Myocardial infarction

heart attackheart attacksacute myocardial infarctionheart failuremyocardial infarctmyocardial infarctionscardiac arrestnon ST elevation myocardial infarctioncardiac infarctionheart-attack
Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.wikipedia
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Cocaine

cokecocaine traffickingcrack
The complete blockage of a coronary artery caused by a rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque is usually the underlying mechanism of an MI. MIs are less commonly caused by coronary artery spasms, which may be due to cocaine, significant emotional stress, and extreme cold, among others.
Its use also increases the risk of stroke, myocardial infarction, lung problems in those who smoke it, blood infections, and sudden cardiac death.

Aspirin

acetylsalicylic acidASAbaby aspirin
Aspirin is an appropriate immediate treatment for a suspected MI. Nitroglycerin or opioids may be used to help with chest pain; however, they do not improve overall outcomes.
Aspirin given shortly after a heart attack decreases the risk of death.

Chest pain

chestchest painschest tightness
The most common symptom is chest pain or discomfort which may travel into the shoulder, arm, back, neck, or jaw.
Myocardial infarction ("heart attack") - People usually complained of a pressure or squeezing sensation over the chest. Other associated symptoms are: excessive sweating, nausea, vomiting, and weakness. Chest pain is more commonly associated with anterior infarction because of left ventricular impairment; inferior infarction is more commonly associated with nausea, vomiting, and excessive sweating due to irritation of vagus nerve; lateral infarction is associated with left arm pain.

Cardiogenic shock

cardiogenicCardiovascular collapseshock, cardiogenic
An MI may cause heart failure, an irregular heartbeat, cardiogenic shock, or cardiac arrest.
If cardiogenic shock is due to a heart attack, attempts to open the heart's arteries may help.

Heparin

unfractionated heparinblood-thinning medicationheparin antagonists
People who have a non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) are often managed with the blood thinner heparin, with the additional use of PCI in those at high risk.
It is also used in the treatment of heart attacks and unstable angina.

Nitroglycerin (drug)

nitroglyceringlyceryl trinitratenitroglycerine
Aspirin is an appropriate immediate treatment for a suspected MI. Nitroglycerin or opioids may be used to help with chest pain; however, they do not improve overall outcomes.
This includes chest pain from a heart attack.

Thrombolysis

thrombolyticthrombolytic therapythrombolytic drug
In a STEMI, treatments attempt to restore blood flow to the heart, and include percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), where the arteries are pushed open and may be stented, or thrombolysis, where the blockage is removed using medications.
It is used in ST elevation myocardial infarction, stroke, and very large pulmonary embolisms.

Atherosclerosis

atheroscleroticatherogenesisatherosclerotic plaques
The complete blockage of a coronary artery caused by a rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque is usually the underlying mechanism of an MI. MIs are less commonly caused by coronary artery spasms, which may be due to cocaine, significant emotional stress, and extreme cold, among others.
According to United States data for 2004, in about 66% of men and 47% of women, the first symptom of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is a heart attack or sudden cardiac death (death within one hour of onset of the symptom).

Heartburn

acid indigestionagitacardialgia
The discomfort may occasionally feel like heartburn.
Heart attack symptoms and esophageal symptoms can be very similar, as the heart and esophagus use the same nerve supply.

Obesity

obesemorbidly obeseoverweight
Risk factors include high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, lack of exercise, obesity, high blood cholesterol, poor diet, and excessive alcohol intake, among others.

Takotsubo cardiomyopathy

Broken heart syndromestress cardiomyopathybroken heart
The complete blockage of a coronary artery caused by a rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque is usually the underlying mechanism of an MI. MIs are less commonly caused by coronary artery spasms, which may be due to cocaine, significant emotional stress, and extreme cold, among others.
The typical presentation of takotsubo cardiomyopathy is chest pain associated with ECG changes mimicking a myocardial infarction of the anterior wall.

Infarction

infarctinfarctedinfarcts
Myocardial infarction (MI) refers to tissue death (infarction) of the heart muscle (myocardium). Unlike other causes of acute coronary syndromes, such as unstable angina, a myocardial infarction occurs when there is cell death, as measured by a blood test for biomarkers (the cardiac protein troponin or the cardiac enzyme CK-MB).
The blood vessel supplying the affected area of tissue may be blocked due to an obstruction in the vessel (e.g., an arterial embolus, thrombus, or atherosclerotic plaque), compressed by something outside of the vessel causing it to narrow (e.g., tumor, volvulus, or hernia), ruptured by trauma causing a loss of blood pressure downstream of the rupture, or vasoconstricted, which is the narrowing of the blood vessel by contraction of the muscle wall rather than an external force (e.g., cocaine vasoconstriction leading to myocardial infarction).

Acute coronary syndrome

acute coronary syndromesacute coronary syndrome (ACS)cardiac dysfunction
It is a type of acute coronary syndrome, which describes a sudden or short-term change in symptoms related to blood flow to the heart.
Acute coronary syndrome is commonly associated with three clinical manifestations: ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI, 30%), non ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI, 25%), or unstable angina (38%).

Unstable angina

pre-infarct anginaunstableunstable angina pectoris
Unlike other causes of acute coronary syndromes, such as unstable angina, a myocardial infarction occurs when there is cell death, as measured by a blood test for biomarkers (the cardiac protein troponin or the cardiac enzyme CK-MB).
It can be difficult to distinguish unstable angina from non-ST elevation (non-Q wave) myocardial infarction (NSTEMI).

Cardiac muscle

myocardiumheart musclemyocardial
Myocardial infarction (MI) refers to tissue death (infarction) of the heart muscle (myocardium). Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.
These include conditions caused by a restricted blood supply to the muscle including angina pectoris and myocardial infarction, and other heart muscle disease known as cardiomyopathies.

Coronary catheterization

coronary angiographycoronary angiogramcardiac catheterization
A number of tests are useful to help with diagnosis, including electrocardiograms (ECGs), blood tests, and coronary angiography.
Very advanced luminal occlusion usually produces a heart attack.

Perspiration

sweatingsweatdiaphoresis
Other symptoms may include shortness of breath, nausea, feeling faint, a cold sweat, or feeling tired.
Diaphoresis is also seen in an acute myocardial infarction (heart attack), from the increased firing of the sympathetic nervous system, and is frequent in serotonin syndrome.

Cardiac arrest

sudden cardiac deathsudden deathcardiopulmonary arrest
An MI may cause heart failure, an irregular heartbeat, cardiogenic shock, or cardiac arrest.
While a cardiac arrest may be caused by heart attack or heart failure, these are not the same.

Troponin

troponin complexcardiac troponinstroponin test
Unlike other causes of acute coronary syndromes, such as unstable angina, a myocardial infarction occurs when there is cell death, as measured by a blood test for biomarkers (the cardiac protein troponin or the cardiac enzyme CK-MB). Commonly used blood tests include troponin and less often creatine kinase MB.
They are measured in the blood to differentiate between unstable angina and myocardial infarction (heart attack) in people with chest pain or acute coronary syndrome.

Coronary artery disease

coronary heart diseaseischemic heart diseaseischaemic heart disease
Most MIs occur due to coronary artery disease.
Types include stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.

Smoking

smokersmokesmokers
The most prominent risk factors for myocardial infarction are older age, actively smoking, high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, and total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein levels.
This is due to smoking tobacco being among the leading causes of many diseases such as lung cancer, heart attack, COPD, erectile dysfunction, and birth defects.

Autopsy

post-mortemautopsiespost mortem
These cases can be discovered later on electrocardiograms, using blood enzyme tests, or at autopsy after a person has died.
A study that focused on myocardial infarction (heart attack) as a cause of death found significant errors of omission and commission, i.e. a sizable number cases ascribed to myocardial infarctions (MIs) were not MIs and a significant number of non-MIs were actually MIs.

ST elevation

elevation of the ST segmentST-elevationelevated
An ECG, which is a recording of the heart's electrical activity, may confirm an ST elevation MI (STEMI) if ST elevation is present.
Myocardial infarction (see also ECG in myocardial infarction). ST elevation in select leads is more common with MI. ST elevation only occurs in full thickness infarction

Framingham Risk Score

cardiovascular risk factorsFramingham Stroke Risk Score
Risk factors for myocardial disease are often included in risk factor stratification scores, such as the Framingham risk score.
It includes: 1) Coronary heart disease (CHD): Myocardial infarction (MI), angina pectoris, heart failure (HF), and coronary death.

Heart

cardiachuman heartapex of the heart
Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.
Narrowings of the coronary arteries (ischaemic heart disease) are treated to relieve symptoms of chest pain caused by a partially narrowed artery (angina pectoris), to minimise heart muscle damage when an artery is completely occluded (myocardial infarction), or to prevent a myocardial infarction from occurring.