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Muscle weakness

weaknessmyastheniafatigue
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a long-term neuromuscular disease that leads to varying degrees of skeletal muscle weakness.
It occurs in neuromuscular junction disorders, such as myasthenia gravis.

Thymoma

thymomascancerThymic neoplasm
Those affected often have a large thymus or develop a thymoma.
Thymomas are frequently associated with the neuromuscular disorder myasthenia gravis; thymoma is found in 20% of patients with myasthenia gravis.

Ptosis (eyelid)

ptosisblepharoptosisdrooping eyelid
It can result in double vision, drooping eyelids, trouble talking, and trouble walking.
Such damage could be a sign or symptom of an underlying disease such as diabetes mellitus, a brain tumor, a pancoast tumor (apex of lung) and diseases which may cause weakness in muscles or nerve damage, such as myasthenia gravis or oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy.

Neostigmine

Neostigminneostigmine bromide
Myasthenia gravis is generally treated with medications known as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors such as neostigmine and pyridostigmine.
Neostigmine, sold under the brand name Prostigmin among others, is a medication used to treat myasthenia gravis, Ogilvie syndrome, and urinary retention without the presence of a blockage.

Pyridostigmine

pyridostigmine bromideMestinonRegonol
Myasthenia gravis is generally treated with medications known as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors such as neostigmine and pyridostigmine.
Pyridostigmine is a medication used to treat myasthenia gravis.

Neuromuscular junction

neuromuscularneuromuscular junctionsneuromuscular transmission
Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease which results from antibodies that block or destroy nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at the junction between the nerve and muscle. Rarely, an inherited genetic defect in the neuromuscular junction results in a similar condition known as congenital myasthenia.
Genetic disorders, such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, can arise from mutated structural proteins that comprise the neuromuscular junction, whereas autoimmune diseases, such as myasthenia gravis, occur when antibodies are produced against nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on the sarcolemma.

Congenital myasthenic syndrome

congenital myastheniaCMS
Rarely, an inherited genetic defect in the neuromuscular junction results in a similar condition known as congenital myasthenia.
The effects of the disease are similar to Lambert-Eaton Syndrome and myasthenia gravis, the difference being that CMS is not an autoimmune disorder.

Tensilon test

edrophonium test
Diagnosis can be supported by blood tests for specific antibodies, the edrophonium test, or a nerve conduction study.
Tensilon test (edrophonium test) is a pharmacological test used for the diagnosis of certain neural diseases, especially myasthenia gravis.

Neuromuscular disease

neuromuscular disordersneuromuscular disorderneuromuscular diseases
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a long-term neuromuscular disease that leads to varying degrees of skeletal muscle weakness.
Diseases of the motor end plate include myasthenia gravis, a form of muscle weakness due to antibodies against acetylcholine receptor, and its related condition Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS).

Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor

acetylcholinesterase inhibitorscholinesterase inhibitorsacetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor
Myasthenia gravis is generally treated with medications known as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors such as neostigmine and pyridostigmine.

Plasmapheresis

plasma exchangeplasmaplasmapharesis
Plasmapheresis and high dose intravenous immunoglobulin may be used during sudden flares of the condition.
Plasmapheresis of the autologous and exchange types is used to treat a variety of disorders, including those of the immune system, such as Goodpasture's syndrome, Guillain–Barré syndrome, lupus, myasthenia gravis, and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.

Thymectomy

surgical removal of the thymusthymectomized
The surgical removal of the thymus may improve symptoms in certain cases.
It usually results in remission of myasthenia gravis with the help of medication including steroids.

Azathioprine

ImuranAzahexalAzasan
Immunosuppressants, such as prednisone or azathioprine, may also be used.
Azathioprine is used alone or in combination with other immunosuppressive therapy to prevent rejection following organ transplantation, and to treat an array of autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, pemphigus, systemic lupus erythematosus, Behçet's disease, and other forms of vasculitis, autoimmune hepatitis, atopic dermatitis, myasthenia gravis, neuromyelitis optica (Devic's disease), restrictive lung disease, and others.

Prednisone

(P)'''rednisonePediapredBetapar
Immunosuppressants, such as prednisone or azathioprine, may also be used.
Prednisone is used for many different autoimmune diseases and inflammatory conditions, including asthma, COPD, CIDP, rheumatic disorders, allergic disorders, ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, adrenocortical insufficiency, hypercalcemia due to cancer, thyroiditis, laryngitis, severe tuberculosis, hives, lipid pneumonitis, pericarditis, multiple sclerosis, nephrotic syndrome, sarcoidosis, to relieve the effects of shingles, lupus, myasthenia gravis, poison oak exposure, Ménière's disease, autoimmune hepatitis, giant-cell arteritis, the Herxheimer reaction that is common during the treatment of syphilis, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, uveitis, and as part of a drug regimen to prevent rejection after organ transplant.

Thymus

thymus glandthymicmedulla
Those affected often have a large thymus or develop a thymoma.
Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease caused by antibodies that block acetylcholine receptors.

Mechanical ventilation

mechanical ventilatorassisted ventilationRespiratory monitoring
If the breathing muscles become significantly weak, mechanical ventilation may be required.

Immunoglobulin therapy

intravenous immunoglobulinIVIGintravenous immunoglobulins
Plasmapheresis and high dose intravenous immunoglobulin may be used during sudden flares of the condition.
Immunoglobulin therapy is also used in some treatment protocols for secondary immunodeficiencies such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), some autoimmune disorders (such as immune thrombocytopenia and Kawasaki disease), some neurological diseases (multifocal motor neuropathy, stiff person syndrome, multiple sclerosis and myasthenia gravis) some acute infections and some complications of organ transplantation.

Dysphagia

difficulty swallowingdifficulty in swallowingtrouble swallowing
The weakness of the muscles involved in swallowing may lead to swallowing difficulty (dysphagia).

Lambert–Eaton myasthenic syndrome

Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndromeLambert-Eaton syndromeEaton-Lambert syndrome
The diagnosis is usually confirmed with electromyography and blood tests; these also distinguish it from myasthenia gravis, a related autoimmune neuromuscular disease.

Autoimmunity

autoimmuneautoantigenauto-immune
MG is an autoimmune synaptopathy.

Electromyography

EMGelectromyogramelectromyographic
In single-fiber electromyography (SFEMG), which is considered to be the most sensitive (although not the most specific) test for MG, a thin needle electrode is inserted into different areas of a particular muscle to record the action potentials from several samplings of different individual muscle fibers.
Less common medical conditions include amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, and muscular dystrophy.

Arthrogryposis

arthrogryposis multiplex congenitaarthrogryposis multiplexArthrogryposis multiplex congenita, distal type 1
Very rarely, an infant can be born with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita, secondary to profound intrauterine weakness.
Myasthenia gravis of the mother leads also in rare cases to arthrogryposis.

Dysarthria

slurred speechdifficulty speakingdysarthric
Weakness of the muscles involved in speaking may lead to dysarthria and hypophonia.
These can result in dysfunction, or failure of: the motor or somatosensory cortex of the brain, corticobulbar pathways, the cerebellum, basal nuclei (consisting of the putamen, globus pallidus, caudate nucleus, substantia nigra etc.), brainstem (from which the cranial nerves originate), or the neuro-muscular junction (in diseases such as myasthenia gravis) which block the nervous system's ability to activate motor units and effect correct range and strength of movements.

Synaptopathy

synaptopathies
MG is an autoimmune synaptopathy.
Myasthenia gravis is an example of an autoimmune synaptopathy.

Rituximab

RituxanMabThera(R)'''ituximab
Other immune suppressing medications may also be used including rituximab.
It is used for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, rheumatoid arthritis, granulomatosis with polyangiitis, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, pemphigus vulgaris, myasthenia gravis and Epstein-Barr virus-positive mucocutaneous ulcers.