Music

Allegory of Music, by François Boucher, 1764
In Greek mythology, the nine Muses were the inspiration for many creative endeavors, including the arts, and eventually became closely aligned with music specifically
Musicians of Amun, Tomb of Nakht, 18th Dynasty, Western Thebes
Indian women dressed in regional attire playing a variety of musical instruments popular in different parts of India
Indonesia is the home of gong chime, there are many variants across Indonesia, especially in Java and Bali.
Musical notation from a Catholic Missal, c. 1310–1320
Allegory of Music, by Filippino Lippi (c. 1650)
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (seated at the keyboard) was a child prodigy virtuoso performer on the piano and violin. Even before he became a celebrated composer, he was widely known as a gifted performer and improviser.
The piano was the centrepiece of social activity for middle-class urbanites in the 19th century (Moritz von Schwind, 1868). The man at the piano is composer Franz Schubert.
Khatia Buniatishvili playing a grand piano
People composing music in 2013 using electronic keyboards and computers.
French Baroque music composer Michel Richard Delalande (1657–1726), pen in hand.
Sheet music is a written representation of music. Homorhythmic (i.e., hymn-style) arrangement of the traditional "Adeste Fideles" in standard two-staff format for mixed voices.Adeste Fideles sheet music sample.mid
Improvisation plays a central role in jazz; musicians learn progressions using scale and chord tones (Pictured is Johnny Hodges)
The melody to the traditional song "Pop Goes the Weasel" Pop Goes the Weasel.ogg
When musicians play three or more different notes at the same time, this creates a chord. In Western music, including classical music, pop music, rock music, and many related styles, the most common chords are triads– three notes usually played at the same time. The most commonly used chords are the major chord and the minor chord. An example of a major chord is the three pitches C, E and G. An example of a minor chord is the three pitches A, C, and E. (Pictured is a guitar player performing a chord on a guitar).
Singers add expression to the melodies they sing using many methods, including changing the tone of their singing, adding vibrato to certain notes, and emphasizing important words in the lyrics.
Sheet music notation for the chorus (refrain) of the Christmas song "Jingle Bells" Jingle Bells refrain vector.mid
Funk places most of its emphasis on rhythm and groove, with entire songs based on a vamp on a single chord. Pictured are the influential funk musicians George Clinton and Parliament-Funkadelic in 2006.
Chinese Naxi musicians
Assyrians playing zurna and Davul, instruments that go back thousands of years.
Trill sign—a rapid alternation between two notes. Trill example ornaments.mid
The Woman in Red by Giovanni Boldini
The primary auditory cortex is one of the main areas associated with superior pitch resolution.
Song Dynasty (960–1279) painting, Night Revels of Han Xizai, showing Chinese musicians entertaining guests at a party in a 10th-century household
19th-century composer and pianist Clara Schumann
Navneet Aditya Waiba- Nepali Folk Singer. The only singer using authentic/original folk instruments and singing authentic unadulterated Nepali Folk songs.
Music production in the 2000s using a digital audio workstation (DAW) with an electronic keyboard and a multi-monitor set-up
Music store selling various singles and albums
A Suzuki violin recital with students of varying ages
Manhattan School of Music professor and professional double bass player Timothy Cobb teaching a bass lesson in the late 2000s. His bass has a low C extension with a metal "machine" with buttons for playing the pitches on the extension.
Ethnomusicologist Frances Densmore recording Blackfoot chief Mountain Chief for the Bureau of American Ethnology (1916)
A music therapist from a "Blues in the Schools" program plays harmonica with a US Navy sailor at a Naval Therapy Center.

Art of arranging sound.

- Music
Allegory of Music, by François Boucher, 1764

101 related topics

Alpha

Guitarist performing a C chord with G bass

Chord (music)

Guitarist performing a C chord with G bass

A chord, in music, is any harmonic set of pitches/frequencies consisting of multiple notes (also called "pitches") that are heard as if sounding simultaneously.

Music historian Jack Stewart lectures at a conference

Musicology

Music historian Jack Stewart lectures at a conference
Rosetta Reitz (1924–2008) was an American jazz historian who established a record label producing 18 albums of the music of the early women of jazz and the blues.

Musicology (from Greek μουσική mousikē 'music' and -λογια -logia, 'domain of study') is the scholarly analysis and research-based study of music.

Jubal, Pythagoras and Philolaus engaged in theoretical investigations, in a woodcut from Franchinus Gaffurius, Theorica musicæ (1492)

Music theory

Jubal, Pythagoras and Philolaus engaged in theoretical investigations, in a woodcut from Franchinus Gaffurius, Theorica musicæ (1492)
Middle C (261.626 Hz)[[File:Middle C.mid]]
A pattern of whole and half steps in the Ionian mode or major scale on C[[File:Ionian mode C.mid]]
Metric levels: beat level shown in middle with division levels above and multiple levels below
"Pop Goes the Weasel" melody[[File:Pop Goes the Weasel.ogg]]
C major triad represented in staff notation.
 in just intonation
 in Equal temperament
 in 1/4-comma meantone
 in Young temperament
 in Pythagorean tuning
Barbershop quartets, such as this US Navy group, sing 4-part pieces, made up of a melody line (normally the second-highest voice, called the "lead") and 3 harmony parts.
Spectrogram of the first second of an E9 chord played on a Fender Stratocaster guitar with noiseless pickups. Below is the E9 chord audio:
[[File:9577 Guitarz1970 Clean E9 Guitar Chord (Mike Tribulas).ogg]]
Illustration of hairpins in musical notation
Examples of articulation marks. From left to right: staccato, staccatissimo, martellato, accent, tenuto.
Introduction to Sousa's "Washington Post March," mm. 1–7 features octave doubling and a homorhythmic texture[[File:Sousa - "Washington Post March," m. 1-7.mid]]
A musical canon. Encyclopaedia Britannica calls a "canon" both a compositional technique and a musical form.
A violinist performing
Tibetan musical score from the 19th century
Typically a given work is analyzed by more than one person and different or divergent analyses are created. For instance, the first two bars of the prelude to Claude Debussy's Pelléas et Melisande
are analyzed differently by Leibowitz, Laloy, van Appledorn, and Christ. Leibowitz analyses this succession harmonically as D minor:I–VII–V, ignoring melodic motion, Laloy analyses the succession as D:I–V, seeing the G in the second measure as an ornament, and both van Appledorn and Christ analyses the succession as D:I–VII.
A Classical piano trio is a group that plays chamber music, including sonatas. The term "piano trio" also refers to works composed for such a group.
The first 16 harmonics, their names and frequencies, showing the exponential nature of the octave and the simple fractional nature of non-octave harmonics
Tone row from Alban Berg's Lyric Suite, movement I[[File:Berg's Lyric Suite Mov. I tone row B-P.mid]]
Semiotician Roman Jakobson
Columbia University music theorist Pat Carpenter in an undated photo

Music theory is the study of the practices and possibilities of music.

Bach 3-part Invention BWV 795, bars 7–9

Counterpoint

Bach 3-part Invention BWV 795, bars 7–9
Beethoven Piano Sonata Op. 90, first movement bars 110–113
Beethoven, Symphony No. 9, finale, bars 116–123
Wagner Meistersinger Vorspiel bars 158–161
Mozart Symphony No. 41 Finale, bars 389–396
Example of "third species" counterpoint
Gradus ad Parnassum (1725) by Johann Joseph Fux defines the modern system of teaching counterpoint
Example of a double passing tone in which the two middle notes are a dissonant interval from the cantus firmus, a fourth and a diminished fifth
Example of a descending double neighbor figure against a cantus firmus
Example of an ascending double neighbor figure (with an interesting tritone leap at the end) against a cantus firmus

In music, counterpoint is the relationship between two or more musical lines (or voices) which are harmonically interdependent yet independent in rhythm and melodic contour.

James Brown, a pioneer of funk, in 1973

Funk

For other uses, see Funk (disambiguation).

For other uses, see Funk (disambiguation).

James Brown, a pioneer of funk, in 1973
The rhythm section of a funk band—the electric bass, drums, electric guitar and keyboards--is the heartbeat of the funk sound. Pictured here is the Meters.
Simple kick and snare funk motif. The kick first sounds two onbeats, which are then answered by two offbeats. The snare sounds the backbeat.
A thirteenth chord (E 13, which also contains a flat 7th and a 9th)
Bootsy Collins performing in 1996 with a star-shaped bass
The drum groove from "Cissy Strut"
Guitarist Nile Rodgers is best known for his performances with Chic.
Isaac Hayes playing keyboards in 1973
Singer Charlie Wilson
Funk horn sections typically include saxophones and trumpets. Larger horn sections often add a second instrument for one of the saxes or trumpets, and a trombone or bari sax may also be used. Pictured is the Earth, Wind and Fire horn section.
James Brown, a progenitor of funk music
George Clinton and Parliament Funkadelic in 2006
The Original Family Stone live, 2006. Jerry Martini, Rose Stone, and Cynthia Robinson
Prince was an influential multi-instrumentalist, bandleader, singer and songwriter.
Me'shell Ndegeocello playing electric bass
Talking Heads combined funk with elements of art rock.
Dr. Dre (pictured in 2011) was one of the influential creators of G-funk.
Chaka Khan (born 1953) has been called the "Queen of Funk".
Janelle Monáe (born 1985) is part of a new wave of female funk artists.

Funk metal (sometimes typeset differently such as funk-metal) is a fusion genre of music which emerged in the 1980s, as part of the alternative metal movement.

Sumer is Icumen in

Ostinato

Sumer is Icumen in
Dufay Resvelons nous
William Byrd, The Bells
Monteverdi Laetatus sum (1650) Ground bass
Purcell, Dido's Lament ground bass
Dido's opening aria "Ah! Belinda"
Purcell Fantasia in 3 parts to a ground
Ground bass of Pachelbel's Canon
Bach C minor Passacaglia ground bass
Bach C minor Passacaglia Variation 1
Bach C minor Passacaglia Variation 2
Bach C minor Passacaglia with ostinato in treble
Beethoven Op 131 Trio from Scherzo, bars 69–76
Beethoven Op 131 Trio from Scherzo, bars 93–100
Wagner, Parsifal Act 1, transformation music
Brahms Variations on a Theme by Haydn, final section with ground bass
Debussy, Des pas sur la neige
Ghanaian gyil
Ghanaian gyil cross-rhythmic ostinato
Cuban guajeo written in cut-time
Vamp riff typical of funk and R&B

In music, an ostinato (derived from Italian word for 'stubborn', compare English 'obstinate') is a motif or phrase that persistently repeats in the same musical voice, frequently in the same pitch.

Percussion instruments have clearly defined sounds that aid the creation and perception of complex rhythms.

Rhythm

Rhythm (from Greek ῥυθμός, rhythmos, "any regular recurring motion, symmetry") generally means a "movement marked by the regulated succession of strong and weak elements, or of opposite or different conditions".

Rhythm (from Greek ῥυθμός, rhythmos, "any regular recurring motion, symmetry") generally means a "movement marked by the regulated succession of strong and weak elements, or of opposite or different conditions".

Percussion instruments have clearly defined sounds that aid the creation and perception of complex rhythms.
A simple [quadr]duple drum pattern, which lays a foundation of duration common in popular music. Simple duple drum pattern.mid
Compound triple drum pattern: divides three beats into three; contains repetition on three levels Compound triple drum pattern.mid
Metric levels: beat level shown in middle with division levels above and multiple levels below.
Rhythmic units: division level shown above and rhythmic units shown below Rhythmic units.mid
Notation of a clave rhythm pattern: Each cell of the grid corresponds to a fixed duration of time with a resolution fine enough to capture the timing of the pattern, which may be counted as two bars of four beats in divisive (metrical or symmetrical) rhythm, each beat divided into two cells. The first bar of the pattern may also usefully be counted additively (in measured or asymmetrical rhythm) as.
An early moving picture demonstrates the waltz, a dance in triple metre.
Notation of three measures of a clave pattern preceded by one measure of steady quarter notes. This pattern is noted in double time relative to the one above, in one instead of two four-beat measures.Clave pattern.ogg
Bach's Sinfonia in F minor BWV 795, mm. 1–3 Bach, Sinfonia in F minor BWV 795, mm. 1-3a.mid Bach, Sinfonia in F minor BWV 795, mm. 1-3a composite rhythm.mid
A Griot performs at Diffa, Niger, West Africa. The Griot is playing a Ngoni or Xalam.

In the performance arts, rhythm is the timing of events on a human scale; of musical sounds and silences that occur over time, of the steps of a dance, or the meter of spoken language and poetry.

Scherzo in A flat by the Russian Romantic era composer Alexander Borodin (1833–1887)

Musical improvisation

Creative activity of immediate ("in the moment") musical composition, which combines performance with communication of emotions and instrumental technique as well as spontaneous response to other musicians.

Creative activity of immediate ("in the moment") musical composition, which combines performance with communication of emotions and instrumental technique as well as spontaneous response to other musicians.

Scherzo in A flat by the Russian Romantic era composer Alexander Borodin (1833–1887)

Sometimes musical ideas in improvisation are spontaneous, but may be based on chord changes in classical music and many other kinds of music.

The 19th century singer Jenny Lind depicted performing La sonnambula

Popular music

The 19th century singer Jenny Lind depicted performing La sonnambula
Senegalese rapper Didier Awadi
Noah, one of Indonesia's popular bands
Iranian rock band Kiosk, live in 2007

Popular music is music with wide appeal that is typically distributed to large audiences through the music industry.

European output of books before the advent of copyright, 6th century to 18th century. Blue shows printed books. Log-lin plot; a straight line therefore shows an exponential increase.

Copyright

Type of intellectual property that gives its owner the exclusive right to copy, distribute, adapt, display, and perform a creative work, usually for a limited time.

Type of intellectual property that gives its owner the exclusive right to copy, distribute, adapt, display, and perform a creative work, usually for a limited time.

European output of books before the advent of copyright, 6th century to 18th century. Blue shows printed books. Log-lin plot; a straight line therefore shows an exponential increase.
The Statute of Anne (the Copyright Act 1709) came into force in 1710.
The Pirate Publisher—An International Burlesque that has the Longest Run on Record, from Puck, 1886, satirizes the then-existing situation where a publisher could profit by simply copying newly published works from one country, and publishing them in another, and vice versa.
A copyright symbol used in copyright notice
A copyright symbol embossed on a piece of paper.
Expansion of US copyright law (currently based on the date of creation or publication)
DVD: All rights reserved

Specifics vary by jurisdiction, but these can include poems, theses, fictional characters, plays and other literary works, motion pictures, choreography, musical compositions, sound recordings, paintings, drawings, sculptures, photographs, computer software, radio and television broadcasts, and industrial designs.