Myoclonus

myoclonicmyoclonic jerkmyoclonic jerksmyoclonic seizuresmyoclonic seizuretwitchbrief involuntary muscle twitchingbrief involuntary single or multiple episodes of muscle(s) contractionsessential myoclonushypnagogic myoclonus
Myoclonus is a brief, involuntary, irregular (lacking rhythm) twitching (different from clonus, which is rhythmic/ regular) of a muscle or a group of muscles.wikipedia
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Hiccup

hiccupshiccoughsCharles Osborne
Hiccups are a kind of myoclonic jerk specifically affecting the diaphragm.
A hiccup (also spelled hiccough) is an involuntary contraction (myoclonic jerk) of the diaphragm that may repeat several times per minute.

Twitch

twitching
Myoclonus is a brief, involuntary, irregular (lacking rhythm) twitching (different from clonus, which is rhythmic/ regular) of a muscle or a group of muscles.

Hypnic jerk

kickyou get that falling sensation
The most common circumstance under which they occur is while falling asleep (hypnic jerk).
Hypnic jerks are one form of involuntary muscle twitches called myoclonus.

Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease

Creutzfeldt-Jakob diseaseCJDcreutzfeldt-jakob syndrome
Most often, myoclonus is one of several signs in a wide variety of nervous system disorders such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, dystonia, Alzheimer's disease, Gaucher's disease, subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD), serotonin toxicity, some cases of Huntington's disease, some forms of epilepsy, and occasionally in intracranial hypotension. Myoclonus can occur by itself, but most often as one of several symptoms associated with a variety of nervous system disorders, including multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, opsoclonus myoclonus, Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, Lyme disease and lupus.
Myoclonus (jerky movements) typically occurs in 90% of cases, but may be absent at initial onset.

Epilepsy

epilepticseizure disorderepilepsies
Most often, myoclonus is one of several signs in a wide variety of nervous system disorders such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, dystonia, Alzheimer's disease, Gaucher's disease, subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD), serotonin toxicity, some cases of Huntington's disease, some forms of epilepsy, and occasionally in intracranial hypotension.
There are six main types of generalized seizures: tonic-clonic, tonic, clonic, myoclonic, absence and atonic seizures.

Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

measles encephalitisSSPEDawson disease
Most often, myoclonus is one of several signs in a wide variety of nervous system disorders such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, dystonia, Alzheimer's disease, Gaucher's disease, subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD), serotonin toxicity, some cases of Huntington's disease, some forms of epilepsy, and occasionally in intracranial hypotension.
After the asymptomatic period, progressive neurological deterioration occurs, characterized by behavior change, intellectual problems, myoclonic seizures, blindness, ataxia, and eventually death.

Progressive myoclonus epilepsy

progressive myoclonus epilepsiesEpilepsy progressive myoclonicmyoclonic epilepsies, progressive
The most common types of myoclonus include action, cortical reflex, essential, palatal, those seen in the progressive myoclonus epilepsies, reticular reflex, sleep and stimulus-sensitive.
The syndrome includes myoclonic seizures and tonic-clonic seizures together with progressive neurological decline.

Serotonin syndrome

hyperserotonemiaserotonin toxicitycentral toxic serotonin reaction
Most often, myoclonus is one of several signs in a wide variety of nervous system disorders such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, dystonia, Alzheimer's disease, Gaucher's disease, subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD), serotonin toxicity, some cases of Huntington's disease, some forms of epilepsy, and occasionally in intracranial hypotension.
Mild symptoms may consist of increased heart rate, shivering, sweating, dilated pupils, myoclonus (intermittent jerking or twitching), as well as overresponsive reflexes.

Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy

Janz syndromejuvenile absence epilepsyjuvenile epilepsy
This disorder typically first manifests itself between the ages of 12 and 18 with sudden brief involuntary single or multiple episodes of muscle(s) contractions caused by an abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.

Reflex seizure

reflex epilepsyepilepsy, reflexreflex epilepsies
In reflex epilepsies, myoclonic seizures can be brought on by flashing lights or other environmental triggers (see photosensitive epilepsy).
Reflex seizures are otherwise similar to unprovoked seizures and may be focal (simple or complex), generalized, myoclonic, or absence seizures.

Gaucher's disease

Gaucher diseaseGaucher’s diseasePseudo-Gaucher disease
Most often, myoclonus is one of several signs in a wide variety of nervous system disorders such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, dystonia, Alzheimer's disease, Gaucher's disease, subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD), serotonin toxicity, some cases of Huntington's disease, some forms of epilepsy, and occasionally in intracranial hypotension.

Dementia

senilesenilitysenile dementia
Other common symptoms include jerky movements of one or more limbs (myoclonus), symptoms that are different in different limbs (asymmetric), difficulty with speech from inability to move the mouth muscles in a coordinated way, numbness and tingling of the limbs and neglecting one side of vision or senses.

Encephalopathy

encephalomyopathyencephalopathiesstatic encephalopathy
Hypervigilance may be present; with or without: cognitive deficits, headache, epileptic seizures, myoclonus (involuntary twitching of a muscle or group of muscles) or asterixis ("flapping tremor" of the hand when wrist is extended).

Epileptic seizure

seizureseizuresepileptic seizures
These myoclonic twitches, jerks, or seizures are usually caused by sudden muscle contractions (positive myoclonus) or brief lapses of contraction (negative myoclonus).
Generalized seizures are divided according to the effect on the body and include tonic-clonic (grand mal), absence (petit mal), myoclonic, clonic, tonic, and atonic seizures.

Lafora disease

Lafora disease (EPM2a or EMP2b)LaforaLafora bodies
The most common feature of Lafora disease is seizures that have been reported mainly as occipital seizures and myoclonic seizures with some cases of generalized tonic-clonic seizures, atypical absence seizures, and atonic and complex partial seizures.

Huntington's disease

HuntingtonHuntington diseaseHuntington’s disease
Most often, myoclonus is one of several signs in a wide variety of nervous system disorders such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, dystonia, Alzheimer's disease, Gaucher's disease, subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD), serotonin toxicity, some cases of Huntington's disease, some forms of epilepsy, and occasionally in intracranial hypotension.
Hypokinesia and rigidity, especially in juvenile cases, can be treated with antiparkinsonian drugs, and myoclonic hyperkinesia can be treated with valproic acid.

Clonus

clonicclonic seizuresclonic contractions
Myoclonus is a brief, involuntary, irregular (lacking rhythm) twitching (different from clonus, which is rhythmic/ regular) of a muscle or a group of muscles.

Tourette syndrome

Tourette's syndromeTouretteTourettes
In contrast to the abnormal movements of other movement disorders such as choreas, dystonias, myoclonus, and dyskinesias, the tics of Tourette's are temporarily suppressible, nonrhythmic, and often preceded by an unwanted premonitory urge.

Shivering

Shivershivering thermogenesischills
Shuddering attacks in babies fall in this category.

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek

Anton van LeeuwenhoekAntoni van LeeuwenhoekLeeuwenhoek
It was first described by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek in 1723, who suffered from it.
He suffered from a rare disease, an uncontrolled movement of the midriff, which now is named van Leeuwenhoek's disease.

MERRF syndrome

MERRFMyoclonic Epilepsy with Ragged Red Fibersragged-red fibers
It is also found in MERRF (Myoclonic Epilepsy with Ragged Red Fibers), a rare mitochondrial encephalomyopathy.
The primary features displayed on a person with MERRF include myoclonus, seizures, cerebellar ataxia, myopathy, and ragged red fibers (RRF) on muscle biopsy, leading to the disease's name.

Lamotrigine

Lamictal
Myoclonus may develop in response to infection, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, head or spinal cord injury, stroke, stress, brain tumors, kidney or liver failure, lipid storage disease, chemical or drug poisoning, as a side effect of certain drugs (such as tramadol, quinolones, benzodiazepine, gabapentin, sertraline, lamotrigine, opioids), or other disorders.
It is also used as an alternative or adjuvant medication for partial seizures, such as absence seizure, myoclonic seizure, and atonic seizures.

Opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome

opsoclonus-myoclonusKinsbourne syndromeOpsoclonus Myoclonus Ataxia
Myoclonus can occur by itself, but most often as one of several symptoms associated with a variety of nervous system disorders, including multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, opsoclonus myoclonus, Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, Lyme disease and lupus.

Valproate

valproic acidsodium valproateDepakote
Some drugs being studied in different combinations include clonazepam, sodium valproate, piracetam, and primidone.
Valproate has a broad spectrum of anticonvulsant activity, although it is primarily used as a first-line treatment for tonic-clonic seizures, absence seizures and myoclonic seizures and as a second-line treatment for partial seizures and infantile spasms.

Clonazepam

KlonopinRivotril
Some drugs being studied in different combinations include clonazepam, sodium valproate, piracetam, and primidone.
It is also approved for treatment of typical and atypical absences, infantile myoclonic, myoclonic, and akinetic seizures.