Muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent

Early Arab conquest of what is now Pakistan by Muhammad bin Qasim for Umayyad caliphate rule c. 711 CE.
Map of the Ghurid dynasty at its greatest extent in the early 13th century under Ghiyath al-Din Muhammad.
Delhi Sultanate reached its zenith under the Turko-Indian Tughlaq dynasty.
Bakhtiyar Khilji's massacre of Buddhist monks in Bihar, India. Khilji destroyed the Nalanda and Vikramshila universities during his raids across North Indian plains, massacring many Buddhist and Brahmin scholars.
Timur defeats the Sultan of Delhi, Nasir-u Din Mehmud, in the winter of 1397–1398
Map of five Deccan Sultanates before Battle of Talikota.
Victory of Deccan Sultanates in Battle of Talikota.
Mughal Empire in Early 18th century
Babur and the Mughal Army at the Urvah valley in Gwalior.
The Mughal Empire in 1700
Ahmad Shah Durrani and his coalition defeated the Maratha Empire, during the Third Battle of Panipat and restored the Mughal emperor Shah Alam II.
Maratha Empire (yellow area) at its zenith in 1760, stretching from the Deccan to present-day Pakistan
Sikh Empire, established by Ranjit Singh in North-west India
Ruins of the Martand Sun Temple. The temple was destroyed on the orders of Muslim Sultan Sikandar Butshikan in the early 15th century, with demolition lasting a year.
Cheraman Juma Masjid in Kerala
Copper Inscription by one of the Baise (22) King of Doti, Raika Mandhata Shahi on Saka Era, 1612 AD
Ruins of Nalanda University
Sri Krishna Temple in Hampi
The Mughal Emperor Akbar shoots the Rajput warrior Jaimal during the Siege of Chittorgarh in 1567.
Bullocks dragging siege-guns up hill during Mughal Emperor Akbar's attack on Ranthambhor Fort in 1568.
The Mughal Army commanded by Akbar attack members of the Sannyasa during the Battle of Thanesar.
Mughal Emperor Akbar attempts to dissuade the young Hindu girl from committing sati<ref>Young Hindu Girl Before the Mughal Emperor Akbar, in The Walters Art Museum.</ref>
The Mughal Emperor Akbar fights Pehlwani with his Hindu general Raja Man Singh I of Jaipur.
Rajput women committing Jauhar during Akbar's invasion.
A War elephant executing the opponents of the Emperor Akbar.
The Somnath Temple in Gujarat was repeatedly destroyed by Islamic armies and rebuilt by Hindus. It was destroyed by Delhi Sultanate's army in 1299 CE.<ref>{{cite magazine |last=Eaton |first=Richard M. |date=5 January 2001 |title=Temple desecration and Indo-Muslim states: Part II |magazine=Frontline |volume=17 |issue=26 |via=Columbia University |url=http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00islamlinks/txt_eaton_temples2.pdf#page=4 |page=73  |postscript=none}}, item 16 of the table.</ref> The present temple was reconstructed in Chaulukya style of Hindu temple architecture and completed in May 1951.<ref>{{cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=wVr_f_gXOX4C&pg=PA148|title=Hindu culture during and after Muslim rule: survival and subsequent challenges|author=Gopal, Ram|publisher=M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd.|year=1994|isbn=81-85880-26-3|page=148}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=sICSb-UMiQYC&pg=PA84|title=The Hindu nationalist movement and Indian politics: 1925 to the 1990s|last=Jaffrelot |first=Christophe|publisher=C. Hurst & Co. Publishers|year=1996|isbn=1-85065-170-1|page=84}}</ref>
The Kashi Vishwanath Temple was repeatedly destroyed by Islamic invaders such as Qutb al-Din Aibak.
The armies of Delhi Sultanate led by Muslim Commander Malik Kafur plundered the Meenakshi Temple and looted it of its valuables.
Kakatiya Kala Thoranam (Warangal Gate) built by the Kakatiya dynasty in ruins; one of the many temple complexes destroyed by the Delhi Sultanate.
Rani ki vav is a stepwell, built by the Chaulukya dynasty, located in Patan; the city was sacked by Sultan of Delhi Qutb-ud-din Aybak between 1200 and 1210, and it was destroyed by the Allauddin Khilji in 1298.
Artistic rendition of the Kirtistambh at Rudra Mahalaya Temple. The temple was destroyed by Alauddin Khalji.
Exterior wall reliefs at Hoysaleswara Temple. The temple was twice sacked and plundered by the Delhi Sultanate.

The Muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent mainly took place from the 13th to 17th centuries.

- Muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent

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Muhammad Bakhtiyar Khalji

Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khalji and his fellow warrior Subahdar Awlia Khan leading troops in the slaughter of Buddhist monks. Early 20th century illustration.
The ruins of Nalanda.
Bengal coinage of Bakhtiyar Khalji (1204-1206 CE). Struck in the name of Mu'izz al-Din Muhammad, dated Samvat 1262 (1204 CE). Obverse: Horseman with Nagari legend around: samvat 1262 bhadrapada "August, year 1262". Reverse: Nagari legend: srima ha/ mira mahama /da saamah "Lord Emir Mohammed [ibn] Sam".
Another type of Bengal coinage of Muhammad Bakhtiyar Khalji as Governor (1204-1206 CE). Obverse: horseman galloping, holding lance with Devanagari legend around (śrimat mahamada samah "Lord Mohammed [ibn] Sam"). Reverse: name and titles of Mu'izz al-Din Muhammad bin Sam in Arabic. Struck AD 1204-1205. This is his earliest coinage in Bengal, using both Sanskrit and Arabic legends.
Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khalji founded the Khalji dynasty of Bengal.

Ikhtiyār al-Dīn Muḥammad Bakhtiyār Khaljī, (, ইখতিয়ারউদ্দীন মুহম্মদ বখতিয়ার খলজী) also known as Bakhtiyar Khalji, was a Turko-Afghan military general of the Ghurid dynasty, who led the Muslim conquests of the eastern Indian regions of Bengal and Bihar and established himself as their ruler.

Hindus

Hindus are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.

Massive celebration of Durga Puja in India
Hindus at Har Ki Pauri, Haridwar near river Ganges in Uttarakhand state of India.
A Hindu wedding ritual in India
A young Nepali Hindu devotee during a traditional prayer ceremony at Kathmandu's Durbar Square.
Hinduism by country, worldmap (estimate 2010).

Competing theories state that Hindu identity developed in the British colonial era, or that it may have developed post-8th century CE after the Muslim invasions and medieval Hindu–Muslim wars.

Vijayanagara Empire

Based in the Deccan Plateau region in South India.

Extent of Vijayanagara Empire, 1446, 1520 CE
Panorama of the Battle of Talikota (1565). In the right panel, Husain Shah (riding a horse) orders the decapitation of Ramaraya (reigned 1542-65), the defeated ruler of Vijaianagara. Ta'rif-i Husain Shahi (Chronicle of Husain Shah).
Kannada inscription of King Krishnadeva Raya, dated 1509, at the Virupaksha temple in Hampi, describing his coronation and the construction of the large open mantapa
Medieval City of Vijayanagara, a reconstructed ancient market place and plantation at the royal center Hampi
Gajashaala or elephant's stable, built by the Vijayanagar rulers for their war elephants
Horizontal friezes in relief on the outer wall enclosure of Hazara Rama temple, depicting life in the empire
Nāga, snake worship in Hampi
Painted ceiling from the Virupaksha temple depicting Hindu mythology, 14th century
Virupaksha Temple, Hampi
Ugra Narasimha monolith at Hampi
Ornate pillars, Virupaksha temple Hampi
Wall panel relief in Hazare Rama Temple at Hampi
Poetic inscription in Kannada by Vijayanagara poet Manjaraja (c.1398)
Temple car at the Vittala temple in Hampi
Aerial view of the Meenakshi Temple, Madurai. The temple was rebuilt by the Nayaks rulers under the Vijayanagar Empire

The empire rose to prominence as a culmination of attempts by the southern powers to ward off Islamic invasions by the end of the 13th century.

Delhi Sultanate

Islamic empire based in Delhi that stretched over large parts of South Asia for 320 years .

Map of the Delhi Sultanate at its zenith under the Turko–Indian Tughlaq dynasty.
Delhi Sultanate from 1206 to 1290 AD under the Mamluk dynasty.
Alai Gate and Qutub Minar were built during the Mamluk and Khalji dynasties of the Delhi Sultanate.
Delhi Sultanate from 1321 to 1330 AD under the Tughlaq dynasty. After 1330, various regions rebelled against the Sultanate and the kingdom shrank.
Daulatabad Fort in the 1700s
A base metal coin of Muhammad bin Tughlaq that led to an economic collapse.
The Mahmud Gawan Madrasah built by the resultant Bahmanid kingdom
Delhi Sultanate during Babur's invasion.
The Qutb Minar (left, begun c. 1200) next to the Alai Darwaza gatehouse (1311); Qutb Complex in Delhi
Tomb of Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq (d. 1325), Delhi
Screen of the Adhai Din Ka Jhonpra mosque, Ajmer, {{circa|1229}}; Corbel arches, some cusped.
Mausoleum of Iltutmish, Delhi, by 1236, with corbel arches
Possibly the first "true" arches in India; Tomb of Balban (d. 1287) in Delhi
Pavilions in the Hauz Khas Complex, Delhi
The Sheesh Gumbad in the Lodi Gardens, Delhi
Tomb of Sikander Lodi in the Lodi Gardens, Delhi
The Somnath Temple in Gujarat was repeatedly destroyed by Muslim armies and rebuilt by Hindus. It was destroyed by Delhi Sultanate's army in 1299 CE.<ref name=eaton200080>Eaton (2000), Temple desecration in pre-modern India Frontline, p. 73, item 16 of the Table, Archived by Columbia University</ref>
The Kashi Vishwanath Temple was destroyed by the army of Qutb-ud-din Aibak.<ref name="SPUday2005">{{cite book |author=S. P. Udayakumar |title=Presenting the Past: Anxious History and Ancient Future in Hindutva India |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=XjkEERJrRdwC&pg=PA99 |date=1 January 2005 |publisher=Greenwood Publishing Group |isbn=978-0-275-97209-7 |pages=99 }}</ref>
Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji, the military general of Delhi Sultan Qutb al-Din Aibak, was responsible for the destruction of Nalanda university.<ref>History of Ancient India: Earliest Times to 1000 A. D.; Radhey Shyam Chaurasia, Atlantic, 2009 [p191]</ref>
The armies of Delhi Sultanate led by Muslim Commander Malik Kafur plundered the Meenakshi Temple and looted it of its valuables.<ref name="Ernst2004p109">{{cite book|author=Carl W. Ernst| title=Eternal Garden: Mysticism, History, and Politics at a South Asian Sufi Center| url=https://books.google.com/books?id=9bNAAQAAIAAJ|year=2004|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=978-0-19-566869-8|page=109}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|author=Sarojini Chaturvedi|title=A short history of South India|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=qXcwAQAAIAAJ| year=2006|publisher= Saṁskṛiti|isbn=978-81-87374-37-4|page=209}}</ref><ref name="Eraly2015chid">{{cite book|author=Abraham Eraly|title=The Age of Wrath: A History of the Delhi Sultanate|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=vyEoAwAAQBAJ&pg=PT155| year=2015|publisher= Penguin Books|isbn=978-93-5118-658-8|pages=155–156}}</ref>
Kakatiya Kala Thoranam (Warangal Gate) built by the Kakatiya dynasty in ruins; one of the many temple complexes destroyed by the Delhi Sultanate.
Rani ki vav is a stepwell, built by the Chaulukya dynasty, located in Patan; the city was sacked by Sultan of Delhi Qutb-ud-din Aybak between 1200 and 1210, and again by the Allauddin Khilji in 1298.{{sfn|Lal|1950|p=84}}
Artistic rendition of the Kirtistambh at Rudra Mahalaya Temple. The temple was destroyed by Alauddin Khalji.<ref name="Burgess1874">{{cite book|last1=Burgess|last2=Murray|title=Photographs of Architecture and Scenery in Gujarat and Rajputana|chapter-url=https://archive.org/stream/photographsofarc00murr#page/n17/mode/2up|access-date=23 July 2016|year=1874|publisher=Bourne and Shepherd|page=19|chapter=The Rudra Mala at Siddhpur}}</ref>
Exterior wall reliefs at Hoysaleswara Temple. The temple was twice sacked and plundered by the Delhi Sultanate.<ref name="Bradnock2000p959">{{cite book|author1=Robert Bradnock|author2=Roma Bradnock|title=India Handbook|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=2hCFDsTbmhoC|year=2000|publisher=McGraw-Hill |isbn=978-0-658-01151-1|page=959}}</ref>

Both of the resulting Khalji and Tughlaq dynasties respectively saw a new wave of rapid Muslim conquests deep into South India.

Sindh

One of the four provinces of Pakistan.

The Priest-King from Mohenjo-daro, 4000 years old, in the National Museum of Pakistan
Extent and major sites of the Indus Valley Civilization in pre-modern Pakistan and India 3000 BC
Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro
Sindh captured by the Umayyads:
Makli Hill is one of the largest necropolises in the world.
Sindh became part of the Bombay Presidency in 1909.
Shrine of Lal Shahbaz Qalandar
Devotee at Panchmukhi Hanuman Temple in Karachi
Peninsula of Manora
Sindhri is among top 10 mango varieties in the world
Sindh ibex in Kirthar National Park
Indus river dolphin
Lansdowne Railway Bridge
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A view of Karachi downtown, the capital of Sindh province
Qayoom Abad Bridge Karachi
Navalrai Market Clock Tower Hyderabad
Sukkur skyline along the shores of the River Indus
Dayaram Jethmal College (D.J. College), Karachi in the 19th century
National Academy of Performing Arts, Karachi
Children in a rural area of Sindh, 2012
Sant Nenuram Ashram
Archaeological ruins at Moenjodaro, Sindh, Pakistan
The ruins of an ancient mosque at Bhambore
Sindhi women collecting water from a reservoir on the way to Mubarak Village
Huts in the Thar desert
Caravan of merchants in the Indus River Valley
Sukkur Bridge
Gorakh Hill Station
Faiz Mahal, Khairpur
Ranikot Fort, one of the largest forts in the world
Chaukhandi tombs
Remains of 9th century Jain temple in Bhodesar near Nagarparkar.
Karachi Beach
Qasim fort
Kot Diji
Bakri Waro Lake, Khairpur
National Museum of Pakistan
Kirthar National Park
alt=Karoonjhar Mountains, Tharparkar|Karoonjhar Mountains, Tharparkar
Shah Jahan Mosque, Thatta
Tomb of Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai
Keenjhar Lake
Lal Shahbaz Qalandar

Parts of the modern-day province were intermittently subject to raids by the Rashidun army during the early Muslim conquests, but the region did not fall under Muslim rule until the Arab invasion of Sind occurred under the Umayyad Caliphate, headed by Muhammad ibn Qasim in 712 CE.

Rajput resistance to Muslim conquests

Series of military resistance by several ruling Rajput houses of northern and western India against

During their centuries-long rule of northern India, the Rajputs constructed several palaces. Shown here is the Chandramahal in City Palace, Jaipur, Rajasthan, which was built by the Kachwaha Rajputs.
Somnath Temple ransacked and plundered by Mahmud during his invasion in 1025
The last stan of Rajputs against Ghorids at Taraori in 1192 A.D
Jaipur is one of several major cities founded by Rajput rulers during the Mughal era.
Maharana Pratap was known to have wielded a khanda sword.
Prithviraj Chauhan, a twelfth century ruler of Delhi and Ajmer who unified several Rajput clans and repelled a Ghorid invasion of India in 1191.<ref>{{Cite book|author=Baij Nath Puri|author-link=Baij Nath Puri|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=jZPAAAAACAAJ|title=Comprehensive History of India|date=2003-01-01|publisher=Sterling Publishers Pvt., Limited|isbn=978-81-207-2545-4|language=en|page=16–18,79}}</ref>
Rana Kumbha was the vanguard of the fifteenth century Rajput resurgence. He expanded his kingdom at the expense of the Sultans of Malwa and Gujarat. He founded the fort of Kumbhalgarh and built a number of forts.<ref name="sen2">{{cite book |last=Sen |first=Sailendra |title=A Textbook of Medieval Indian History |publisher=Primus Books |year=2013 |isbn=978-9-38060-734-4}}</ref>{{rp|116–117}}
Rana Sanga, a sixteenth century king of Chittor who defeated several Muslim kingdom of North-Western India and turned the state of Mewar into the greatest power of Northern India in the first quarter of sixteenth century.<ref>{{Cite book|author=V.S Bhatnagar|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=plFuAAAAMAAJ|title=Life and Times of Sawai Jai Singh, 1688-1743|date=1974|publisher=Impex India|language=en|page=6|quote=From 1326, Mewar's grand recovery commenced under Lakha, and later under Kumbha and most notably under Sanga, till it became one of the greatest powers in northern India during the first quarter of sixteenth century.}}</ref>
Maldev Rathore fought as a young prince in the Battle of Bayana and Battle of Khanwa with Rana Sanga. He was a Rathore king of Marwar. Frishta calls him the most capable king of India.<ref>{{Cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=tosMAQAAMAAJ&q=Maldeo+forty+parganas|title=A History of Rajasthan|last=Hooja|first=Rima|date=2006|publisher=Rupa & Company|isbn=978-81-291-0890-6|language=en|page=561}}</ref>
Maharana Pratap of Mewar, a 16th-century Rajput ruler firmly resisted the Mughals.
Chandrasen Rathore of Marwar, he defended his kingdom for nearly two decades against relentless attacks from the Mughal Empire.
Built during the course of the 15th century by Rana Kumbha, the walls of the fort of Kumbhalgarh extend over 38 km, claimed to be the second-longest continuous wall after the Great Wall of China.
City Palace was constructed by Maharana Udai Singh II after shifting his capital to Udaipur due to Muslim invasion.
Amer Fort and Jaigarh Fort are connected by subterranean passages, and are known for their artistic Hindu Rajput style elements.
Entrance eastern façade of the Junagarh Fort. Historical records reveal that despite the repeated attacks by enemies to capture the fort, it was not taken, except for a lone one-day occupation by Mughal prince Kamran Mirza.

Islamic invaders of Central Asia in Medieval India.

Ghurid dynasty

Persianate dynasty of presumably eastern Iranian Tajik origin, which ruled from the 10th-century to 1215.

Map of Ghurid territory circa 1200, at the time of joint rulers Ghiyath al-Din Muhammad and Muhammad of Ghor (respectively ruling west and east of the Hindu Kush). In the west, Ghurid territory extended to Nishapur and Merv,  while Ghurid troops reached as far as Gorgan on the shores of the Caspian Sea.  Eastward, the Ghurids invaded as far as Bengal.
The Ghurids originated from Ghor Province in central Afghanistan.
Coinage of Mu'izz al-Din Muhammad. Dated AH 601 (1204/5 CE), Ghazni mint.
Fortress and Ghurid arch of Qala-e-Bost as printed on an Afghan banknote.
The last stand of Rajputs, depicting the Second Battle of Tarain in 1192, between the Chahamanas and the Ghurid Empire.
The two mausoleums of Chisht (the western was built in 1167)
The eastern mausoleum of Chisht (built in 1194)
Ornamental bands on the Minaret of Jam, bearing the 19th Sura of the Koran
Ruins of the Shah-i Mashhad madrasa (built in 1176)
Ghurid arch in Qala-e-Bost

Around 1203, Bakhtiyar Khalji, another Turkic general of the Ghurid Empire, led the Muslim conquests of the eastern Indian regions of Bihar and Bengal, also on behalf of Mu'izz al-Din Muhammad.

Pakistan

Country in South Asia.

Indus Priest King Statue from Mohenjo-Daro.
Standing Buddha from Gandhara, Greco-Buddhist art, 1st–2nd century AD.
Badshahi Mosque, Lahore
Clock Tower, Faisalabad, built by the British government in the 19th century
Queen Elizabeth II was the last monarch of independent Pakistan, before it became a republic in 1956.
Signing of the Tashkent Declaration to end hostilities with India in 1965 in Tashkent, USSR, by President Ayub alongside Bhutto (centre) and Aziz Ahmed (left)
President George W. Bush meets with President Musharraf in Islamabad during his 2006 visit to Pakistan.
The Friday Prayers at the Badshahi Mosque in Lahore
A satellite image showing the topography of Pakistan
Köppen climate classification of Pakistan
Parliament House
Prime Minister's Office
Supreme Court of Pakistan
President of Pakistan Ayub Khan with US President John F. Kennedy in 1961
Pakistani Prime Minister Imran Khan at the 2019 Shanghai Cooperation Organisation summit
Pakistan Prime Minister Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy with Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai signing the Treaty of Friendship Between China and Pakistan. Pakistan is host to China's largest embassy.
The areas shown in green are the Pakistani-controlled areas.
Hunza Valley in the Gilgit-Baltistan region is part of Pakistani-controlled Kashmir.
Pakistan Air Force's JF-17 Thunder flying in front of the 26660 ft Nanga Parbat
Statue of a bull outside the Pakistan Stock Exchange, Islamabad, Pakistan
Surface mining in Sindh. Pakistan has been termed the 'Saudi Arabia of Coal' by Forbes.
Television assembly factory in Lahore. Pakistan's industrial sector accounts for about 20.3% of the GDP, and is dominated by small and medium-sized enterprises.
Rising skyline of Karachi with several under construction skyscrapers.
Lake Saiful Muluk, located at the northern end of the Kaghan Valley, near the town of Naran in the Saiful Muluk National Park.
Badshahi Mosque was commissioned by the Mughals in 1671. It is listed as a World Heritage Site.
Tarbela Dam, the largest earth filled dam in the world, was constructed in 1968.
Pakistan produced 1,135 megawatts of renewable energy for the month of October 2016. Pakistan expects to produce 3,000 megawatts of renewable energy by the beginning of 2019.
The motorway passes through the Salt Range mountains
Karachi Cantonment railway station
Port of Karachi is one of South Asia's largest and busiest deep-water seaports, handling about 60% of the nation's cargo (25 million tons per annum)
Orange Line Metro Train, Lahore
Track of Islamabad-Rawalpindi Metrobus with adjoining station
Nagan Chowrangi Flyover, Karachi
Central Library of University of Sargodha
Literacy rate in Pakistan 1951–2018
Malala Yousafzai at the Women of the World festival in 2014.
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Pakistan hosts the second largest refugee population globally after Turkey. An Afghan refugee girl near Tarbela Dam
Kalma Underpass, Lahore
Faisal Mosque, built in 1986 by Turkish architect Vedat Dalokay on behalf of King Faisal bin Abdul-Aziz of Saudi Arabia
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Havana at Shri Hinglaj Mata temple shakti peetha, the largest Hindu pilgrimage centre in Pakistan. The annual Hinglaj Yathra is attended by more than 250,000 people.
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Sacred Heart Cathedral, Lahore
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Truck art is a distinctive feature of Pakistani culture.
People in traditional clothing in Neelum District
Muhammad Iqbal, Pakistan's national poet who conceived the idea of Pakistan
The Tomb of Shah Rukn-e-Alam is part of Pakistan's Sufi heritage.
Minar-e-Pakistan is a national monument marking Pakistan's independence movement.
Located on the bank of Arabian Sea in Karachi, Port Grand is one of the largest food streets of Asia.
Gaddafi Stadium, Lahore is the 3rd largest cricket stadium in Pakistan with a seating capacity of 27,000 spectators.

Upon the defeat of the Turk and Hindu Shahi dynasties which governed the Kabul Valley, Gandhara (present-day Khyber Pakhtunkwa), and western Punjab in the 7th to 11th centuries CE, several successive Muslim empires ruled over the region, including the Ghaznavid Empire (975–1187 CE), the Ghorid Kingdom, and the Delhi Sultanate (1206–1526 CE).

Punjab, Pakistan

One of the four provinces of Pakistan.

Punjab was part of the Vedic Civilization
Location of Punjab, Pakistan and the extent of the Indus Valley Civilisation sites in and around it
Alexander's Indian Campaign
Modern painting of Bulleh Shah (1680–1757), a Punjabi Muslim Sufi poet who has hugely impacted the region
Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s court at Lahore Fort, by August Schoefft
The Sikh Empire (Sarkar-e-Khalsa)
The Faisalabad Clock Tower was built during the rule of the British Empire
At the Wagah border ceremony
Punjab features mountainous terrain near the hill station of Murree.
Sunset in Punjab, during summer
The route from Dera Ghazi Khan to Fort Munro
A demonstration by Punjabis at Lahore, Pakistan, demanding to make Punjabi as official language of instruction in schools of the Punjab.
Punjab assembly, Lahore
Map of the Pakistani Punjab divisions
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GDP by Province
Industrial Zones Punjab, Source:
Government College University, Lahore
Main entrance to The university of Sargodha
Government college for Women, Rawalpindi
University of the Punjab
University of Agriculture, Faisalabad
King Edward Medical University, Lahore
Badshahi Masjid in Lahore
Tomb of Shah Rukn-e-Alam, Multan (1320 AD)
Baba Ram Thaman Shrine
Punjab is famous for various shrines of Sufi saints and Data durbar in particular
Badshahi Mosque, built by Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb at Lahore
Camel saddle created in Multan or in other parts of Pakistan. It is very different from Multani Khussa
Sillanwali woodworking, a wooden horse
Matki earthen pot, a clay vase exhibition
Lahore Fort, a UNESCO World Heritage Site
Various festivals in rural Punjab
Punjabi folk.
Jungle in Sahiwal, Punjab
Badshahi Mosque, Lahore
Tomb of Jahangir, Lahore
Katas Raj Temples (Sardar of Hari Singh's Haveli)
Lahore Museum
Sacred Heart Cathedral, Lahore
Shalimar Gardens
Asaf Khan's Mausoleum
Minar e Pakistan
GPO, Lahore
Clock Tower at Govt College University, Lahore
Faisalabad Clock Tower
Chenab Club, Faisalabad
Faisalabad Railway Station
Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan Auditorium in Faisalabad
Clock Tower in Sialkot.
Faisalabad Pindi Battian Interchange
Irrigation canals in Faisalabad
Hindu temple in Faisalabad
Dhan Gali Bridge
CMH Mosque, Jhelum Cantt
Taxila is a World Heritage Site
Samadhi of Ranjit Singh
Major Akram Memorial, Jhelum
Wheat Fields
A view of Murree, a famous hill station of Punjab
Different shapes of clay pots mostly made in Gujrat
A Fields View from North Punjab
Tilla Jogian Jhelum, scenic peak in Punjab considered sacred by Hindus

In the 7th century, the region saw its first wave of Arab conquests, which introduced Islam; by the 8th century, the Umayyad Caliphate had largely conquered Punjab.

Punjab

Geopolitical, cultural, and historical region in South Asia, specifically in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northwestern India.

Taxila in Pakistan is a World Heritage Site
Menander I Soter (165/155 – 130 BCE), conqueror of the Punjab, carved out a Greek kingdom in the Punjab and ruled the Punjab until his death in 130BC.
A section of the Lahore Fort built by the Mughal emperor Akbar
The Punjab, 1849
The Punjab, 1880
Punjab Province (British India), 1909
The snow-covered Himalayas
Ethnic Punjabis in India and Pakistan
Dominant Mother Tongue in each Pakistani District as of the 2017 Pakistan Census
Lahore Fort, Lahore
Golden Temple, Amritsar
University of Agriculture, Faisalabad
Chandigarh
Punjab, Pakistan
Punjab, India, 2014
Haryana, India
Himachal Pradesh, India
Badshahi Mosque, Lahore
Golden Temple, Amritsar
Clock Tower, Faisalabad
Aerial view of Multan Ghanta Ghar chawk
Open Hand monument, Chandigarh
Faisal Masjid (Margalla Hills)
Anupgarh fort in Anupgarh city
Bhatner fort in Hanumangarh city
Phulkari embroidery from Patiala

The arrival of Islam in medieval India resulted in the conversion of some Hindu Punjabis to Islam, and the rise of Sikhism in the 1700s saw some Punjabis, both Hindu and Muslim, accepting the new Sikh faith.