of the type of business that would soon flourish in England, and became closely associated with such famous names as Henry Hudson and William Baffin.

Monopoly

monopoliesmonopolisticmonopolist
The Muscovy Company had a monopoly on trade between England and Muscovy until 1698 and it survived as a trading company until the Russian Revolution of 1917.

Grand Duchy of Moscow

MuscovyMuscoviteMuscovite Russia
The Muscovy Company had a monopoly on trade between England and Muscovy until 1698 and it survived as a trading company until the Russian Revolution of 1917.