Myokine

3D medical animation still showing secretion of cytokines

One of several hundred cytokines or other small proteins and proteoglycan peptides that are produced and released by skeletal muscle cells (muscle fibers) in response to muscular contractions.

- Myokine

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Physical fitness

State of health and well-being and, more specifically, the ability to perform aspects of sports, occupations and daily activities.

Physical fitness is achieved through exercise, among other factors. Photo shows Rich Froning Jr. – four-time winner of "Fittest Man on Earth" title.
Playing sports such as lawn tennis is a common way to maintain/improve physical fitness. Image shows international tennis player Barbora Strycova.
Swimmers in competitive swimwear perform squats prior to entering the pool in a U.S. military base, 2011.
Ladies performing a common 19th-century fitness routine including climbing the underside of a ladder, balancing and gymnastics.

That is, contracting muscles release multiple substances known as myokines, which promote the growth of new tissue, tissue repair, and various anti-inflammatory functions, which in turn reduce the risk of developing various inflammatory diseases.

Myostatin

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In humans, the MSTN gene is located on the long (q) arm of chromosome 2 at position 32.2.
Belgian Blue cattle
A "bully whippet" with a homozygous mutation in myostatin

Myostatin is a myokine that is produced and released by myocytes and acts on muscle cells to inhibit muscle growth.

Strength training

Strength training or resistance training involves the performance of physical exercises that are designed to improve strength and endurance.

A gym environment where various forms of strength training are being practiced. Identified from left to right, the exercises are: overhead presses, battle ropes, planking, and kettlebell raises.
The bodyweight squat is effective at strengthening the legs and core. It requires no equipment and can be performed almost anywhere. A person stands with their arms by their sides, and then squats down moving their arms out ahead of themselves, and then stands up again while moving their arms back to their sides, and so forth.
A back extension
Using a wrist strap
A woman doing strength training using weights at a health club with her coach standing behind her.
Arthur Saxon performing a Two Hands Anyhow with an early kettlebell and plate-loaded barbell

That is, contracting muscles release multiple substances known as myokines which promote the growth of new tissue, tissue repair, and various anti-inflammatory functions, which in turn reduce the risk of developing various inflammatory diseases.

Aerobic exercise

Physical exercise of low to high intensity that depends primarily on the aerobic energy-generating process.

A step aerobics exercise instructor in the United States Army motivates her class to keep up the pace.
Cardio and muscle endurance exercise session using plastic steps or platforms
Fox and Haskell formula shows the split between aerobic (light orange) and anaerobic (dark orange) exercise and heart rate

New research on the endocrine functions of contracting muscles has shown that both aerobic and anaerobic exercise promote the secretion of myokines, with attendant benefits including growth of new tissue, tissue repair, and various anti-inflammatory functions, which in turn reduce the risk of developing various inflammatory diseases.

Interleukin 6

3D medical animation still showing secretion of cytokines

Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is an interleukin that acts as both a pro-inflammatory cytokine and an anti-inflammatory myokine.

Interleukin 10

Anti-inflammatory cytokine.

The cardinal signs of inflammation include: pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function. Some of these indicators can be seen here due to an allergic reaction.

IL-10 is linked to the myokines, as exercise provokes an increase in circulating levels of IL-1ra, IL-10, and sTNF-R, suggesting that physical exercise fosters an environment of anti-inflammatory cytokines.

Anti-inflammatory

Property of a substance or treatment that reduces inflammation or swelling.

The cardinal signs of inflammation include: pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function. Some of these indicators can be seen here due to an allergic reaction.

That is, contracting muscles release multiple substances known as myokines which promote the growth of new tissue, tissue repair, and various anti-inflammatory functions, which in turn reduce the risk of developing various inflammatory diseases.

Exercise

Any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness.

Running in water (aquarunning)
Weight training
An aerobics exercise instructor instructs her class to keep up the pace in the United States.
Summary of long-term adaptations to regular aerobic and anaerobic exercise. Aerobic exercise can cause several central cardiovascular adaptations, including an increase in stroke volume (SV) and maximal aerobic capacity (VO2 max), as well as a decrease in resting heart rate (RHR). Long-term adaptations to resistance training, the most common form of anaerobic exercise, include muscular hypertrophy,  an increase in the physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) of muscle(s), and an increase in neural drive,  both of which lead to increased muscular strength. Neural adaptations begin more quickly and plateau prior to the hypertrophic response.
Roper's gymnasium, Philadelphia, USA, circa 1831.
Running helps in achieving physical fitness.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/healthyliving/running-and-jogging-health-benefits#goal-setting-for-running-and-jogging |title= Running and jogging - health benefits}}</ref>
Skateboarding is good for cardiovascular health<ref>{{cite web |title=5 Reasons Why Skateboarding Is Good Exercise |url=https://longboardingnation.com/reasons-skateboarding-good-exercise/ |website=Longboarding Nation |access-date=6 July 2021 |date=25 January 2019}}</ref>{{Better source needed|date=January 2022}}
Swimming as an exercise tones muscles and builds strength.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/healthyliving/swimming-health-benefits#health-benefits-of-swimming |title= Swimming - health benefits }}</ref>
Athletics (ex. pole vault) as a form of exercise
Football as an exercise

That is, contracting muscles release multiple substances known as myokines which promote the growth of new tissue, tissue repair, and multiple anti-inflammatory functions, which in turn reduce the risk of developing various inflammatory diseases.

Skeletal muscle

Skeletal muscles (commonly referred to as muscles) are organs of the vertebrate muscular system that are mostly attached by tendons to bones of the skeleton.

A top-down view of skeletal muscle
3D rendering of a skeletal muscle fiber
Muscle types by fiber arrangement
Types of pennate muscle. A – unipennate; B – bipennate; 
C – multipennate
ATPase staining of a muscle cross section. Type II fibers are dark, due to the alkaline pH of the preparation. In this example, the size of the type II fibers is considerably less than the type I fibers due to denervation atrophy.
Structure of muscle fibre showing a sarcomere under electron microscope with schematic explanation.
Diagram of sarcoplasmic reticulum with terminal cisternae and T-tubules.
Human embryo showing somites labelled as primitive segments.
When a sarcomere contracts, the Z lines move closer together, and the I band becomes smaller. The A band stays the same width. At full contraction, the thin and thick filaments overlap.
Contraction in more detail
(a) Some ATP is stored in a resting muscle. As contraction starts, it is used up in seconds. More ATP is generated from creatine phosphate for about 15 seconds. (b) Each glucose molecule produces two ATP and two molecules of pyruvic acid, which can be used in aerobic respiration or converted to lactic acid. If oxygen is not available, pyruvic acid is converted to lactic acid, which may contribute to muscle fatigue. This occurs during strenuous exercise when high amounts of energy are needed but oxygen cannot be sufficiently delivered to muscle. (c) Aerobic respiration is the breakdown of glucose in the presence of oxygen (O2) to produce carbon dioxide, water, and ATP. Approximately 95 percent of the ATP required for resting or moderately active muscles is provided by aerobic respiration, which takes place in mitochondria.
Exercise-induced signaling pathways in skeletal muscle that determine specialized characteristics of slow- and fast-twitch muscle fibers
Jogging is one form of aerobic exercise.
In muscular dystrophy, the affected tissues become disorganized and the concentration of dystrophin (green) is greatly reduced.
Prisoner of war exhibiting muscle loss as a result of malnutrition.

Following contraction, skeletal muscle functions as an endocrine organ by secreting myokines – a wide range of cytokines and other peptides that act as signalling molecules.

Tumor necrosis factor

Adipokine and a cytokine.

Signaling pathway of TNFR1. Dashed grey lines represent multiple steps.

The research of Pedersen et al. indicates that TNF increase in response to sepsis is inhibited by the exercise-induced production of myokines.