Musical composition

compositionmusic compositioncomposingcomposedcompositionscomposerpiecemusiccomposemusical piece
Musical composition, music composition, or simply composition, can refer to an original piece or work of music, either vocal or instrumental, the structure of a musical piece, or to the process of creating or writing a new piece of music.wikipedia
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Songwriter

songwritingwrittenwriter
Composers of primarily songs are usually called songwriters; with songs, the person who writes lyrics for a song is the lyricist.
A songwriter is a professional that composes musical compositions and writes lyrics for songs.

Composer

music composercomposedmusic
People who create new compositions are called composers.
Although a musical composition often has a single author, this is not always the case.

Melody

melodicmelodieslead
In popular music and traditional music, songwriting may involve the creation of a basic outline of the song, called the lead sheet, which sets out the melody, lyrics and chord progression.
Melodies often consist of one or more musical phrases or motifs, and are usually repeated throughout a composition in various forms.

Musical form

formformsformal
Musical composition, music composition, or simply composition, can refer to an original piece or work of music, either vocal or instrumental, the structure of a musical piece, or to the process of creating or writing a new piece of music.
The next level concerns the entire structure of any single self-contained musical piece.

Classical music

classicalWestern classical musicEuropean classical music
In many cultures, including Western classical music, the act of composing typically includes the creation of music notation, such as a sheet music "score," which is then performed by the composer or by other instrumental musicians or singers.
This invention made possible the separation of the composition of a piece of music from its transmission; without written music, transmission was oral, and subject to change every time it was transmitted.

Orchestra

symphony orchestraorchestralchamber orchestra
In classical music, orchestration (choosing the instruments of a large music ensemble such as an orchestra which will play the different parts of music, such as the melody, accompaniment, countermelody, bassline and so on) is typically done by the composer, but in musical theatre and in pop music, songwriters may hire an arranger to do the orchestration.
This brought about a revolution in orchestral composition, and set the style for orchestral performance for the next eighty years.

Concerto

concerticoncertosconcertante
If music is composed before being performed, music can be performed from memory (the norm for instrumental soloists in concerto performances and singers in opera shows and art song recitals), by reading written musical notation (the norm in large ensembles, such as orchestras, concert bands and choirs), or through a combination of both methods.
A concerto (plural concertos, or concerti from the Italian plural) is a musical composition generally composed of three movements, in which, either one solo instrument (for instance, a piano, violin, cello or flute), or a group of soloists (concertino) is accompanied by an orchestra or concert band.

Art song

art songssongart-song
If music is composed before being performed, music can be performed from memory (the norm for instrumental soloists in concerto performances and singers in opera shows and art song recitals), by reading written musical notation (the norm in large ensembles, such as orchestras, concert bands and choirs), or through a combination of both methods.
An art song is a vocal music composition, usually written for one voice with piano accompaniment, and usually in the classical art music tradition.

Karlheinz Stockhausen

StockhausenStockhausen, KarlheinzControversy
Examples range from 20th century avant-garde music that uses graphic notation, to text compositions such as Karlheinz Stockhausen's Aus den sieben Tagen, to computer programs that select sounds for musical pieces.
He had training in harmony and counterpoint, the latter with Hermann Schroeder, but he did not develop a real interest in composition until 1950.

Elements of music

parameterselementsaspect of music
Although in the 2000s, composition is considered to consist of the manipulation of each aspect of music (harmony, melody, form, rhythm, and timbre), according to Jean-Benjamin de :
A parameter is any element that can be manipulated (composed) separately from other elements or focused on separately in an educational context.

Music

audiomusicalPop
Musical composition, music composition, or simply composition, can refer to an original piece or work of music, either vocal or instrumental, the structure of a musical piece, or to the process of creating or writing a new piece of music.
In addition to its focus on fundamental perceptions and cognitive processes, music psychology is a field of research with practical relevance for many areas, including music performance, composition, education, criticism, and therapy, as well as investigations of human aptitude, skill, intelligence, creativity, and social behavior.

Harmony

harmoniesharmonicharmony vocal
Although in the 2000s, composition is considered to consist of the manipulation of each aspect of music (harmony, melody, form, rhythm, and timbre), according to Jean-Benjamin de :
Some traditions of Western music performance, composition, and theory have specific rules of harmony.

Scale (music)

scalescalesmusical scale
Some pieces are composed around a set scale, where the compositional technique might be considered the usage of a particular scale.
Often, especially in the context of the common practice period, most or all of the melody and harmony of a musical work is built using the notes of a single scale, which can be conveniently represented on a staff with a standard key signature.

Folk music

folkfolk songtraditional
Another important influence in composition is its link with folk music, both indigenous and also from musical culture of Arabia, Persia, and Bengal.
In folk music, a tune is a short instrumental piece, a melody, often with repeating sections, and usually played a number of times.

Arabic music

ArabicArab musicArab
Another important influence in composition is its link with folk music, both indigenous and also from musical culture of Arabia, Persia, and Bengal.
Both compositions and improvisations in traditional Arabic music are based on the maqam system.

Arabic maqam

maqammaqamatmaqams
Similarly, music of the Middle East employs compositions that are rigidly based on a specific mode (maqam) often within improvisational contexts, as does Indian classical music in both the Hindustani and the Carnatic system.
Both compositions and improvisations in traditional Arabic music are based on the maqam system.

Arrangement

arrangerarrangedarrangements
In classical music, orchestration (choosing the instruments of a large music ensemble such as an orchestra which will play the different parts of music, such as the melody, accompaniment, countermelody, bassline and so on) is typically done by the composer, but in musical theatre and in pop music, songwriters may hire an arranger to do the orchestration.
In music, an arrangement is a musical reconceptualization of a previously composed work.

Taqsim

taksimTaqasimimprovisational contexts
Similarly, music of the Middle East employs compositions that are rigidly based on a specific mode (maqam) often within improvisational contexts, as does Indian classical music in both the Hindustani and the Carnatic system.
Taqsim (تَقْسِيم / ALA-LC: taqsīm; ταξίμι, taksim) is a melodic musical improvisation that usually precedes the performance of a traditional Arabic, Greek, Middle Eastern, or Turkish musical composition.

Musique concrète

Groupe de Recherches Musicalesmusique concreteconcrete music
Alternatively, as is the case with musique concrète, the composer can work with many sounds often not associated with the creation of music, such as typewriters, sirens, and so forth.
Musique concrète is a type of music composition that utilizes recorded sounds as raw material.

Solo (music)

solosoloistsolos
The composer may also choose to write for only one instrument, in which case this is called a solo.
In music, a solo (from the solo, meaning alone) is a piece or a section of a piece played or sung featuring a single performer, who may be performing completely alone or supported by an accompanying instrument such as a piano or organ, a continuo group (in Baroque music), or the rest of a choir, orchestra, band, or other ensemble.

Sound recording and reproduction

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In jazz and popular music, notable sound recordings by influential performers are given the weight that written or printed scores play in classical music.
Since 1934, copyright law in Great Britain has treated sound recordings (or phonograms) differently from musical works.

Persian traditional music

Persian musicPersian classical musicPersian
Another important influence in composition is its link with folk music, both indigenous and also from musical culture of Arabia, Persia, and Bengal.
Iran's classical art music relies on both improvisation and composition, and is based on a series of modal scales and tunes.

Developing variation

continuous variationevolutionary
In music composition, developing variation is a formal technique in which the concepts of development and variation are united in that variations are produced through the development of existing material.

Copyright Act of 1831

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Even though the first US copyright laws did not include musical compositions, they were added as part of the Copyright Act of 1831.

Royalty payment

royaltiesroyaltyroyalty payments
Contract law, not copyright law, governs these composer–publisher contracts, which ordinarily involve an agreement on how profits from the publisher's activities related to the work will be shared with the composer in the form of royalties.
A musical composition obtains copyright protection as soon as it is written out or recorded.