Myocardial infarction

heart attackheart attacksacute myocardial infarctionheart failureSTEMImyocardial infarctionsmyocardial infarctST elevation myocardial infarctioncardiac arrestmassive heart attack
Myocardial infarction (MI), also known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.wikipedia
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Chest pain

chest painschest tightnesschest
The most common symptom is chest pain or discomfort which may travel into the shoulder, arm, back, neck or jaw.
Serious and relatively common causes include acute coronary syndrome such as a heart attack (31%), pulmonary embolism (2%), pneumothorax, pericarditis (4%), aortic dissection (1%), and esophageal rupture.

Cardiogenic shock

cardiogenicCardiovascular collapseshock, cardiogenic
An MI may cause heart failure, an irregular heartbeat, cardiogenic shock or cardiac arrest.
CS is most commonly precipitated by acute myocardial infarction.

Cocaine

cokecocaine traffickingcrack
MIs are less commonly caused by coronary artery spasms, which may be due to cocaine, significant emotional stress and extreme cold, among others.
Its use also increases the risk of stroke, myocardial infarction, lung problems in those who smoke it, blood infections, and sudden cardiac death.

Aspirin

acetylsalicylic acidBufferinASA
Aspirin is an appropriate immediate treatment for a suspected MI.
Aspirin given shortly after a heart attack decreases the risk of death.

Heparin

unfractionated heparinHeparin sodiumVitrum AB
People who have a non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) are often managed with the blood thinner heparin, with the additional use of PCI in those at high risk.
Specifically it is also used in the treatment of heart attacks and unstable angina.

Nitroglycerin (medication)

nitroglyceringlyceryl trinitratenitroglycerine
Nitroglycerin or opioids may be used to help with chest pain; however, they do not improve overall outcomes.
This includes chest pain from a heart attack.

Thrombolysis

thrombolyticthrombolytic therapythrombolytic drug
In a STEMI, treatments attempt to restore blood flow to the heart and include percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), where the arteries are pushed open and may be stented, or thrombolysis, where the blockage is removed using medications.
It is used in ST elevation myocardial infarction, stroke, and very large pulmonary embolisms.

Troponin

troponin complexTroponin testcardiac troponins
Commonly used blood tests include troponin and less often creatine kinase MB. Unlike other causes of acute coronary syndromes, such as unstable angina, a myocardial infarction occurs when there is cell death, as measured by a blood test for biomarkers (the cardiac protein troponin or the cardiac enzyme CK-MB).
Assays of cardiac-specific troponins I and T are extensively used as diagnostic and prognostic indicators in the management of myocardial infarction and acute coronary syndrome.

Atherosclerosis

atheroscleroticatherogenesisatherosclerotic plaques
The complete blockage of a coronary artery caused by a rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque is usually the underlying mechanism of an MI.
According to United States data for 2004, in about 66% of men and 47% of women, the first symptom of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is a heart attack or sudden cardiac death (death within one hour of onset of the symptom).

Heartburn

acid indigestionagitacardialgia
The discomfort may occasionally feel like heartburn.
Heart attack symptoms and esophageal symptoms can be very similar, as the heart and esophagus use the same nerve supply.

Obesity

obesemorbidly obeseoverweight
Risk factors include high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, lack of exercise, obesity, high blood cholesterol, poor diet and excessive alcohol intake, among others.

Infarction

infarctinfarctedinfarcts
Myocardial infarction (MI) refers to tissue death (infarction) of the heart muscle (myocardium). Unlike other causes of acute coronary syndromes, such as unstable angina, a myocardial infarction occurs when there is cell death, as measured by a blood test for biomarkers (the cardiac protein troponin or the cardiac enzyme CK-MB).
The blood vessel supplying the affected area of tissue may be blocked due to an obstruction in the vessel (e.g., an arterial embolus, thrombus, or atherosclerotic plaque), compressed by something outside of the vessel causing it to narrow (e.g., tumor, volvulus, or hernia), ruptured by trauma causing a loss of blood pressure downstream of the rupture, or vasoconstricted, which is the narrowing of the blood vessel by contraction of the muscle wall rather than an external force (e.g., cocaine vasoconstriction leading to myocardial infarction).

Unstable angina

pre-infarct anginaunstableunstable angina pectoris
Unlike other causes of acute coronary syndromes, such as unstable angina, a myocardial infarction occurs when there is cell death, as measured by a blood test for biomarkers (the cardiac protein troponin or the cardiac enzyme CK-MB).
It can be difficult to distinguish unstable angina from non-ST elevation (non-Q wave) myocardial infarction (NSTEMI).

Acute coronary syndrome

acute coronary syndromesheart attack. Acute Coronary Syndrome
It is a type of acute coronary syndrome, which describes a sudden or short-term change in symptoms related to blood flow to the heart.
Acute coronary syndrome is commonly associated with three clinical manifestations, named according to the appearance of the electrocardiogram (ECG): ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI, 30%), non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI, 25%), or unstable angina (38%).

Coronary arteries

coronary arterycoronaryarteries
The complete blockage of a coronary artery caused by a rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque is usually the underlying mechanism of an MI.
Therefore, any disorder or disease of the coronary arteries can have a serious impacts on health, possibly leading to angina, a heart attack, and even death.

Coronary catheterization

coronary angiographycoronary angiogramcardiac catheterization
A number of tests are useful to help with diagnosis, including electrocardiograms (ECGs), blood tests and coronary angiography.
Very advanced luminal occlusion usually produces a heart attack.

Perspiration

sweatingsweatdiaphoresis
Other symptoms may include shortness of breath, nausea, feeling faint, a cold sweat or feeling tired.
Diaphoresis is also seen in an acute myocardial infarction (heart attack), from the increased firing of the sympathetic nervous system, and is frequent in serotonin syndrome.

Cardiac muscle

myocardiumheart musclemyocardial
Myocardial infarction (MI) refers to tissue death (infarction) of the heart muscle (myocardium). Myocardial infarction (MI), also known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.
These include conditions caused by a restricted blood supply to the muscle including angina pectoris and myocardial infarction, and other heart muscle disease known as cardiomyopathies.

Cardiac arrest

sudden cardiac deathsudden deathcardiopulmonary arrest
An MI may cause heart failure, an irregular heartbeat, cardiogenic shock or cardiac arrest.
While a cardiac arrest may be caused by heart attack or heart failure, these are not the same.

Takotsubo cardiomyopathy

Broken Heart Syndromestress cardiomyopathyTakotsubo syndrome
MIs are less commonly caused by coronary artery spasms, which may be due to cocaine, significant emotional stress and extreme cold, among others.
The typical presentation of takotsubo cardiomyopathy is chest pain associated with electrocardiogram (ECG) changes mimicking a myocardial infarction of the anterior wall.

Coronary artery disease

coronary heart diseaseischemic heart diseaseischaemic heart disease
Most MIs occur due to coronary artery disease.
Types include stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.

Smoking

smokerssmokersmoke
The most prominent risk factors for myocardial infarction are older age, actively smoking, high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, and total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein levels.
This is due to smoking tobacco being among the leading causes of many diseases such as lung cancer, heart attack, COPD, erectile dysfunction, and birth defects.

Autopsy

post-mortemautopsiespost mortem
These cases can be discovered later on electrocardiograms, using blood enzyme tests, or at autopsy after a person has died.
A study that focused on myocardial infarction (heart attack) as a cause of death found significant errors of omission and commission, i.e. a sizable number cases ascribed to myocardial infarctions (MIs) were not MIs and a significant number of non-MIs were actually MIs.

Heart

cardiachuman heartapex of the heart
Myocardial infarction (MI), also known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.
Narrowings of the coronary arteries (ischaemic heart disease) are treated to relieve symptoms of chest pain caused by a partially narrowed artery (angina pectoris), to minimise heart muscle damage when an artery is completely occluded (myocardial infarction), or to prevent a myocardial infarction from occurring.

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug

NSAIDNSAIDsnon-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug
The use of non-steroidal anti inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), even for as short as a week, increases risk.
Side effects depend on the specific drug but largely include an increased risk of gastrointestinal ulcers and bleeds, heart attack, and kidney disease.