N. R. Pogson

Norman Robert PogsonNorman PogsonN.R. PogsonPogsonNorman R. PogsonPogson ratioPogson, N. R.Pogson, Norman RobertProfessor N. R. PogsonSir Norman Pogson
Norman Robert Pogson, CIE (23 March 1829 – 23 June 1891) was an English astronomer who worked in India at the Madras observatory.wikipedia
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Apparent magnitude

apparent visual magnitudemagnitudevisual magnitude
He introduced a mathematical scale of stellar magnitudes with the ratio of two successive magnitudes being the fifth root of one hundred (~2.512) and referred to as Pogson's ratio. His most notable contribution was to note that in the stellar magnitude system introduced by the Greek astronomer Hipparchus, stars of the first magnitude were a hundred times as bright as stars of the sixth magnitude.
In 1856, Norman Robert Pogson formalized the system by defining a first magnitude star as a star that is 100 times as bright as a sixth-magnitude star, thereby establishing the logarithmic scale still in use today.

Helium

Hehelium IIsuperfluid helium
He observed and commented on the spectral line associated with Helium, then yet to be discovered.
It was first detected as an unknown, yellow spectral line signature in sunlight, during a solar eclipse in 1868 by Georges Rayet, Captain C. T. Haig, Norman R. Pogson, and Lieutenant John Herschel, and was subsequently confirmed by French astronomer, Jules Janssen.

67 Asia

Asia
Reaching India in 1861 and working at the Madras Observatory he worked tirelessly, discovering the asteroid 67 Asia.
It was discovered by N.R. Pogson on April 17, 1861, from the Madras Observatory.

Magnitude (astronomy)

magnitudemagnitudesmag
He introduced a mathematical scale of stellar magnitudes with the ratio of two successive magnitudes being the fifth root of one hundred (~2.512) and referred to as Pogson's ratio.
Thus in 1856 Norman Pogson of Oxford proposed that a logarithmic scale of 5√100 ≈ 2.512 be adopted between magnitudes, so five magnitude steps corresponded precisely to a factor of 100 in brightness.

George Bishop's Observatory

a London observatory (in operation from 1836 to 1861)an astronomical observatoryLondon
He was introduced to astronomy through George Bishop's Observatory at South Villa Regent's Park from 1846.
Other notable astronomers to use the observatory included Eduard Vogel, Charles George Talmage, and Norman Robert Pogson.

X/1872 X1

Unfortunately the skies were cloudy in Madras and when it cleared up on December 2, 1872, he observed an object (recorded as X/1872 X1) which he believed to be a return of Biela's Comet but was later found to be a different object which has been called "Pogson's comet".
X/1872 X1, occasionally referred to as "Pogson's Comet", was a probable cometary astronomical object seen from Madras (now Chennai) on December 3 and 4, 1872, by astronomer N. R. Pogson.

Madras Observatory

MadrasMadras Obs.
Reaching India in 1861 and working at the Madras Observatory he worked tirelessly, discovering the asteroid 67 Asia. Norman Robert Pogson, CIE (23 March 1829 – 23 June 1891) was an English astronomer who worked in India at the Madras observatory.
Taylor's estimate of the longitude for Madras was 80°14'20"E. Taylor also made observations on the comet of 1831. Taylor was replaced by Captain William Stephen Jacob in 1848, who continued the work on star positions. Jacob found orbital anomalies in the binary star 70 Ophiuchi that he claimed were evidence of a possible extrasolar planet. From 1859 to 1861 Major J.F. Tennant was in charge of the observatory and magnetic observations began to be made using vertical force and declination magnetometers. In 1861, N. R. Pogson became astronomer. Pogson was assisted by C. Ragoonathachary. In 1872, an accurate clock was added to the observatory and a telegraph line between the observatory and Fort St George helped in accurate timing of a gun at noon and 8 pm. Three rooms were added for photography. Pogson was succeeded by C. Michie Smith who moved to Kodaikanal to study solar physics in 1899.

Chinthamani Ragoonatha Chary

C. Ragoonatha CharyC. RagoonathacharyChintamani Raghunatha Chary
One of Pogson's assistants was Chintamani Raghunatha Chary.
Chinthamani Ragoonatha Chary (1822 or "17 March" 1828 – 5 February 1880) was an Indian astronomer who worked at the Madras Observatory along with N.R. Pogson.

43 Ariadne

(43) AriadneAriadne
It was discovered by N. R. Pogson on April 15, 1857, and named after the Greek heroine Ariadne.

42 Isis

Isis
It was discovered by N.R. Pogson on May 23, 1856, at Oxford.

46 Hestia

Hestia
Hestia was discovered by N. R. Pogson on August 16, 1857, at the Radcliffe Observatory, Oxford.

107 Camilla

S/2001 (107) 1S/2016 (107) 1Camilla
It was discovered on 17 November 1868, by English astronomer Norman Pogson at Madras Observatory, India, and named after Camilla, Queen of the Volsci in Roman mythology.

80 Sappho

Sappho
It was discovered by Norman Pogson on May 2, 1864, and is named after Sappho, the Greek poet.

87 Sylvia

Sylvia
Sylvia was discovered by N. R. Pogson on May 16, 1866, from Madras (Chennai), India.

Isis Pogson

Elizabeth Isis Pogson
Pogson's daughter Elizabeth Isis Pogson (born on 28 September 1852) served as his assistant at the Madras observatory from 1873 to 1881.
Pogson was born in Oxford, England, the eldest daughter of Norman Pogson by his first marriage to Elizabeth Jane Ambrose (died 1869).

Biela's Comet

3D/BielaComet BielaBiela
Unfortunately the skies were cloudy in Madras and when it cleared up on December 2, 1872, he observed an object (recorded as X/1872 X1) which he believed to be a return of Biela's Comet but was later found to be a different object which has been called "Pogson's comet".
A puzzling observation recorded as X/1872 X1, seen by N. R. Pogson in late 1872 from the Madras Observatory, was also speculated to be a recovery of Biela's Comet, though once again this was later shown to have been unlikely.

Hipparchus

HipparchosHipparchus of NicaeaHipparchus of Nicea
His most notable contribution was to note that in the stellar magnitude system introduced by the Greek astronomer Hipparchus, stars of the first magnitude were a hundred times as bright as stars of the sixth magnitude.
This system was made more precise and extended by N. R. Pogson in 1856, who placed the magnitudes on a logarithmic scale, making magnitude 1 stars 100 times brighter than magnitude 6 stars, thus each magnitude is 5√100 or 2.512 times brighter than the next faintest magnitude.

245 Vera

It was discovered by N. R. Pogson on February 6, 1885, in Madras.

England

🏴󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿EnglishENG
Norman Robert Pogson, CIE (23 March 1829 – 23 June 1891) was an English astronomer who worked in India at the Madras observatory.

Astronomer

astronomersastrophysicistprofessional astronomers
Norman Robert Pogson, CIE (23 March 1829 – 23 June 1891) was an English astronomer who worked in India at the Madras observatory.

Nottingham

City of NottinghamNottingham, EnglandNottingham, Nottinghamshire
Norman was born in Nottingham, the son of George Owen Pogson, a hosiery manufacturer, lace dealer and commission agent, "with enough income to support an extended family", and his wife, Mary Ann.

John Russell Hind

J. R. HindHindJohn Russel Hind
At the age of eighteen, he calculated with the help of John Russell Hind of the Royal Astronomical Society, the orbits of two comets.

Radcliffe Observatory

Radcliffe ObserverOxfordRadcliffe
He was engaged as an assistant at the Radcliffe Observatory in 1852; a new Heliometer had been installed there in 1850.