N. R. Pogson

Norman R. PogsonNorman PogsonPogsonN.R.PogsonSir Norman PogsonN.R. PogsonPogson, N. R.Pogson, Norman RobertProfessor N. R. Pogson
Norman Robert Pogson, CIE (23 March 1829 – 23 June 1891) was an English astronomer who worked in India at the Madras observatory.wikipedia
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Apparent magnitude

apparent visual magnitudemagnitudevisual magnitude
He introduced a mathematical scale of stellar magnitudes with the ratio of two successive magnitudes being the fifth root of one hundred (~2.512) and referred to as Pogson's ratio. His most notable contribution was to note that in the stellar magnitude system introduced by the Greek astronomer Hipparchus, stars of the first magnitude were a hundred times as bright as stars of the sixth magnitude.
In 1856, Norman Robert Pogson formalized the system by defining a first magnitude star as a star that is 100 times as bright as a sixth-magnitude star, thereby establishing the logarithmic scale still in use today.

Helium

Hesuperfluid heliumhelium-4
He observed and commented on the spectral line associated with Helium, then yet to be discovered.
It was first detected as an unknown yellow spectral line signature in sunlight during a solar eclipse in 1868 by Georges Rayet, Captain C. T. Haig, Norman R. Pogson, and Lieutenant John Herschel, and was subsequently confirmed by French astronomer Jules Janssen.

67 Asia

Reaching India in 1861 and working at the Madras Observatory he worked tirelessly, discovering the asteroid 67 Asia.
It was discovered by N.R. Pogson on April 17, 1861, from the Madras Observatory.

X/1872 X1

Unfortunately the skies were cloudy in Madras and when it cleared up on December 2, 1872, he observed an object (recorded as X/1872 X1) which he believed to be a return of Biela's Comet but was later found to be a different object which has been called "Pogson's comet".
X/1872 X1, occasionally referred to as "Pogson's Comet", was a probable cometary astronomical object seen from Madras (now Chennai) on December 3 and 4, 1872, by astronomer N. R. Pogson.

Chinthamani Ragoonatha Chary

C. Ragoonatha CharyC. RagoonathacharyChintamani Raghunatha Chary
One of Pogson's assistants was Chintamani Raghunatha Chary.
Chinthamani Ragoonatha Chary (1822 or "17 March" 1828 – 5 February 1880) was an Indian astronomer who worked at the Madras Observatory along with N.R. Pogson.

George Bishop's Observatory

Londonan astronomical observatory
He was introduced to astronomy through George Bishop's Observatory at South Villa Regent's Park from 1846.
Other notable astronomers to use the observatory included Eduard Vogel, Charles George Talmage, and Norman Robert Pogson.

46 Hestia

Hestia
Hestia was discovered by N. R. Pogson on August 16, 1857, at the Radcliffe Observatory, Oxford.

107 Camilla

Camilla
It was discovered on 17 November 1868, by English astronomer Norman Pogson at Madras Observatory, India, and named after Camilla, Queen of the Volsci in Roman mythology.

Magnitude (astronomy)

magnitudemagnitudesmag
He introduced a mathematical scale of stellar magnitudes with the ratio of two successive magnitudes being the fifth root of one hundred (~2.512) and referred to as Pogson's ratio.
Thus in 1856 Norman Pogson of Oxford proposed that a logarithmic scale of 5√100 ≈ 2.512 be adopted between magnitudes, so five magnitude steps corresponded precisely to a factor of 100 in brightness.

43 Ariadne

(43) Ariadne
It was discovered by N. R. Pogson on April 15, 1857, and named after the Greek heroine Ariadne.

42 Isis

Isis
Asteroid 42 Isis is believed to be named after his daughter, Elizabeth Isis Pogson
It was discovered by N.R. Pogson on May 23, 1856, at Oxford.

80 Sappho

It was discovered by Norman Pogson on May 2, 1864, and is named after Sappho, the Greek poet.

Isis Pogson

Elizabeth Isis Pogson
Asteroid 42 Isis is believed to be named after his daughter, Elizabeth Isis Pogson Pogson's daughter Elizabeth Isis Pogson (born on 28 September 1852) served as his assistant at the Madras observatory from 1873 to 1881.
Pogson was born in Oxford, England, the eldest daughter of Norman Pogson by his first marriage to Elizabeth Jane Ambrose (died 1869).

87 Sylvia

Sylvia
Sylvia was discovered by N. R. Pogson on May 16, 1866, from Madras (Chennai), India.

Madras Observatory

MadrasMadras Obs.
Reaching India in 1861 and working at the Madras Observatory he worked tirelessly, discovering the asteroid 67 Asia. Norman Robert Pogson, CIE (23 March 1829 – 23 June 1891) was an English astronomer who worked in India at the Madras observatory.
Taylor's estimate of the longitude for Madras was 80°14'20"E. Taylor also made observations on the comet of 1831. Taylor was replaced by Captain William Stephen Jacob in 1848, who continued the work on star positions. Jacob found orbital anomalies in the binary star 70 Ophiuchi that he claimed were evidence of a possible extrasolar planet. From 1859 to 1861 Major J.F. Tennant was in charge of the observatory and magnetic observations began to be made using vertical force and declination magnetometers. In 1861, N. R. Pogson became astronomer. Pogson was assisted by C. Ragoonathachary. In 1872, an accurate clock was added to the observatory and a telegraph line between the observatory and Fort St George helped in accurate timing of a gun at noon and 8 pm. Three rooms were added for photography. Pogson was succeeded by C. Michie Smith who moved to Kodaikanal to study solar physics in 1899.

Biela's Comet

3D/BielaBielacomet of Biela
Unfortunately the skies were cloudy in Madras and when it cleared up on December 2, 1872, he observed an object (recorded as X/1872 X1) which he believed to be a return of Biela's Comet but was later found to be a different object which has been called "Pogson's comet".
A puzzling observation recorded as X/1872 X1, seen by N. R. Pogson in late 1872 from the Madras Observatory, was also speculated to be a recovery of Biela's Comet, though once again this was later shown to have been unlikely.

Luminosity

luminousbolometric luminosityluminosities
where m is the stellar magnitude and L is the luminosity, for stars 1 and 2.
In 1856 Norman Pogson, noticing that photometric measurements had established first magnitude stars as being about 100 times brighter than sixth magnitude stars, formalized the Hipparchus system by creating a logarithmic scale, with every interval of one magnitude equating to a variation in brightness of 100 1/5 or roughly 2.512 times.

Hipparchus

hipparchHipparchus of NiceaObservatory at Rhodes
His most notable contribution was to note that in the stellar magnitude system introduced by the Greek astronomer Hipparchus, stars of the first magnitude were a hundred times as bright as stars of the sixth magnitude.
That system by Ptolemy is effectively still in use today, though extended and made more precise through the introduction of a logarithmic scale by N. R. Pogson in 1856.

1830 Pogson

Asteroid 1830 Pogson
This minor planet was named after the English astronomer Norman Pogson (1829–1891), inventor of the modern astronomical magnitude scale and discoverer of eight minor planets, including 42 Isis and 67 Asia.

1856 in science

1856
N. R. Pogson proposes that the ratio used in Hipparchus' stellar apparent magnitude system should be adopted as a standard.

List of minor planets: 1–1000

11–1000thousand minor planet discoveries
42 Isis || — || May 23, 1856 || Oxford || N. R. Pogson || — || align=right | 111 km || 42·

List of exceptional asteroids

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