Muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent

Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinentMuslim conquests on the Indian subcontinentMuslim conquest of the Indian subcontinentMuslim invasionsIndian subcontinentIslamic conquest of IndiaIslamic conquestsIslamic invasionsMuslim conquest of IndiaIndia
Muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent mainly took place from the 12th to the 16th centuries, though earlier Muslim conquests include the invasions into modern Afghanistan and Pakistan and the Umayyad campaigns in India, during the time of the Rajput kingdoms in the 8th century.wikipedia
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Pakistan

Islamic Republic of PakistanPAKPakistani
Muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent mainly took place from the 12th to the 16th centuries, though earlier Muslim conquests include the invasions into modern Afghanistan and Pakistan and the Umayyad campaigns in India, during the time of the Rajput kingdoms in the 8th century.
The ancient history involves the Neolithic site of Mehrgarh and the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilisation, and was later home to kingdoms ruled by people of different faiths and cultures, including Hindus, Indo-Greeks, Muslims, Turco-Mongols, Afghans and Sikhs.

Vijayanagara Empire

Vijayanagar EmpireVijayanagarVijayanagara
Some of these were however followed by Hindu re-conquests and resistance from the native powers, and states such as the Vijayanagaras, Gajapatis, Cheros, Reddys and Rajput states.
The empire rose to prominence as a culmination of attempts by the southern powers to ward off Islamic invasions by the end of the 13th century.

Bengal

Bengal regionBengal, IndiaBengali
In 1206, Bakhtiyar Khalji, whose invasion caused the disappearance of Buddhism from East India, led the Muslim conquest of Bengal, marking the eastern-most expansion of Islam at the time. Islam in South Asia existed in communities along the Arab coastal trade routes in Sindh, Bengal, Gujarat, Kerala, and Ceylon as soon as the religion originated and had gained early acceptance in the Arabian Peninsula, though the first incursion by the new Muslim successor states of the Arab World occurred around 636 CE or 643 AD, during the Rashidun Caliphate, long before any Arab army reached the frontier of India by land.
Muslim conquests of the Indian subcontinent absorbed Bengal in 1204.

Spread of Islam

Muslim conquestsIslamic conquestMuslim conquest
Muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent mainly took place from the 12th to the 16th centuries, though earlier Muslim conquests include the invasions into modern Afghanistan and Pakistan and the Umayyad campaigns in India, during the time of the Rajput kingdoms in the 8th century.
It was, however, the subsequent expansion of the Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent over the next millennia that established Islam in the region.

Islam in South Asia

South AsiaSouth Asian MuslimsIslam
Islam in South Asia existed in communities along the Arab coastal trade routes in Sindh, Bengal, Gujarat, Kerala, and Ceylon as soon as the religion originated and had gained early acceptance in the Arabian Peninsula, though the first incursion by the new Muslim successor states of the Arab World occurred around 636 CE or 643 AD, during the Rashidun Caliphate, long before any Arab army reached the frontier of India by land.
Islam arrived in North India in the 12th century via the Turkic invasions and has since become a part of India's religious and cultural heritage.

Debal

Daybul
Uthman b. Abul As Al Sakifi, governor of Bahrain and Oman, sent out ships to raid Thane, near modern-day Mumbai, while his brother Hakam sailed to Broach and a third fleet sailed to Debal under his younger brother Mughira either in 636 CE or 643 AD.
In Arabic history books, most notably in the early eighth century accounts of the arrival of Islam in the Indian subcontinent, it was documented as Daybul (Dīwal ~ Dībal ديبل).

Punjab, Pakistan

PunjabPunjab ProvincePunjab (Pakistan)
Al-Muhallab ibn Abi Sufra took a detachment through the Khyber pass towards Multan in Southern Punjab in modern-day Pakistan in 664 AD, then pushed south into Kikan, and may have also raided Quandabil.
The Umayyad empire conquered Punjab in the 8th century CE.

Prithviraj Chauhan

Prithviraja IIIPrithvi Raj ChauhanPrithviraj III
In 1191, he invaded the territory of Prithviraj III of Ajmer, who ruled his territory from Delhi to Ajmer in present-day Rajasthan, but was defeated at the First Battle of Tarain.
His defeat at Tarain is seen as a landmark event in the Islamic conquest of India, and has been described in several semi-legendary accounts.

Umayyad campaigns in India

Caliphate campaigns in IndiaUmayyad CaliphateArab campaigns
Muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent mainly took place from the 12th to the 16th centuries, though earlier Muslim conquests include the invasions into modern Afghanistan and Pakistan and the Umayyad campaigns in India, during the time of the Rajput kingdoms in the 8th century.

Mahmud of Ghazni

MahmudSultan Mahmud GhaznaviMahmud of Ghaznavid
....Mahmud of Ghazni, the first ruler to hold the title Sultan, who preserved an ideological link to the suzerainty of the Abbasid Caliphate, invaded and plundered vast parts of Punjab, Gujarat, starting from the Indus River, during the 10th century.
* Muslim conquests on the Indian subcontinent

Battle of Rasil

Arabs led by Suhail b. Abdi and Hakam al Taghilbi defeated an Indian army in the Battle of Rasil in 644 AD at the Indian Ocean sea coast, then reached the Indus River.

Caste system among South Asian Muslims

Caste system among Muslimscastecaste system
Hindus who converted to Islam however were not completely immune to persecution due to the caste system among Muslims in India established by Ziauddin al-Barani in the Fatawa-i Jahandari, where they were regarded as an "Ajlaf" caste and subjected to discrimination by the "Ashraf" castes.
The Muslims who came to the subcontinent during the 12th century Muslim conquests on the Indian subcontinent were already divided into social classes such as priests, nobles and others.

Ladakh

LaddakhLadakhiLadakh Division
The northernmost Indian territories of Gilgit, Baltistan and Ladakh was annexed between 1831-1840.
Faced with the Muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent in the 13th century, Ladakh chose to seek and accept guidance in religious matters from Tibet.

Afghan (ethnonym)

AfghanAfghansAfghan people
Babur then turned to the tasks of persuading his Central Asian followers to stay on in India and of overcoming other contenders for power, like the Rajputs and the Afghans.
A 16th-century Muslim historian writing about the history of Muslim rule in India states:""He [Khalid bin Abdullah son of Khalid bin Walid] retired, therefore, with his family, and a number of Arab retainers, into the Sulaiman Mountains, situated between Multan and Peshawar, where he took up his residence, and gave his daughter in marriage to one of the Afghan chiefs, who had become a proselyte to Mahomedism.

Medieval India

medievallate medievalMiddle Ages
The term of Deccan Sultanates was used for five Muslim dynasties that ruled several late medieval Indian kingdoms, namely Bijapur Sultanate, Golkonda Sultanate, Ahmadnagar Sultanate, Bidar Sultanate, and Berar Sultanate in South India.
Following the Muslim conquests of the Indian subcontinent and the decline of Buddhism were seen to be taken place, eventually founding the Delhi Sultanate and creating the Indo-Islamic architecture, followed by the world's major trading nation Bengal Sultanate.

Slavery

slaveslavesenslaved
During the mass murder of Delhi, Timur's soldiers massacred more than 150,000 Indians, and all inhabitants not killed were captured and enslaved.
Slavery in India intensified during the Muslim domination of northern India after the 11th-century, however, Muslim rulers did not introduce slavery to the subcontinent.

Islamic rule in India

Islamic empires in IndiaMuslim dynastiesIslamic conquest of India
Islamic rule in India or sometimes referred as Muslim rule in India mainly began in the course of the gradual Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent starting from the end of the 12th century, lasting till the 19th century's dominion of the British Raj, although some of the aspects of the Islamic rule existed until the division of British India in 1947.

Persecution of Hindus

Persecution of Hindus in Bangladeshpersecutiondrive out the million Hindus
Muslim conquest of the Indian subcontinent began during the early 8th century AD.

List of Pashtun empires and dynasties

during the late 13th centuryinvading Pashtun tribes
As a result of migration and military conquests in South Asia, a large number of communities throughout the region claim Pashtun ancestry, especially in areas which were previously ruled by Pashtun dynasties.

Battle of Peshawar (1001)

Battle of Peshawarattacked GhazniPeshawar
In 1001, Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni defeated Raja Jayapala of the Hindu Shahi Dynasty of Gandhara (in modern Afghanistan), in the Battle of Peshawar and marched further west of Peshawar (in modern Pakistan) and, in 1005, made it the center for his forces.

Pashtuns

PashtunPakhtunsPathan
Ahmed Shah Abdali – a Pashtun – embarked on a conquest in South Asia starting in 1747.
Some Indians claim descent from Pashtun soldiers who settled in India by marrying local women during the Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent.

Hindu temple

MandirHindu templestemple
In his paper, he has listed 37 instances of Hindu temples being desecrated or destroyed in India during the Delhi Sultanate, from 1234 to 1518, for which reasonable evidences are available.
In the 12th-16th century, during Muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent and South Asia, Hindu temples, along with the temples of Buddhists and Jains, intermittently became targets of armies from Persian, Central Asian, and Indian sultanates.

Turkic peoples

TurkicTurksTurkish
The ruling families of all these five sultanates were of diverse origin; the Qutb Shahi dynasty of Golconda Sultanate was of Turkmen origin, the Barid Shahi dynasty of Bidar Sultanate being founded by a Turkic noble, the Adil Shahi dynasty of Bijapur Sultanate was founded by a Georgian-Oghuz Turkic slave while Nizam Shahi dynasty of Ahmadnagar Sultanate and Imad Shahi dynasty of Berar Sultanate were of Hindu lineage (Ahmadnagar being Brahmin and Berar being Kanarese ).
Turkic Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent and west Xinjiang attributed with a rapid and almost total disappearance of it and other religions in North India and Central Asia.

Persecution of Buddhists

anti-BuddhistAnti-BuddhismAnti-Buddhist sentiment
Various personages involved in the revival of Buddhism in India such as Anagarika Dharmapala and The Mahabodhi Movement of the 1890s as well as jurist B. R. Ambedkar hold the Muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent responsible for the decay of Buddhism in India.

Lalitaditya Muktapida

Lalitaditya of KashmirLalitādityaMuktapida
The Martand Sun Temple was built by the third ruler of the Karkota Dynasty, Lalitaditya Muktapida, in the 8th century CE.