Myosin

myosin IImyosin heavy chainmyosinsMHCmyosin type imyosin type iimyosin type iiimyosin type ivmyosin type vmyosin heavy chains
Myosins are a superfamily of motor proteins best known for their roles in muscle contraction and in a wide range of other motility processes in eukaryotes.wikipedia
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Motor protein

motor proteinscentrosome associated motor proteinsCytoskeletal motors
Myosins are a superfamily of motor proteins best known for their roles in muscle contraction and in a wide range of other motility processes in eukaryotes.
The best prominent example of a motor protein is the muscle protein myosin which "motors" the contraction of muscle fibers in animals.

Muscle

musclesmuscularmusculature
Myosins are a superfamily of motor proteins best known for their roles in muscle contraction and in a wide range of other motility processes in eukaryotes. Paramyosin is a large, 93-115kDa muscle protein that has been described in a number of diverse invertebrate phyla.
Muscle cells contain protein filaments of actin and myosin that slide past one another, producing a contraction that changes both the length and the shape of the cell.

Actin

alpha-actinF-actinthin filament
They are ATP-dependent and responsible for actin-based motility.
Actin was first observed experimentally in 1887 by W.D. Halliburton, who extracted a protein from muscle that 'coagulated' preparations of myosin that he called "myosin-ferment".

Smooth muscle

smooth muscle cellssmooth musclessmooth muscle cell
The term was originally used to describe a group of similar ATPases found in the cells of both striated muscle tissue and smooth muscle tissue.
A substantial portion of the volume of the cytoplasm of smooth muscle cells are taken up by the molecules myosin and actin, which together have the capability to contract, and, through a chain of tensile structures, make the entire smooth muscle tissue contract with them.

Eukaryote

eukaryoticeukaryotesEukaryota
Myosins are a superfamily of motor proteins best known for their roles in muscle contraction and in a wide range of other motility processes in eukaryotes.
Motor proteins of microtubules, e.g., dynein or kinesin and actin, e.g., myosins provide dynamic character of the network.

Myosin head

headhead portion
Most myosin molecules are composed of a head, neck, and tail domain.
Myosin is a major component of thick filaments and most myosin molecules are composed of a head, neck, and tail domain; the myosin head binds to thin filamentous actin, and uses ATP hydrolysis to generate force and "walk" along the thin filament.

Sarcomere

sarcomeresZ-discZ-discs
In muscle cells, the long coiled-coil tails of the individual myosin molecules join together, forming the thick filaments of the sarcomere.
Two of the important proteins are myosin, which forms the thick filament, and actin, which forms the thin filament.

Myosin light chain

myosin light chainslight chainMLC
It also contains 4 myosin light chains (MLC), resulting in 2 per head, weighing 20 (MLC 20 ) and 17 (MLC 17 ) kDa. These bind the heavy chains in the "neck" region between the head and tail.
A myosin light chain is a light chain (small polypeptide subunit) of myosin.

Myocyte

muscle fibermuscle cellmyoblast
Skeletal muscle myosin, the most conspicuous of the myosin superfamily due to its abundance in muscle fibers, was the first to be discovered.
Thick filaments, composed of protein molecules called myosin. In striations of muscle bands, these are the dark filaments that make up the A band.

MYH11

Myosin II contains two heavy chains, each about 2000 amino acids in length, which constitute the head and tail domains. Each of these heavy chains contains the N-terminal head domain, while the C-terminal tails take on a coiled-coil morphology, holding the two heavy chains together (imagine two snakes wrapped around each other, as in a caduceus). Thus, myosin II has two heads. The intermediate neck domain is the region creating the angle between the head and tail. In smooth muscle, a single gene (MYH11 ) codes for the heavy chains myosin II, but splice variants of this gene result in four distinct isoforms. Class II: MYH1, MYH2, MYH3, MYH4, MYH6, MYH7, MYH7B, MYH8, MYH9, MYH10, MYH11, MYH13, MYH14, MYH15, MYH16
Myosin-11 is a smooth muscle myosin belonging to the myosin heavy chain family.

MYH6

alpha myosin heavy chainalpha-myosin heavy chain
Class II: MYH1, MYH2, MYH3, MYH4, MYH6, MYH7, MYH7B, MYH8, MYH9, MYH10, MYH11, MYH13, MYH14, MYH15, MYH16
This isoform is distinct from the ventricular/slow myosin heavy chain isoform, MYH7, referred to as MHC-β.

MYO1A

myosin 1a
Class I: MYO1A, MYO1B, MYO1C, MYO1D, MYO1E, MYO1F, MYO1G, MYO1H
The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the myosin superfamily.

FERM domain

FERM
Myosin VII is an unconventional myosin with two FERM domains in the tail region.
Unconventional myosins X, VIIa and XV, which are mutated in congenital deafness.

MYH7

myosincardiac muscleβ-myosin
Class II: MYH1, MYH2, MYH3, MYH4, MYH6, MYH7, MYH7B, MYH8, MYH9, MYH10, MYH11, MYH13, MYH14, MYH15, MYH16
MYH7 is a gene encoding a myosin heavy chain beta (MHC-β) isoform (slow twitch) expressed primarily in the heart, but also in skeletal muscles (type I fibers).

MYH16 gene

MYH16
Class II: MYH1, MYH2, MYH3, MYH4, MYH6, MYH7, MYH7B, MYH8, MYH9, MYH10, MYH11, MYH13, MYH14, MYH15, MYH16
The MYH16 gene encodes a protein called myosin heavy chain 16 which is a muscle protein in mammals.

Stromule

It is responsible for the light-directed movement of chloroplasts according to light intensity and the formation of stromules interconnecting different plastids.
This dynamic random walk-like movement is probably caused by Myosin XI proteins as a recent work found.

MYO1G

Class I: MYO1A, MYO1B, MYO1C, MYO1D, MYO1E, MYO1F, MYO1G, MYO1H
Myosin 1G or Myo1G is a member of class I unconventional myosins.

MYO7A

myosin VIIAVIIa
Class VII: MYO7A, MYO7B
Myosin VIIA is a member of the unconventional myosin superfamily of proteins.

Protein

proteinsprotein synthesisproteinaceous
Paramyosin is a large, 93-115kDa muscle protein that has been described in a number of diverse invertebrate phyla.
Proteins also have structural or mechanical functions, such as actin and myosin in muscle and the proteins in the cytoskeleton, which form a system of scaffolding that maintains cell shape.

MYLK

MYLK1myosin light chain kinaseTelokin
* Light chain: MYL1, MYL2, MYL3, MYL4, MYL5, MYL6, MYL6B, MYL7, MYL9, MYLIP, MYLK, MYLK2, MYLL1
This kinase phosphorylates myosin regulatory light chains to facilitate myosin interaction with actin filaments to produce contractile activity.

MYH10

Class II: MYH1, MYH2, MYH3, MYH4, MYH6, MYH7, MYH7B, MYH8, MYH9, MYH10, MYH11, MYH13, MYH14, MYH15, MYH16
NM-IIB is part of the larger myosin II subfamily of proteins, which also includes skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle and smooth muscle myosins.

MYL9

MLC20MYL9/MLC2
* Light chain: MYL1, MYL2, MYL3, MYL4, MYL5, MYL6, MYL6B, MYL7, MYL9, MYLIP, MYLK, MYLK2, MYLL1
Myosin, a structural component of muscle, consists of two heavy chains and four light chains.

MYL3

essential light chain
* Light chain: MYL1, MYL2, MYL3, MYL4, MYL5, MYL6, MYL6B, MYL7, MYL9, MYLIP, MYLK, MYLK2, MYLL1
Treating cardiac myofibrils with the Lysine-rich N-terminal peptide (amino acids 5-14) evoked a supramaximal increase in cardiac myofibrillar MgATPase activity at submaximal calcium concentrations, and further studies demonstrated that this region of ELC modulates the affinity of myosin for actin.

MYH1

Class II: MYH1, MYH2, MYH3, MYH4, MYH6, MYH7, MYH7B, MYH8, MYH9, MYH10, MYH11, MYH13, MYH14, MYH15, MYH16
Myosin is a major contractile protein that converts chemical energy into mechanical energy through the hydrolysis of ATP.

MYO6

Class VI: MYO6
It is one of the so-called unconventional myosins.[supplied by OMIM]