Muslim conquest of Persia

Islamic conquest of PersiaArab conquest of IranArab invasion of IranArab conquest of PersiaIslamic conquest of IranMuslim conquestMuslim conquest of IranArabsIslamic conquestPersia
The Muslim conquest of Persia, also known as the Arab conquest of Iran, led to the fall of the Sasanian Empire of Iran (Persia) in 651 and the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion.wikipedia
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Mesopotamia

MesopotamianMesopotamiansAncient Iraq
Arab Muslims first attacked the Sassanid territory in 633, when general Khalid ibn Walid invaded Mesopotamia (Sassanid province of Asōristān; what is now Iraq), which was the political and economic center of the Sassanid state.
The division of Mesopotamia between Roman (Byzantine from AD 395) and Sassanid Empires lasted until the 7th century Muslim conquest of Persia of the Sasanian Empire and Muslim conquest of the Levant from Byzantines.

Islamization of Iran

IslamizedConversion to Islamdeclined
Conversion to Islam was gradual and incentivized over period of centuries with some never converting still to this day; however, there were cases of Zoroastrian scriptures being burnt and some priests being executed, particularly in areas that experienced violent resistance.
The Islamization of Iran occurred as a result of the Muslim conquest of Persia.

Umar

Umar ibn al-KhattabCaliph OmarUmar ibn al-Khattāb
Caliph Umar ordered a full invasion of the Sasanian empire in 642, which led to the complete conquest of the Sasanians around 651.
His attacks against the Sasanian Empire resulted in the conquest of Persia in less than two years (642–644).

Iran

PersiaIslamic Republic of IranIranian
The Muslim conquest of Persia, also known as the Arab conquest of Iran, led to the fall of the Sasanian Empire of Iran (Persia) in 651 and the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion. When Western academics first investigated the Muslim conquest of Persia, they relied solely on the accounts of the Armenian Christian bishop Sebeos, and accounts in Arabic written some time after the events they describe.
Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, and the subsequent Islamization of Iran led to the decline of the once dominant Zoroastrian religion.

Sasanian Empire

SassanidSasanianSassanid Empire
Once a major world power, the Sasanian Empire had exhausted its human and material resources after decades of warfare against the Byzantine Empire.
The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important, and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the Islamization of Iran.

Persian language

PersianNew PersianFarsi
However, the Persians began to reassert themselves by maintaining Persian language and culture.
New Persian literature began to flourish after the Arab conquest of Iran with its earliest records from the 9th century, since then adopting the Arabic script.

Fall of the Sasanian Empire

Fall of Sassanidsfall of the Sassanid Empire empire's ultimate conquerors
The Muslim conquest of Persia, also known as the Arab conquest of Iran, led to the fall of the Sasanian Empire of Iran (Persia) in 651 and the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion.
Although it fought many campaigns against the Romans/Byzantines in the west and the nomadic people in the east and north, the Sasanian Empire met its demise not by the Byzantine-Roman Empire, but by emerging Arab Muslims from across its southern borders.

Asoristan

AssuristanAsōristānAsuristan
Arab Muslims first attacked the Sassanid territory in 633, when general Khalid ibn Walid invaded Mesopotamia (Sassanid province of Asōristān; what is now Iraq), which was the political and economic center of the Sassanid state.
Between 633-8, the region was invaded by the Arabs during the Muslim conquest of Persia; together with Meshan, it became the province of al-ʿIrāq.

Khosrow II

Khosrau IIChosroes IIKhosrow Parviz
The internal political situation quickly deteriorated after the execution of King Khosrow II in 628 AD. The Persian ruler Khosrau II (Parviz) defeated a dangerous rebellion within his own empire, the Bahram Chobin's rebellion.
Khosrow II was the last king of Iran to have a lengthy reign before the Muslim conquest of Iran, which began five years after his execution.

Culture of Iran

Iranian culturePersianPersian culture
However, the Persians began to reassert themselves by maintaining Persian language and culture.
Very few literary works of Pre-Islamic Iran have survived, due partly to the destruction of the libraries of Persepolis by Alexander of Macedon during the era of the Achaemenids and subsequent invasion of Iran by the Arabs in 641, who sought to eradicate all non-Quranic texts.

Middle Ages

medievalmediaevalmedieval Europe
Islam would become the dominant religion late in the Middle Ages.
632). After his death, Islamic forces conquered much of the Eastern Empire and Persia, starting with Syria in 634–635 and reaching Egypt in 640–641, Persia between 637 and 642, North Africa in the later seventh century, and the Iberian Peninsula in 711.

Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628

Byzantine–Sassanid War of 602–628Byzantine-Sassanid War of 602–628Byzantine–Sasanian War
Once a major world power, the Sasanian Empire had exhausted its human and material resources after decades of warfare against the Byzantine Empire.
The Muslim forces swiftly conquered the entire Sasanian Empire and deprived the Byzantine Empire of its territories in the Levant, the Caucasus, Egypt, and North Africa.

Iraq

Republic of IraqIraqiIrak
Arab Muslims first attacked the Sassanid territory in 633, when general Khalid ibn Walid invaded Mesopotamia (Sassanid province of Asōristān; what is now Iraq), which was the political and economic center of the Sassanid state.
The region was thus a province of the Sassanid Empire for over four centuries, and became the frontier and battle ground between the Sassanid Empire and Byzantine Empire, with both empires weakening each other, paving the way for the Arab-Muslim conquest of Persia in the mid-7th century.

Battle of Hira

conquered Hirafell to KhalidSiege of Hira
It is now widely believed that the annexation of the Lakhmid kingdom was one of the main factors behind the Fall of the Sasanian empire and the subsequent Islamic conquest of Persia, as the Lakhmids agreed to act as spies for the Muslims after being defeated in the Battle of Hira by Khalid ibn al-Walid.
It was one of the early battles of the Muslim conquest of Persia.

Yazdegerd III

Yazdgerd IIIYazdegard IIIEmperor Yazdegerd III
Pourshariati argues that the Arab conquest of Mesopotamia "took place, not, as has been conventionally believed, in the years 632–634, after the accession of the last Sasanian king Yazdgerd III (632–651) to power, but in the period from 628 to 632."
Yazdegerd was unable to contain the Arab invasion of Iran, and spent most of reign fleeing from one province to another, in hopes of raising an army to repel the Arabs, which ultimately proved unsuccessful, with Yazdegerd meeting his end at hands of a miller near Marw in 651, thus marking an end to the last pre-Islamic Iranian empire after more than 400 years of rule.

Abu Bakr

Abu Bakr as-SiddiqSayyadna '''Abu Bakr SiddiqAbu Bakr Siddique
Muhammad, who was, according to Islam, the Prophet Muhammad, died in June 632, and Abu Bakr took the title of Caliph and political successor at Medina.
He also commanded the initial incursions into the neighbouring Sassanian and Byzantine empires, which in the years following his death, would eventually result in the Muslim conquests of Persia and the Levant.

Armenians

ArmenianArmenian peopleArmenian descent
When Western academics first investigated the Muslim conquest of Persia, they relied solely on the accounts of the Armenian Christian bishop Sebeos, and accounts in Arabic written some time after the events they describe.
Armenia lost its sovereignty again in 428 CE to the rivaling Byzantine and Sassanid Persian empires, until the Muslim conquest of Persia overran also the regions in which Armenians lived.

Bahram Chobin

Bahrām ChobinBahrām ChōbinBahram VI
The Persian ruler Khosrau II (Parviz) defeated a dangerous rebellion within his own empire, the Bahram Chobin's rebellion.
Bahram Chobin left a legacy even after Arab conquest of Iran among Iranian nationalists, as well as in the Persian literature.

Rashidun Caliphate

RashidunRashidun caliphRashidun Caliphs
The Zagros mountains, a natural barrier, marked the border between the Rashidun Caliphate and the Sassanid Empire.
Abu Bakr was succeeded by Umar, his appointed successor from the Banu Adi clan, who continued the conquest of Persia, eventually leading to the fall of the Sassanid Empire in 651.

Arabs

ArabArab peopleArabian
An important consequence of this change in timeline means that the Arab conquest started precisely when the Sassanians and Parthians were engaged in internecine warfare over succession to the Sassanian throne.
The Arab presence in Iran did not begin with the Arab conquest of Persia in 633 CE.

Persians

PersianIranianPersian people
However, the Persians began to reassert themselves by maintaining Persian language and culture.
Following the Arab conquest of the Sasanian Empire in the medieval times, the Arab caliphates established their rule over the region for the next several centuries, during which the long process of the Islamization of Iran took place.

Ctesiphon

Seleucia-CtesiphonSelucia-CtesiphonAl-Madain
These devastating defeats ended Persian control over Mesopotamia, and left the Persian capital Ctesiphon vulnerable.
Ctesiphon remained the capital of the Sasanian Empire until the Muslim conquest of Persia in 651 AD.

Tabaristan

TapuriaTabarestanTapuri
By 651, most of the urban centers in Iranian lands, with the notable exception of the Caspian provinces (Tabaristan) and Transoxiana, had come under the domination of the Arab armies.
Tabaristan was one of the last parts of Persia to fall to the Muslim Conquest, maintaining resistance until 761 (cf.

Lakhmids

LakhmidLakhmLakhmid Arabs
It is now widely believed that the annexation of the Lakhmid kingdom was one of the main factors behind the Fall of the Sasanian empire and the subsequent Islamic conquest of Persia, as the Lakhmids agreed to act as spies for the Muslims after being defeated in the Battle of Hira by Khalid ibn al-Walid. The Byzantine clients were the Ghassanids; the Persian clients were the Lakhmids.
It is now widely believed that the annexation of the Lakhmid kingdom was one of the main factors behind the fall of the Sasanian Empire and the Muslim conquest of Persia as the Sassanians were defeated in the Battle of Hira by Khalid ibn al-Walid.

Transoxiana

TransoxaniaMawarannahrTransoxiania
By 651, most of the urban centers in Iranian lands, with the notable exception of the Caspian provinces (Tabaristan) and Transoxiana, had come under the domination of the Arab armies.
Many Persian nobles and landlords escaped to this region after the Muslim invasion.