Music

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Music is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound organized in time.wikipedia
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Musical instrument

instrumentsinstrumentmusical instruments
Music is performed with a vast range of instruments and vocal techniques ranging from singing to rapping; there are solely instrumental pieces, solely vocal pieces (such as songs without instrumental accompaniment) and pieces that combine singing and instruments.
A musical instrument is an instrument created or adapted to make musical sounds.

Dynamics (music)

crescendodynamicsfortissimo
General definitions of music include common elements such as pitch (which governs melody and harmony), rhythm (and its associated concepts tempo, meter, and articulation), dynamics (loudness and softness), and the sonic qualities of timbre and texture (which are sometimes termed the "color" of a musical sound).
In music, the dynamics of a piece is the variation in loudness between notes or phrases.

Culture

culturalculturesculturally
Music is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound organized in time.
Cultural universals are found in all human societies; these include expressive forms like art, music, dance, ritual, religion, and technologies like tool usage, cooking, shelter, and clothing.

Music genre

genremusical genregenres
Different styles or types of music may emphasize, de-emphasize or omit some of these elements. Music can be divided into genres (e.g., country music) and genres can be further divided into subgenres (e.g., country blues and pop country are two of the many country subgenres), although the dividing lines and relationships between music genres are often subtle, sometimes open to personal interpretation, and occasionally controversial.
A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions.

Articulation (music)

articulationarticulationsarticulation marks
General definitions of music include common elements such as pitch (which governs melody and harmony), rhythm (and its associated concepts tempo, meter, and articulation), dynamics (loudness and softness), and the sonic qualities of timbre and texture (which are sometimes termed the "color" of a musical sound).
In music, articulation is the direction or performance technique which affects the transition or continuity on a single note or between multiple notes or sounds.

Rhythm

rhythmicrhythmsrhythmic pattern
General definitions of music include common elements such as pitch (which governs melody and harmony), rhythm (and its associated concepts tempo, meter, and articulation), dynamics (loudness and softness), and the sonic qualities of timbre and texture (which are sometimes termed the "color" of a musical sound).
In the performance arts, rhythm is the timing of events on a human scale; of musical sounds and silences that occur over time, of the steps of a dance, or the meter of spoken language and poetry.

Genre

subgenregenressubgenres
Music can be divided into genres (e.g., country music) and genres can be further divided into subgenres (e.g., country blues and pop country are two of the many country subgenres), although the dividing lines and relationships between music genres are often subtle, sometimes open to personal interpretation, and occasionally controversial.
Genre is most popularly known as a category of literature, music, or other forms of art or entertainment, whether written or spoken, audio or visual, based on some set of stylistic criteria, yet genres can be aesthetic, rhetorical, communicative, or functional.

Performing arts

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Within the arts, music may be classified as a performing art, a fine art or as an auditory art.
Theatre, music, dance and object manipulation, and other kinds of performances are present in all human cultures.

Music industry

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The music industry includes the individuals who create new songs and musical pieces (such as songwriters and composers), individuals who perform music (which include orchestra, jazz band and rock band musicians, singers and conductors), individuals who record music (music producers and sound engineers), individuals who organize concert tours, and individuals who sell recordings, sheet music, and scores to customers.
The music industry consists of the companies and individuals that earn money by creating new songs and pieces and selling live concerts and shows, audio and video recordings, compositions and sheet music, and the organizations and associations that aid and represent music creators.

The arts

artscreative artsart
Within the arts, music may be classified as a performing art, a fine art or as an auditory art.
Major constituents of the arts include literature (including drama, poetry, and prose), performing arts (among them dance, music, and theatre), and visual arts (including drawing, painting, filmmaking, architecture, ceramics, sculpting, and photography).

Musica universalis

music of the spheresharmony of the spherescosmic harmony
Common sayings such as "the harmony of the spheres" and "it is music to my ears" point to the notion that music is often ordered and pleasant to listen to. However, 20th-century composer John Cage thought that any sound can be music, saying, for example, "There is no noise, only sound."
Musica universalis (literally universal music), also called Music of the spheres or Harmony of the Spheres, is an ancient philosophical concept that regards proportions in the movements of celestial bodies—the Sun, Moon, and planets—as a form of musica (the Medieval Latin term for music).

Karaoke

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In many cultures, music is an important part of people's way of life, as it plays a key role in religious rituals, rite of passage ceremonies (e.g., graduation and marriage), social activities (e.g., dancing) and cultural activities ranging from amateur karaoke singing to playing in an amateur funk band or singing in a community choir.
Karaoke ( or カラオケ) is a form of interactive entertainment or video game developed in Japan in which an amateur singer sings along with recorded music (a music video) using a microphone.

Orchestration

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In classical music, the composer typically orchestrates his or her own compositions, but in musical theatre and in pop music, songwriters may hire an arranger to do the orchestration.
Orchestration is the study or practice of writing music for an orchestra (or, more loosely, for any musical ensemble, such as a concert band) or of adapting music composed for another medium for an orchestra.

Musical notation

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In many cultures, including Western classical music, the act of composing also includes the creation of music notation, such as a sheet music "score", which is then performed by the composer or by other singers or musicians.
Music notation or musical notation is any system used to visually represent aurally perceived music played with instruments or sung by the human voice through the use of written, printed, or otherwise-produced symbols.

Choir

choralchoruschoral music
In many cultures, music is an important part of people's way of life, as it plays a key role in religious rituals, rite of passage ceremonies (e.g., graduation and marriage), social activities (e.g., dancing) and cultural activities ranging from amateur karaoke singing to playing in an amateur funk band or singing in a community choir.
Conducting is the art of directing a musical performance, such as a choral concert, by way of visible gestures with the hands, arms, face and head.

Rock concert

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Music may be played or sung and heard live at a rock concert or orchestra performance, heard live as part of a dramatic work (a music theater show or opera), or it may be recorded and listened to on a radio, MP3 player, CD player, smartphone or as film score or TV show.
A rock concert is a musical performance in the style of any one of many genres inspired by "rock and roll" music.

Music theory

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To read music notation, a person must have an understanding of music theory, harmony and the performance practice associated with a particular song or piece's genre.
Music theory is the study of the practices and possibilities of music.

Musical improvisation

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Music ranges from strictly organized compositions–such as Classical music symphonies from the 1700s and 1800s, through to spontaneously played improvisational music such as jazz, and avant-garde styles of chance-based contemporary music from the 20th and 21st centuries.
Sometimes musical ideas in improvisation are spontaneous, but may be based on chord changes in classical music and many other kinds of music.

Aleatoric music

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Music that makes heavy use of randomness and chance is called aleatoric music, and is associated with contemporary composers active in the 20th century, such as John Cage, Morton Feldman, and Witold Lutosławski.
Aleatoric music (also aleatory music or chance music; from the Latin word alea, meaning "dice") is music in which some element of the composition is left to chance, and/or some primary element of a composed work's realization is left to the determination of its performer(s).

Cadenza

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In the Classical era, solo performers and singers improvised virtuoso cadenzas during concerts.
In music, a cadenza (from cadenza, meaning cadence; plural, cadenze ) is, generically, an improvised or written-out ornamental passage played or sung by a soloist or soloists, usually in a "free" rhythmic style, and often allowing virtuosic display.

Elements of music

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In a grand sense, music theory distills and analyzes the parameters or elements of music – rhythm, harmony (harmonic function), melody, structure, form, and texture.
Music can be analysed by considering a variety of its elements, or parts (aspects, characteristics, features), individually or together.

Chord (music)

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We also talk about pitch in the precise sense associated with musical melodies, basslines and chords.
A chord, in music, is any harmonic set of pitches consisting of two or more (usually three or more) notes (also called "pitches") that are heard as if sounding simultaneously.

Musical phrasing

phrasingreinterpretationmusical phrases
Different performers' interpretations of the same work of music can vary widely, in terms of the tempos that are chosen and the playing or singing style or phrasing of the melodies.
Musical phrasing is the way a musician shapes a sequence of notes in a passage of music to allow expression, much like when speaking English a phrase may be written identically but may be spoken differently, and is named for the interpretation of small units of time known as phrases (half of a period).

Whole tone scale

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On the other hand, Bebop-era jazz from the 1940s and contemporary music from the 20th and 21st centuries may use melodies with many chromatic notes (i.e., notes in addition to the notes of the major scale; on a piano, a chromatic scale would include all the notes on the keyboard, including the "white notes" and "black notes" and unusual scales, such as the whole tone scale (a whole tone scale in the key of C would contain the notes C, D, E, F, G and A). A low, deep musical line played by bass instruments such as double bass, electric bass or tuba is called a bassline.
In music, a whole tone scale is a scale in which each note is separated from its neighbours by the interval of a whole tone.

Bassline

bassbass linewalking bass
We also talk about pitch in the precise sense associated with musical melodies, basslines and chords. On the other hand, Bebop-era jazz from the 1940s and contemporary music from the 20th and 21st centuries may use melodies with many chromatic notes (i.e., notes in addition to the notes of the major scale; on a piano, a chromatic scale would include all the notes on the keyboard, including the "white notes" and "black notes" and unusual scales, such as the whole tone scale (a whole tone scale in the key of C would contain the notes C, D, E, F, G and A). A low, deep musical line played by bass instruments such as double bass, electric bass or tuba is called a bassline.
A bassline (also known as a bass line or bass part) is the term used in many styles of music, such as jazz, blues, funk, dub and electronic, traditional music, or classical music for the low-pitched instrumental part or line played (in jazz and some forms of popular music) by a rhythm section instrument such as the electric bass, double bass, cello, tuba or keyboard (piano, Hammond organ, electric organ, or synthesizer).