Myanmar

Pyu city-states, c. 8th century; Pagan is shown for comparison only and is not contemporary.
Pagodas and kyaungs in present-day Bagan, the capital of the Pagan Kingdom
Temples at Mrauk U.
Toungoo Empire under Bayinnaung in 1580
A British 1825 lithograph of Shwedagon Pagoda shows British occupation during the First Anglo-Burmese War.
The landing of British forces in Mandalay after the last of the Anglo-Burmese Wars, which resulted in the abdication of the last Burmese monarch, King Thibaw Min
British troops firing a mortar on the Mawchi road, July 1944
British governor Hubert Elvin Rance and Sao Shwe Thaik at the flag-raising ceremony on 4 January 1948 (Independence Day of Burma)
Protesters gathering in central Rangoon, 1988.
Protesters in Yangon during the 2007 Saffron Revolution with a banner that reads non-violence: national movement in Burmese. In the background is Shwedagon Pagoda.
Cyclone Nargis in southern Myanmar, May 2008.
U.S. President Barack Obama and Secretary of State Hillary Clinton with Aung San Suu Kyi and her staff at her home in Yangon, 2012
Map of Myanmar and its divisions, including Shan State, Kachin State, Rakhine State and Karen State.
Protesters against the military coup in Myanmar
Myanmar map of Köppen climate classification.
The limestone landscape of Kayin State
Assembly of the Union (Pyidaungsu Hluttaw)
Myanmar President Thein Sein meets US President Barack Obama in Yangon, 2012
The former Secretary-General of the United Nations, U Thant (1961–1971)
A Myanmar Air Force Mikoyan MiG-29 multirole fighter
Map of conflict zones in Myanmar. States and regions affected by fighting during and after 1995 are highlighted in yellow.
Mae La camp, Tak, Thailand, one of the largest of nine UNHCR camps in Thailand
Displaced Rohingya people of Myanmar
A Rohingya refugee camp in Bangladesh
A proportional representation of Myanmar exports, 2019
The trains are relatively slow in Myanmar. The railway trip from Bagan to Mandalay takes about 7.5 hours (179 km).
Rice is Myanmar's largest agricultural product.
Tourists in Myanmar
U Bein Bridge in Mandalay.
A block of apartments in downtown Yangon, facing Bogyoke Market. Much of Yangon's urban population resides in densely populated flats.
Population pyramid 2016
Ethnolinguistic Groups of Burma/Myanmar
Praying Buddhist monks in Shwedagon Pagoda
Students on their way to school, Kalaymyo, Sagaing Region, Myanmar
Burmese Kinnayi Kinnaya dance
A Buddhist Shinbyu ceremony in Mandalay.
An Arakan (Rakhine) girl pours water at revellers during the Burmese New Year Thingyan Water Festival in Yangon.
Men playing chinlone
Kayan women in a village near Inle Lake, 2010

Country in Southeast Asia.

- Myanmar

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Southeast Asia

Geographical south-eastern region of Asia, consisting of the regions that are situated south of China, east of the Indian subcontinent, and northwest of Australia.

Geographical south-eastern region of Asia, consisting of the regions that are situated south of China, east of the Indian subcontinent, and northwest of Australia.

States and regions of Southeast Asia
A political map of Southeast Asia
Megalithic statue found in Tegurwangi, Sumatra, Indonesia 1500 CE
The Austroasiatic and Austronesian expansions into Maritime Southeast Asia.
Bronze drum from Sông Đà, northern Vietnam. Mid-1st millennium BC
Spread of Hinduism from South Asia to Southeast Asia
Borobudur temple in Central Java, Indonesia
Angkor Wat in Siem Reap, Cambodia
Wapauwe Old Mosque is the oldest surviving mosque in Indonesia, and the second oldest in Southeast Asia, built in 1414
Strait of Malacca
Colonial boundaries in Southeast Asia
Fort Cornwallis in George Town marks the spot where the British East India Company first landed in Penang in 1786, thus heralding the British colonisation of Malaya
Duit, a coin minted by the VOC, 1646–1667. 2 kas, 2 duit
Relief map of Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia map of Köppen climate classification
Komodo dragon in Komodo National Park, Indonesia
The Philippine eagle
Wallace's hypothetical line divides Indonesian Archipelago into 2 types of fauna, Australasian and Southeast Asian fauna. The deepwater of the Lombok Strait between the islands of Bali and Lombok formed a water barrier even when lower sea levels linked the now-separated islands and landmasses on either side
The Port of Singapore is the busiest transshipment and container port in the world, and is an important transportation and shipping hub in Southeast Asia
Along with its temples Cambodia has been promoting its coastal resorts. Island off Otres Beach Sihanoukville, Cambodia
Population distribution of the countries of Southeast Asia (with Indonesia split into its major islands).
Ati woman in Aklan – the Negritos were the earliest inhabitants of Southeast Asia.
Spirit houses are common in areas of Southeast Asia where Animism is a held belief.
The Mother Temple of Besakih, one of Bali's most significant Balinese Hindu temples.
Thai Theravada Buddhists in Chiang Mai, Thailand.
The prayer hall of the Goddess of Mercy Temple, the oldest Taoist temple in Penang, Malaysia.
Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin Mosque in Brunei, an Islamic country with Sharia rule.
Roman Catholic Cathedral-Basilica of the Immaculate Conception, the metropolitan see of the Archbishop of Manila, Philippines.
A Protestant church in Indonesia. Indonesia has the largest Protestant population in Southeast Asia.
Jewish Surabaya Synagogue in Indonesia, demolished in 2013.
Burmese puppet performance
Paddy field in Vietnam
The Royal Ballet of Cambodia (Paris, France 2010)
Angklung as a Masterpiece of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity
Thai manuscript from before the 19th-century writing system
Sign in Balinese and Latin script at a Hindu temple in Bali
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Bangkok, Thailand
Singapore
Manila, Philippines
Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Jakarta, Indonesia

The Sunda Plate is the main plate of the region, featuring almost all Southeast Asian countries except Myanmar, northern Thailand, northern Laos, northern Vietnam, and northern Luzon of the Philippines.

After applying the linguistic comparative method to the database of comparative linguistic data developed by Laurent Sagart in 2019 to identify sound correspondences and establish cognates, phylogenetic methods are used to infer relationships among these languages and estimate the age of their origin and homeland.

Burmese language

After applying the linguistic comparative method to the database of comparative linguistic data developed by Laurent Sagart in 2019 to identify sound correspondences and establish cognates, phylogenetic methods are used to infer relationships among these languages and estimate the age of their origin and homeland.
The Myazedi inscription, dated to AD 1113, is the oldest surviving stone inscription of the Burmese language.
Sampling of various Burmese script styles
Myanmar3, the de jure standard Burmese keyboard layout

Burmese (မြန်မာဘာသာ, MLCTS: mranmabhasa, IPA: ) is a Sino-Tibetan language spoken in Myanmar (also known as Burma), where it is an official language and the language of the Burmans, the country's principal ethnic group.

Lower Burma in pink, as opposed to Upper Myanmar in orange.

Lower Myanmar

Lower Burma in pink, as opposed to Upper Myanmar in orange.

Lower Myanmar (အောက်မြန်မာပြည်, also called Lower Burma) is a geographic region of Myanmar (Burma) and includes the low-lying Irrawaddy Delta (Ayeyarwady, Bago and Yangon Regions), as well as coastal regions of the country (Rakhine and Mon States and Tanintharyi Region).

Toungoo Empire at its greatest extent (1580)

Toungoo dynasty

Toungoo Empire at its greatest extent (1580)
Toungoo Empire at its greatest extent (1580)

The Toungoo dynasty (တောင်ငူမင်းဆက်, ; also spelt Taungoo dynasty), and also known as the Restored Toungoo dynasty, was the ruling dynasty of Burma (Myanmar) from the mid-16th century to 1752.

Konbaung dynasty

Lion Throne in the throne hall of the royal palace of Amarapura (painting by Colesworthy Grant, 1855)
The Shwedagon Pagoda during the First Anglo-Burmese War (1824–26)
The last king, Thibaw Min (right), here with Queen Supayalat and her sister Junior Queen Supayalay, was forcibly deposed by the British following the Third Anglo-Burmese War in 1885.
A traditional painting by Saya Chone depicts the abdication of King Thibaw.
A royal scribe, 1855
"Royal Audience," a traditional painting by Saya Chone
The King and Queen observing a ceremony involving riders on horseback. From an 18th-century parabeik (picture book)
A nineteenth-century watercolor painting by royal painters depicts a Konbaung abhiseka ceremony. The king and queen are respectively seated in the pavilion, surrounded by a retinue of Brahmins.
A depiction of the Royal Ploughing Ceremony by Saya Chone, a painter at the royal court
The tomb of King Mindon on the grounds of Mandalay Palace in 1903
The Guardians of the Four Cardinal Directions (Lokapala) in Burmese depiction
Burmese court officials in 1795
Konbaung era Myinkhin Thabin
An 1855 watercolour of a Kathe horseman from Manipur
The royal palace of Mandalay

The Konbaung dynasty (ကုန်းဘောင်ခေတ်, ), also known as Third Burmese Empire (တတိယမြန်မာနိုင်ငံတော်) and formerly known as the Alompra dynasty (အလောင်းဘုရားမင်းဆက်, Alaungphra dynasty) and the Hunter dynasty (မုဆိုးမင်းဆက်, Mokso dynasty), was the last dynasty that ruled Burma/Myanmar from 1752 to 1885.

Manipur

State in Northeast India, with the city of Imphal as its capital.

State in Northeast India, with the city of Imphal as its capital.

The Kangla Sha, the state emblem
Kangla Gate, the west entrance to the Kangla Fort
Loktak Lake, the largest fresh water lake in the state.
A tree amid Manipur hills.
Landscape view for dawn at Senapati, Manipur
Flowers carpeting the foothills
The Dzüko Valley which exists between the boundaries of Manipur and Nagaland has a temperate climate.
Ningthoukhong Gopinath Temple
St. Joseph's Cathedral at Imphal
Sanamahi temple at Kangla
Bamboo is common in Manipur, and an important contributor to its economy as well as cuisine. Above is soibum yendem eromba, a bamboo shoot dish of Manipur.
Imphal airport is the second largest airport in India's northeast.
A view of Imphal City
Sangai, the state animal, at Keibul Lamjao National Park. In the wild, it has a habit of waiting and looking back at viewers.
National Highway 150 in Imphal
The Shrine – the main theatre
Khuman Lampak Main Stadium in Imphal.
The Lai Haraoba, a dance festival showcases the folk dances of Manipur.
Cheiraoba is a celebration of the new year during the spring season. People feast (top), then climb up a hill together later in the day to signify overcoming hurdles and reaching new heights in the new year.
Manipuri dance, one of eight the classical dances of India
Thang Ta, the martial art form of Manipur
Pena is an ancient Manipur musical instrument, particularly popular among the Meitei, the Pangal and the Meitei Christians
The Chorus Repertory Theatre, Imphal, founded by Ratan Thiyam

It also borders two regions of Myanmar, Sagaing Region to the east and Chin State to the south.

State Peace and Development Council

SPDC members greet Thai PM Abhisit Vejjajiva in an October 2010 visit to Naypyidaw.
SPDC members with Thai delegation in an October 2010 visit to Naypyidaw.

The State Peace and Development Council (နိုင်ငံတော် အေးချမ်းသာယာရေး နှင့် ဖွံ့ဖြိုးရေး ကောင်စီ ; abbreviated SPDC or, ) was the official name of the military government of Burma (Myanmar), which in 1997, succeeded the State Law and Order Restoration Council (နိုင်ငံတော်ငြိမ်ဝပ်ပိပြားမှုတည်ဆောက်ရေးအဖွဲ့ that seized power under the rule of Saw Maung in 1988.

British rule in Burma

Independently administered colony, and finally independence.

Independently administered colony, and finally independence.

British Burma during World War II Dark green: Japanese occupation of Burma Light silver: Remainder of British Burma Light green: Occupied and annexed by Thailand
British naval forces entering the harbour of Rangoon in May 1824
British Burma during World War II Dark green: Japanese occupation of Burma Light silver: Remainder of British Burma Light green: Occupied and annexed by Thailand
District Courts and Public Offices, Strand Road, Rangoon, 1868. Photographer J. Jackson
Photograph of the arrival of British forces in Mandalay on 28 November 1885 at the end of the Third Anglo-Burmese War. Photographer: Hooper, Willoughby Wallace (1837–1912)
In this rendering, British officers take King Thibaw onto a steamship en route to exile in India. He would never see Burma again.
Administrative map of the Burma Province, 1948
Vegetable stall on the roadside at the Madras Lancer Lines, Mandalay, January 1886. Photographer: Hooper, Willoughby Wallace (1837–1912)
Map of Rangoon and Environ, 1911
Photograph of Royal Lake in Dalhousie Park, Rangoon, 1895. Photographer Philip Adolphe Klier (c. undefined 1845–1911)
The British Army in Burma 1944

Burma is sometimes referred to as "the Scottish Colony" owing to the heavy role played by Scotsmen in colonising and running the country, one of the most notable being Sir James Scott.

The Thuparamaya Stupa, the earliest stupa after Theravada Buddhism became the official religion in Sri Lanka, dating back to the reign of King Devanampiya Tissa (247–207 BCE).

Theravada

Most commonly accepted name of Buddhism's oldest existing school.

Most commonly accepted name of Buddhism's oldest existing school.

The Thuparamaya Stupa, the earliest stupa after Theravada Buddhism became the official religion in Sri Lanka, dating back to the reign of King Devanampiya Tissa (247–207 BCE).
The Ruwanwelisaya stupa, built by the Sri Lankan King Dutugemunu (c. 140 B.C.E.).
Gold Plates containing fragments of the Pali Tipitaka (5th century) found in Maunggan (a village near the city of Sriksetra).
Bagan, the capital of the Bagan Kingdom. Between the 11th and 13th centuries, more than 10,000 temples, pagodas and monasteries were constructed in the Bagan plains.
A Burmese man meditates in Myanmar. The widespread practice of meditation by laypersons is a modern development in Theravāda.
Thai Forest teacher Ajahn Chah with Ajahn Sumedho (front right), Ajahn Pasanno (rear and left of Sumedho) and other monastics.
Global Vipassana Pagoda, Maharashtra, India. S.N. Goenka laid the foundation for the structure in 2000 and the pagoda opened in 2009. Regular meditation courses are held at the complex.
Pre-modern copies of the Tipiṭaka were preserved in Palm-leaf manuscripts, most of which have not survived the humid climate of South Asia and Southeast Asia.
A full modern set of the Tipiṭaka can fill many volumes (from 40 to over 50 volumes depending on the edition).
Buddhaghosa (right) (c. 5th century), shown here presenting three copies of his influential doctrinal compendium, the Visuddhimagga, to the elders of the Sri Lankan Mahavihara school.
Painting of Buddha's first sermon from Wat Chedi Liem in Thailand
Ledi Sayadaw, was one of the great Abhidhamma scholars of the 20th century as well as a teacher of meditation.
Sakka in Tavatimsa Heaven, Wat Yang Thong, Songkhla, Thailand.
A Burmese depiction of a hell scene
A Burmese illustrated manuscript depicting Sumedha (the future Buddha Gautama) and Dīpankara Buddha.
A statue of the arahant Moggallana, who is identifiable by his dark (nila, i.e. blue/black) skin. He was one of the two most senior disciples of the Buddha and the foremost in psychic powers.
The Dhamma Wheel with eight spokes usually symbolizes the Noble Eightfold Path.
Theravādin monks meditating in Bodh Gaya (Bihar, India)
Ajahn Mun, a key figure in the founding of the Thai Forest Tradition, is widely considered to have been an Arahant in Thailand.
Mahasi Sayadaw
Circumambulation around a temple or a stupa is also a common devotional practice.
Young Burmese monk
Thai monks on pilgrimage in their orange robes.
The ceremony walks with lighted candles in hand around a temple on Vesakha Puja in Uttaradit, Thailand.
A cave kuti (hut) in the Sri Lankan forest monastery Na Uyana Aranya.
Candidates for the Buddhist monkhood being ordained as monks in Thailand
A Buddhist Monk chants evening prayers inside a monastery located near the town of Kantharalak, Thailand.
Dhammananda Bhikkhuni
Thai monks blessing the King of Thailand in Wat Nong Wong, Amphoe Sawankhalok, Sukhothai, Thailand.
Map showing the three major Buddhist divisions in Tibet, Mongolia, Nepal, East and Southeast Asia.

It is the dominant religion in Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, and Thailand and is practiced by minorities in India, Bangladesh, China, Nepal, and Vietnam.

2015 Myanmar general election

A polling station used for elections. The ballot boxes are at the front, while the voting booths are at the rear.
A ballot paper and rubber stamp in voting booth

General elections were held in Myanmar on 8 November 2015, with the National League for Democracy winning a supermajority of seats in the combined national parliament.