Musical keyboard

keyboardkeyboardskeyspiano keyboardkeyboardistkeyboard musicclaviermanualkeyboard instrumentsadditional keys
A musical keyboard is the set of adjacent depressible levers or keys on a musical instrument.wikipedia
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Piano

grand pianopianistacoustic piano
Depressing a key on the keyboard makes the instrument produce sounds—either by mechanically striking a string or tine (acoustic and electric piano, clavichord), plucking a string (harpsichord), causing air to flow through a pipe organ, striking a bell (carillon), or, on electric and electronic keyboards, completing a circuit (Hammond organ, digital piano, synthesizer). Since the most commonly encountered keyboard instrument is the piano, the keyboard layout is often referred to as the piano keyboard. Over the last three hundred years, the octave span distance found on historical keyboard instruments (organs, virginals, clavichords, harpsichords, and pianos) has ranged from as little as 125 mm to as much as 170 mm.
It is played using a keyboard, which is a row of keys (small levers) that the performer presses down or strikes with the fingers and thumbs of both hands to cause the hammers to strike the strings.

Electric piano

electricelectric harpsichordkeyboards
Depressing a key on the keyboard makes the instrument produce sounds—either by mechanically striking a string or tine (acoustic and electric piano, clavichord), plucking a string (harpsichord), causing air to flow through a pipe organ, striking a bell (carillon), or, on electric and electronic keyboards, completing a circuit (Hammond organ, digital piano, synthesizer).
An electric piano is an electric musical instrument which produces sounds when a performer presses the keys of the piano-style musical keyboard.

Harpsichord

cembaloharpsichordsclavecin
Depressing a key on the keyboard makes the instrument produce sounds—either by mechanically striking a string or tine (acoustic and electric piano, clavichord), plucking a string (harpsichord), causing air to flow through a pipe organ, striking a bell (carillon), or, on electric and electronic keyboards, completing a circuit (Hammond organ, digital piano, synthesizer). Over the last three hundred years, the octave span distance found on historical keyboard instruments (organs, virginals, clavichords, harpsichords, and pianos) has ranged from as little as 125 mm to as much as 170 mm.
A harpsichord (clavicembalo, clavecin, Cembalo, clavecín, cravo) is a musical instrument played by means of a keyboard.

Pipe organ

organorganistpipe organs
Depressing a key on the keyboard makes the instrument produce sounds—either by mechanically striking a string or tine (acoustic and electric piano, clavichord), plucking a string (harpsichord), causing air to flow through a pipe organ, striking a bell (carillon), or, on electric and electronic keyboards, completing a circuit (Hammond organ, digital piano, synthesizer).
The pipe organ is a musical instrument that produces sound by driving pressurized air (called wind) through the organ pipes selected from a keyboard.

Carillon

carillonneurcarillonselectronic carillon
Depressing a key on the keyboard makes the instrument produce sounds—either by mechanically striking a string or tine (acoustic and electric piano, clavichord), plucking a string (harpsichord), causing air to flow through a pipe organ, striking a bell (carillon), or, on electric and electronic keyboards, completing a circuit (Hammond organ, digital piano, synthesizer).
A traditional manual carillon is played by striking a keyboard – the stick-like keys of which are called batons – with the fists, and by pressing the keys of a pedal keyboard with the feet.

Synthesizer

synthesizerssynthsynths
Depressing a key on the keyboard makes the instrument produce sounds—either by mechanically striking a string or tine (acoustic and electric piano, clavichord), plucking a string (harpsichord), causing air to flow through a pipe organ, striking a bell (carillon), or, on electric and electronic keyboards, completing a circuit (Hammond organ, digital piano, synthesizer).
They are often played with a musical keyboard, but they can be controlled via a variety of other devices, including music sequencers, instrument controllers, fingerboards, guitar synthesizers, wind controllers, and electronic drums.

Keyboard instrument

keyboardskeyboardkeys
Since the most commonly encountered keyboard instrument is the piano, the keyboard layout is often referred to as the piano keyboard.
A keyboard instrument is a musical instrument played using a keyboard, a row of levers which are pressed by the fingers.

Digital piano

digital pianosweighted keysdigital
Depressing a key on the keyboard makes the instrument produce sounds—either by mechanically striking a string or tine (acoustic and electric piano, clavichord), plucking a string (harpsichord), causing air to flow through a pipe organ, striking a bell (carillon), or, on electric and electronic keyboards, completing a circuit (Hammond organ, digital piano, synthesizer).
Just like a traditional acoustic piano, the defining feature of a digital piano is a musical keyboard with 88 keys.

Manual (music)

manualmanualsmanual keyboards
Such keyboards accommodate melody and contrasting accompaniment without the expense of a second manual, and were a regular feature in Spanish and some English organs of the renaissance and baroque eras.
A manual is a musical keyboard designed to be played with the hands, on an instrument such as a pipe organ, harpsichord, clavichord, electronic organ, melodica, or synthesizer.

Electronic keyboard

keyboardskeyboardelectronic keyboards
Depressing a key on the keyboard makes the instrument produce sounds—either by mechanically striking a string or tine (acoustic and electric piano, clavichord), plucking a string (harpsichord), causing air to flow through a pipe organ, striking a bell (carillon), or, on electric and electronic keyboards, completing a circuit (Hammond organ, digital piano, synthesizer).

Bösendorfer

BosendorferLudwig BösendorferBösendorfer piano
Some modern pianos have even more notes (a Bösendorfer 290 "Imperial" has 97 keys and a Stuart & Sons model has 108 keys ).
Bösendorfer is unusual in that it produces 97 and 92-key models in addition to instruments with standard 88-key keyboards, and in its use of three strings-per-hammer model of construction.

Pedal keyboard

pedalboardpedalpedals
An organ pedalboard is a keyboard with long pedals played by the organist's feet.
A pedalboard (also called a pedal keyboard, pedal clavier, or, with electronic instruments, a bass pedalboard ) is a keyboard played with the feet that is usually used to produce the low-pitched bass line of a piece of music.

Enharmonic keyboard

enharmonic instrumentsEnharmonium
One portion of the G key operated a string tuned to G and the other operated a string tuned to A, similarly one portion of the E key operated a string tuned to E, the other portion operating a string tuned to D. This type of keyboard layout, known as the enharmonic keyboard, extended the flexibility of the harpsichord, enabling composers to write keyboard music calling for harmonies containing the so-called wolf fifth (G-sharp to E-flat), but without producing aural discomfort in the listeners (see: Split sharp).
An enharmonic keyboard is a musical keyboard, where enharmonically equivalent notes do not have identical pitches.

Virginals

virginalmuselarOttavino
Over the last three hundred years, the octave span distance found on historical keyboard instruments (organs, virginals, clavichords, harpsichords, and pianos) has ranged from as little as 125 mm to as much as 170 mm.
Like the harpsichord, the virginals has its origins in the medieval psaltery to which a keyboard was applied, probably in the 15th century.

Jankó keyboard

JankoJankóJankó piano keyboard
Other examples of variations in keyboard design include the Jankó keyboard and the chromatic keyboard systems on the chromatic button accordion and bandoneón.
The Jankó keyboard is a musical keyboard layout for a piano designed by Paul von Jankó, a Hungarian pianist and engineer, in 1882.

Keyboard matrix circuit

keyboard matrixdigital keyboard scanningmatrix
Most keyboards use a keyboard matrix circuit, in which eight rows and eight columns of wires cross — thus, 16 wires can provide (8x8=) 64 crossings, which the keyboard controller scans to determine which key was pressed.
A keyboard matrix circuit is a design used in most electronic musical keyboards and computer keyboards in which the key switches are connected by a grid of wires, similar to a diode matrix.

Musical instrument

instrumentsmusical instrumentsinstrument
A musical keyboard is the set of adjacent depressible levers or keys on a musical instrument.
Keyboard instruments are any instruments that are played with a musical keyboard.

Clavichord

clavichordsclavicordclav
Depressing a key on the keyboard makes the instrument produce sounds—either by mechanically striking a string or tine (acoustic and electric piano, clavichord), plucking a string (harpsichord), causing air to flow through a pipe organ, striking a bell (carillon), or, on electric and electronic keyboards, completing a circuit (Hammond organ, digital piano, synthesizer). Over the last three hundred years, the octave span distance found on historical keyboard instruments (organs, virginals, clavichords, harpsichords, and pianos) has ranged from as little as 125 mm to as much as 170 mm.

Split sharp

split keyblack split keyssplit
One portion of the G key operated a string tuned to G and the other operated a string tuned to A, similarly one portion of the E key operated a string tuned to E, the other portion operating a string tuned to D. This type of keyboard layout, known as the enharmonic keyboard, extended the flexibility of the harpsichord, enabling composers to write keyboard music calling for harmonies containing the so-called wolf fifth (G-sharp to E-flat), but without producing aural discomfort in the listeners (see: Split sharp).
The particular keys that were split were those that play the sharps and flats on the standard musical keyboard (the "black keys" on a modern piano).

Short octave

broken octave
The emphasis on these eight notes would continue for a few centuries after the "seven and five" system was adopted, in the form of the short octave: the eight aforementioned notes were arranged at the leftmost side of the keyboard, compressed in the keys between E and C (at the time, accidentals that low were very uncommon and thus not needed).
In one variant of the short octave system, the lowest note on the keyboard was nominally E, but the pitch to which it was tuned was actually C. Nominal F was tuned to D, and nominal G was tuned to E.

Accordion

accordionistaccordionsbutton accordion
Some free-reed instrument keyboards such as accordions and Indian harmoniums include microtones.
The instrument is played by compressing or expanding the bellows while pressing buttons or keys, causing pallets to open, which allow air to flow across strips of brass or steel, called reeds.

Isomorphic keyboard

Isomorphic keyboardsisomorphicIsomorphic note-layouts
An isomorphic keyboard is a musical input device consisting of a two-dimensional grid of note-controlling elements (such as buttons or keys) on which any given sequence and/or combination of musical intervals has the "same shape" on the keyboard wherever it occurs – within a key, across keys, across octaves, and across tunings.

Keytar

keyboard guitarkeytarsclavitar
The instrument has a musical keyboard for triggering musical notes and sounds.

Printing telegraph

telegraphic printing systems
For example, some of the earliest printing telegraph machines used a layout similar to a piano keyboard.
The device was made by linking two 28-key piano-style keyboards by wire.

Scale (music)

scalescalesmusical scale
Keyboards typically contain keys for playing the twelve notes of the Western musical scale, with a combination of larger, longer keys and smaller, shorter keys that repeats at the interval of an octave.