Musical notation

music notationnotationnotatednotatewritten musicstandard notationmusical directionread musicstaff notationbar
Music notation or musical notation is any system used to visually represent aurally perceived music played with instruments or sung by the human voice through the use of written, printed, or otherwise-produced symbols.wikipedia
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Sheet music

scoremusical scorescores
Even in the same time period, such as in the 2010s, different styles of music and different cultures use different music notation methods; for example, for professional classical music performers, sheet music using staves and noteheads is the most common way of notating music, but for professional country music session musicians, the Nashville Number System is the main method.
Sheet music is a handwritten or printed form of musical notation that uses musical symbols to indicate the pitches (melodies), rhythms or chords of a song or instrumental musical piece.

Classical music

classicalWestern classical musicEuropean classical music
Even in the same time period, such as in the 2010s, different styles of music and different cultures use different music notation methods; for example, for professional classical music performers, sheet music using staves and noteheads is the most common way of notating music, but for professional country music session musicians, the Nashville Number System is the main method.
European art music is largely distinguished from many other non-European classical and some popular musical forms by its system of staff notation, in use since about the 11th century.

Music engraving

music engraverengraveddigitally typeset
1980s) or other printing or modern copying technology.
Music engraving is the art of drawing music notation at high quality for the purpose of mechanical reproduction.

Music

audiomusicalPop
Music notation or musical notation is any system used to visually represent aurally perceived music played with instruments or sung by the human voice through the use of written, printed, or otherwise-produced symbols.
In many cultures, including Western classical music, the act of composing also includes the creation of music notation, such as a sheet music "score", which is then performed by the composer or by other singers or musicians.

Medieval music

medievalMiddle Agesmusic
The seeds of what would eventually become modern western notation were sown in medieval Europe, starting with the Catholic Church's goal for ecclesiastical uniformity.
During the Medieval period the foundation was laid for the music notation and music theory practices that would shape Western music into the norms that developed during the common-practice era, a period of shared music writing practices which encompassed the Baroque music composers from 1600–1750, such as J.S. Bach and Classical music period composers from the 1700s such as W.A. Mozart and Romantic music era composers from the 1800s such as Wagner.

Music technology (mechanical)

Mechanical music technologymusical instrument technologiestechnologically developed
In the classical period (1750–1820) and the Romantic music era (1820–1900), notation continued to develop as new musical instrument technologies were developed.
Mechanical music technology is the use of any device, mechanism, machine or tool by a musician or composer to make or perform music; to compose, notate, play back or record songs or pieces; or to analyze or edit music.

Graphic notation (music)

graphic notationgraphic scoresgraphic score
In the contemporary classical music of the 20th and 21st century, music notation has continued to develop, with the introduction of graphical notation by some modern composers and the use, since the 1980s, of computer-based score writer programs for notating music.
Graphic notation (or graphic score) is the representation of music through the use of visual symbols outside the realm of traditional music notation.

Popular music

popularpoppopular song
Music notation has been adapted to many kinds of music, including classical music, popular music, and traditional music.
Art music was historically disseminated through the performances of written music, although since the beginning of the recording industry, it is also disseminated through recordings.

Scorewriter

music notation programmusic notation softwaremusic notation
In the contemporary classical music of the 20th and 21st century, music notation has continued to develop, with the introduction of graphical notation by some modern composers and the use, since the 1980s, of computer-based score writer programs for notating music.
A scorewriter is to music notation what a word processor is to text, in that they both allow fast corrections (undo), flexible editing, easy sharing of electronic documents, and clean, uniform layout.

Seikilos epitaph

Epitaph of SeikilosSkolion of Seikilos
An example of a complete composition is the Seikilos epitaph, which has been variously dated between the 2nd century BC to the 2nd century AD.
The song, the melody of which is recorded, alongside its lyrics, in the ancient Greek musical notation, was found engraved on a tombstone (a stele) from the Hellenistic town Tralles near present-day Aydın, Turkey, not far from Ephesus.

Music of ancient Greece

ancient Greek musicAncient Greekmusic
Ancient Greek musical notation was in use from at least the 6th century BC until approximately the 4th century AD; several complete compositions and fragments of compositions using this notation survive.
There are significant fragments of actual Greek musical notation as well as many literary references to ancient Greek music, such that some things can be known—or reasonably surmised—about what the music sounded like, the general role of music in society, the economics of music, the importance of a professional caste of musicians, etc. Even archaeological remains reveal an abundance of depictions on ceramics, for example, of music being performed.

Folk music

folkfolk songtraditional
Music notation has been adapted to many kinds of music, including classical music, popular music, and traditional music.
In many societies, especially preliterate ones, the cultural transmission of folk music requires learning by ear, although notation has evolved in some cultures.

Contemporary classical music

contemporary musiccontemporary classicalcontemporary
In the contemporary classical music of the 20th and 21st century, music notation has continued to develop, with the introduction of graphical notation by some modern composers and the use, since the 1980s, of computer-based score writer programs for notating music.
Some of these composers (Cage, Cowell, Glass, Reich) represented a new methodology of experimental music, which began to question fundamental notions of music such as notation, performance, duration, and repetition, while others (Babbitt, Rochberg, Sessions) fashioned their own extensions of the twelve-tone serialism of Schoenberg.

Delphic Hymns

First Delphic HymnSecond Delphic HymnDelphic Hymn
The Delphic Hymns, dated to the 2nd century BC, also use this notation, but they are not completely preserved.
Both Delphic Hymns were addressed to Apollo, and were found inscribed on stone fragments from the south outer wall of the Athenian Treasury at Delphi in 1893 by French archaeologist Théophile Homolle, while Henri Weil restored the Greek text and Théodore Reinach transcribed the music to modern notation.

Gregorian chant

GregorianGregorian chantschant
By the middle of the 9th century, however, a form of neumatic notation began to develop in monasteries in Europe as a mnemonic device for Gregorian chant, using symbols known as neumes; the earliest surviving musical notation of this type is in the Musica disciplina of Aurelian of Réôme, from about 850.
Gregorian melodies are traditionally written using neumes, an early form of musical notation from which the modern four-line and five-line staff developed.

Guido of Arezzo

Guido d'ArezzoGuido MonacoGuido d' Arezzo
The founder of what is now considered the standard music staff was Guido d'Arezzo, an Italian Benedictine monk who lived from about 991 until after 1033.
He is regarded as the inventor of modern musical notation (staff notation) that replaced neumatic notation.

Plainsong

plainchantplain chantplain song
The church began notating plainchant melodies so that the same chants could be used throughout the church.
Plainchant represents the first revival of musical notation after knowledge of the ancient Greek system was lost.

Note value

durationsvaluevalues
The duration (note length) is shown with different note values, which can be indicated by the notehead being a stemless hollow oval (a whole note or semibreve), a hollow rectangle or stemless hollow oval with one or two vertical lines on either side (double whole note or breve), a stemmed hollow oval (a half note or minim), or solid oval using stems to indicate quarter notes (crotchets) and stems with added flags or beams to indicate smaller subdivisions, and additional symbols such as dots and ties which lengthen the duration of a note.
In music notation, a note value indicates the relative duration of a note, using the texture or shape of the notehead, the presence or absence of a stem, and the presence or absence of flags/beams/hooks/tails.

Manuscript paper

staff papermusic manuscript paperscore
The symbols used include ancient symbols and modern symbols made upon any media such as symbols cut into stone, made in clay tablets, made using a pen on papyrus or parchment or manuscript paper; printed using a printing press (c.
Manuscript paper (sometimes staff paper in U.S. English, or just music paper) is paper preprinted with staffs ready for musical notation.

Dotted note

dotteddotted rhythmdot
The duration (note length) is shown with different note values, which can be indicated by the notehead being a stemless hollow oval (a whole note or semibreve), a hollow rectangle or stemless hollow oval with one or two vertical lines on either side (double whole note or breve), a stemmed hollow oval (a half note or minim), or solid oval using stems to indicate quarter notes (crotchets) and stems with added flags or beams to indicate smaller subdivisions, and additional symbols such as dots and ties which lengthen the duration of a note.
In Western musical notation, a dotted note is a note with a small dot written after it.

Clef

treble clefbass cleftreble
A staff (or stave, in British English) of written music generally begins with a clef, which indicates the position of one particular note on the staff.
A clef (from archaic French clef "key") is a musical symbol used to indicate the pitch of written notes.

Franco of Cologne

FranconianFRANCO, MAGISTER (of Cologne)Franconian notation
This was a flaw seen by German music theorist Franco of Cologne and summarised as part of his treatise Ars cantus mensurabilis (the art of measured chant, or mensural notation).
He was one of the most influential theorists of the late Medieval era, and was the first to propose an idea which was to transform musical notation permanently: that the duration of any note should be determined by its appearance on the page, and not from context alone.

Tie (music)

tietiestied
The duration (note length) is shown with different note values, which can be indicated by the notehead being a stemless hollow oval (a whole note or semibreve), a hollow rectangle or stemless hollow oval with one or two vertical lines on either side (double whole note or breve), a stemmed hollow oval (a half note or minim), or solid oval using stems to indicate quarter notes (crotchets) and stems with added flags or beams to indicate smaller subdivisions, and additional symbols such as dots and ties which lengthen the duration of a note.
In music notation, a tie is a curved line connecting the heads of two notes of the same pitch, indicating that they are to be played as a single note with a duration equal to the sum of the individual notes' values.

Key signature

keykey signatureskeys
Following the clef, the key signature on a staff indicates the key of the piece or song by specifying that certain notes are flat or sharp throughout the piece, unless otherwise indicated with accidentals added before certain notes.
In musical notation, a key signature is a set of sharp, flat, and rarely, natural symbols placed together on the staff.

Renaissance music

RenaissancemusicRenaissance composer
Music notation developed further in the Renaissance and Baroque music eras.
According to Margaret Bent: "Renaissance notation is under-prescriptive by our [modern] standards; when translated into modern form it acquires a prescriptive weight that overspecifies and distorts its original openness".