A report on NASA

X-15 in powered flight
L. Gordon Cooper, photographed by a slow-scan television camera aboard Faith 7 (May 16, 1963)
Richard Gordon performs a spacewalk to attach a tether to the Agena Target Vehicle on Gemini 11, 1966
Buzz Aldrin on the Moon, 1969 (photograph by Neil Armstrong)
Skylab in 1974, seen from the departing Skylab 4 CSM.
Soviet and American crews with spacecraft model, 1975.
Launch of at the start of STS-120.
The International Space Station as seen from during STS-134.
Artist's rendering of Altair lander landed on the Moon.
Artemis program logo
Administrator Bill Nelson
Organizational structure of NASA (2015)
NASA logo at JPL on November 17, 2020
The Goddard Institute for Space Studies of Columbia University in New York City
William H. Pickering, (center) JPL Director, President John F. Kennedy, (right). NASA Administrator James E. Webb (background) discussing the Mariner program, with a model presented.
NASA's budget from 1958 to 2012 as a percentage of federal budget
An artist's conception, from NASA, of an astronaut planting a US flag on Mars. A human mission to Mars has been discussed as a possible NASA mission since the 1960s.
NASA EDGE broadcasting live from White Sands Missile Range in 2010
Space Force Delta
Langley Research Center
Ames Research Center wind tunnels
Jet Propulsion Laboratory in La Cañada Flintridge, California
George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama
Goddard Space Flight Center, Maryland
Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in Houston
John F. Kennedy Space Center in Florida
Various nebulae observed from a NASA space telescope
1 Ceres
Hardware comparison of Apollo, Gemini, and Mercury{{refn|group= note|From left to right: Launch vehicle of Apollo (Saturn 5), Gemini (Titan 2) and Mercury (Atlas). Left, top-down: Spacecraft of Apollo, Gemini and Mercury. The Saturn IB and Mercury-Redstone launch vehicles are left out.}}
Hubble Space Telescope, astronomy observatory in Earth orbit since 1990. Also visited by the Space Shuttle.
James Webb Space Telescope
Curiosity rover, roving Mars since 2012
Perseverance rover
Orion spacecraft
Space Launch System rocket
Lunar Gateway space station
Concept of cargo transport from Space Shuttle to Nuclear Shuttle, 1960s
Space Tug concept, 1970s
Vision mission for an interstellar precursor spacecraft by NASA, 2000s
Langley's Mars Ice Dome design for a Mars habitat, 2010s

Independent agency of the US federal government responsible for the civil space program, aeronautics research, and space research.


261 related topics with Alpha


Apollo program

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Buzz Aldrin (pictured) walked on the Moon with Neil Armstrong, on Apollo 11, July 20–21, 1969.
Earthrise, the iconic 1968 image from Apollo 8 taken by astronaut William Anders
President Kennedy delivers his proposal to put a man on the Moon before a joint session of Congress, May 25, 1961
George Mueller, Wernher von Braun, and Eberhard Rees watch the AS-101 launch from the firing room
John Houbolt explaining the LOR concept
Early Apollo configuration for Direct Ascent and Earth Orbit Rendezvous, 1961
An Apollo boilerplate command module is on exhibit in the Meteor Crater Visitor Center in Winslow, Arizona.
Apollo 15 CSM in lunar orbit
Apollo 11 Lunar Module Eagle on the Moon, photographed by Neil Armstrong
Four Apollo rocket assemblies, drawn to scale: Little Joe II, Saturn I, Saturn IB, and Saturn V
A Saturn IB rocket launches Apollo 7, 1968
A Saturn V rocket launches Apollo 11, 1969
Apollo 1 crew: Ed White, command pilot Gus Grissom, and Roger Chaffee
Apollo 11 crew, from left: Commander Neil Armstrong, Command Module Pilot Michael Collins, and Lunar Module Pilot Buzz Aldrin
Charred Apollo 1 cabin interior
Block II spacesuit in January 1968, before (left) and after changes recommended after the Apollo1 fire
Neil Armstrong descends the LM's ladder in preparation for the first steps on the lunar surface, as televised live on July 20, 1969
Apollo landings on the Moon, 1969–1972
Lunar Roving Vehicle used on Apollos 15–17
Plaque left on the Moon by Apollo 17
Tranquility Base, imaged in March 2012 by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter
The Blue Marble photograph taken on December7, 1972, during Apollo 17. "We went to explore the Moon, and in fact discovered the Earth." —Eugene Cernan
Launch The three Saturn{{nbsp}}V stages burn for about 11 minutes to achieve a {{convert|100|nmi|km|adj=on}} circular parking orbit. The third stage burns a small portion of its fuel to achieve orbit.
Translunar injection After one to two orbits to verify readiness of spacecraft systems, the S-IVB third stage reignites for about six minutes to send the spacecraft to the Moon.
Transposition and docking The Spacecraft Lunar Module Adapter (SLA) panels separate to free the CSM and expose the LM. The command module pilot (CMP) moves the CSM out a safe distance, and turns 180°.
Extraction The CMP docks the CSM with the LM, and pulls the complete spacecraft away from the S-IVB. The lunar voyage takes between two and three days. Midcourse corrections are made as necessary using the SM engine.
Lunar orbit insertion The spacecraft passes about {{convert|60|nmi|km}} behind the Moon, and the SM engine is fired to slow the spacecraft and put it into a {{convert|60|by|170|nmi|km|adj=on}} orbit, which is soon circularized at 60 nautical miles by a second burn.
After a rest period, the commander (CDR) and lunar module pilot (LMP) move to the LM, power up its systems, and deploy the landing gear. The CSM and LM separate; the CMP visually inspects the LM, then the LM crew move a safe distance away and fire the descent engine for Descent orbit insertion, which takes it to a perilune of about {{convert|50000|ft|km}}.
Powered descent At perilune, the descent engine fires again to start the descent. The CDR takes control after pitchover for a vertical landing.
The CDR and LMP perform one or more EVAs exploring the lunar surface and collecting samples, alternating with rest periods.
The ascent stage lifts off, using the descent stage as a launching pad.
The LM rendezvouses and docks with the CSM.
The CDR and LMP transfer back to the CM with their material samples, then the LM ascent stage is jettisoned, to eventually fall out of orbit and crash on the surface.
Trans-Earth injection The SM engine fires to send the CSM back to Earth.
The SM is jettisoned just before reentry, and the CM turns 180° to face its blunt end forward for reentry.
Atmospheric drag slows the CM. Aerodynamic heating surrounds it with an envelope of ionized air which causes a communications blackout for several minutes.
Parachutes are deployed, slowing the CM for a splashdown in the Pacific Ocean. The astronauts are recovered and brought to an aircraft carrier.
Lunar flight profile (distances not to scale).

The Apollo program, also known as Project Apollo, was the third United States human spaceflight program carried out by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which succeeded in preparing and landing the first humans on the Moon from 1968 to 1972.

ISS crew member storing samples

International Space Station

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Largest modular space station currently in low Earth orbit.

Largest modular space station currently in low Earth orbit.

ISS crew member storing samples
A comparison between the combustion of a candle on Earth (left) and in a free fall environment, such as that found on the ISS (right)
A 3D plan of the Russia-based MARS-500 complex, used for conducting ground-based experiments that complement ISS-based preparations for a human mission to Mars
Original Jules Verne manuscripts displayed by crew inside the Jules Verne ATV
ISS module Node 2 manufacturing and processing in the Space Station Processing Facility
Animation of the assembly of the International Space Station
The ISS was slowly assembled over more than a decade of spaceflights and crews.
An iconic view of the completed station as seen from Shuttle Atlantis during STS-132, 23 May 2010
Zarya as seen by during STS-88
Unity as seen by during STS-88
Zvezda as seen by during STS-97
The Destiny module being installed on the ISS
Quest Joint Airlock Module
Harmony shown connected to Columbus, Kibo, and Destiny. PMA-2 faces. The nadir and zenith locations are open.
Tranquility in 2011
The Columbus module on the ISS
Kibō Exposed Facility on the right
The Cupola windows with shutters open
Rassvet module with MLM-outfitting equipment (consisting of experiment airlock, radiators, and ERA workpost) at KSC.
MLM outfittings on Rassvet
A wide-angle view of the new module (behind Rassvet) attached to the ROS as seen from the cupola
Modified passive forward port for experiment airlock near the nadir end of Nauka
Leonardo Permanent Multipurpose Module
Progression of the expansion of BEAM
IDA-1 upright
NanoRacks Bishop airlock module installed on the ISS
1637984492234 Progress MS 17 undocking and Nauka nadir temporary docking adapter Removal
Nauka and Prichal docked to ISS
ISS Truss Components breakdown showing Trusses and all ORUs in situ
Construction of the Integrated Truss Structure over New Zealand.
The cancelled Habitation module under construction at Michoud in 1997
The interactions between the components of the ISS Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS)
ISS External Active Thermal Control System (EATCS) diagram
Dragon and Cygnus cargo vessels were docked at the ISS together for the first time in April 2016.
Japan's Kounotori 4 berthing
Commercial Crew Program vehicles Starliner and Dragon
The Progress M-14M resupply vehicle approaching the ISS in 2012. More than 50 unpiloted Progress spacecraft have delivered supplies during the lifetime of the station.
, ATV-2, Soyuz TMA-21, and Progress M-10M docked to the ISS, as seen from the departing Soyuz TMA-20
Spare parts are called ORUs; some are externally stored on pallets called ELCs and ESPs.
While anchored on the end of the OBSS during STS-120, astronaut Scott Parazynski performs makeshift repairs to a US solar array that damaged itself when unfolding.
Mike Hopkins during a spacewalk
Engineer Gregory Chamitoff peering out of a window
STS-122 mission specialists working on robotic equipment in the US lab
The crews of Expedition 20 and STS-127 enjoy a meal inside Unity.
Main dining desk in Node 1
Cosmonaut Nikolai Budarin at work inside the Zvezda service module crew quarters
Astronaut Frank De Winne, attached to the TVIS treadmill with bungee cords aboard the ISS
Orbits of the ISS, shown in April 2013
The ISS and HTV photographed from Earth by Ralf Vandebergh
Composite of six photos of the ISS transiting the gibbous Moon
A Commemorative Plaque honouring Space Station Intergovernmental Agreement signed on 28 January 1998
Many ISS resupply spacecraft have already undergone atmospheric re-entry, such as Jules Verne ATV
Technical blueprint of components.
The ISS exterior and steelwork taken on 8 November 2021, from the departing SpaceX Crew-2 capsule.
Diagram structure of International Space Station after installation of solar arrays (as of September 2021).
A 7-gram object (shown in centre) shot at {{convert|7|km/s|ft/s|abbr=on}}, the orbital velocity of the ISS, made this {{convert|15|cm|in|abbr=on}} crater in a solid block of aluminium.
Radar-trackable objects, including debris, with distinct ring of geostationary satellites
Example of risk management: A NASA model showing areas at high risk from impact for the International Space Station.
Skytrack long duration exposure of the ISS
The ISS on its first pass of the night passing nearly overhead shortly after sunset in June 2014
The ISS passing north on its third pass of the night near local midnight in June 2014
The ISS passing west on its fifth pass of the night before sunrise in June 2014

It is a multinational collaborative project involving five participating space agencies: NASA (United States), Roscosmos (Russia), JAXA (Japan), ESA (Europe), and CSA (Canada).

Discovery lifts off at the start of STS-120.

Space Shuttle

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Discovery lifts off at the start of STS-120.
Columbia undergoing installation of its ceramic tiles
Enterprise during the Approach and Landing Tests
Columbia launching on STS-1
Shuttle launch profiles. From left: Columbia, Challenger, Discovery, Atlantis, and Endeavour
Atlantis was the first Shuttle to fly with a glass cockpit, on STS-101.
AP-101S (left) and AP-101B general purpose computers
Story Musgrave attached to the RMS servicing the Hubble Space Telescope during STS-61
Spacelab in orbit on STS-9
RS-25 engines with the two Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) pods
The external tank after separation on STS-29
Two SRBs on the mobile launcher platform prior to mating with the ET and orbiter
MV Freedom Star towing a spent SRB to Cape Canaveral Air Force Station
The crawler-transporter with Atlantis on the ramp to LC-39A for STS-117.
RS-25 ignition
Solid rocket booster (SRB) separation during STS-1
Endeavour docked at ISS during the STS-134 mission
Flight deck view of Discovery during STS-42 re-entry
Discovery deploying its brake parachute after landing on STS-124
Discovery being prepared after landing for crew disembarkment
Atlantis after its, and the program's, final landing

The Space Shuttle is a retired, partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated from 1981 to 2011 by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as part of the Space Shuttle program.

Clockwise from the top: Vehicle Assembly Building, Shuttle Landing Facility, Launch Control Center, Visitor Complex, KSC Headquarters Building and Launch Complex 39

Kennedy Space Center

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Clockwise from the top: Vehicle Assembly Building, Shuttle Landing Facility, Launch Control Center, Visitor Complex, KSC Headquarters Building and Launch Complex 39
A Saturn V carrying Apollo 15 rolls out to Pad 39A in 1971 on Mobile Launch Platform 1.
Shuttle Discovery launching from Pad 39A on STS-60, February 3, 1994
Shuttle Atlantis is moved to Pad 39A for the 1990 launch of STS-36.
The Space Shuttle Atlantis (STS-129) is seen on launch pad 39A at the NASA Kennedy Space Center shortly after the rotating service structure was rolled back on November 15, 2009.
Node 2 being hoisted by overhead cranes in the Space Station Processing Facility
KSC industrial area
Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout Building
Pre-made ISS modules in the Space Station Processing Facility
Blue Origin's manufacturing facility near KSC visitor complex
The Vehicle Assembly Building (center) in 1999, with the Launch Control Center jutting out from its right, and Pads A and B in the distance
Closeup photo of the VAB
A rendering of Boeing's XS-1 Phantom Express launch vehicle on LC-48
Gate to the KSC Visitor Complex in 2006; Explorer, a Space Shuttle mock-up, is in the background
A Mercury Redstone rocket on display at Gate 3 was toppled by Hurricane Frances on September 7, 2004.
Dr. Kurt Debus, first director of KSC

The John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC, originally known as the NASA Launch Operations Center), located on Merritt Island, Florida, is one of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) ten field centers.

Retroactive logo

Project Mercury

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The first human spaceflight program of the United States, running from 1958 through 1963.

The first human spaceflight program of the United States, running from 1958 through 1963.

Retroactive logo
John Glenn wearing his Mercury space suit
Spacecraft production in clean room at McDonnell Aircraft, St. Louis, 1960
Launch vehicles: 1. Mercury-Atlas (orbital flights). 2. Mercury-Redstone (suborbital flights). 3. Little Joe (uncrewed tests)
Left to right: Grissom, Shepard, Carpenter, Schirra, Slayton, Glenn and Cooper, 1962
Profile. See timetable for explanation. Dashed line: region of weightlessness.
Launch Complex 14 just before launch (service tower rolled aside). Preparations for launch were made in the blockhouse.
Launch and reentry profiles: A-C: launch; D: orbital insertion; E-K: reentry and landing
Inside Control Center at Cape Canaveral (Mercury-Atlas 8)
Project Mercury landing sites
Ticker tape parade for Gordon Cooper in New York City, May 1963
Wallops Island test facility, 1961
Mercury Control Center, Cape Canaveral, 1963
Location of production and operational facilities of Project Mercury
1. Retropack. 2. Heatshield. 3. Crew compartment. 4. Recovery compartment. 5. Antenna section. 6. Launch escape system.
Retropack: Retrorockets with red posigrade rockets
Landing skirt (or bag) deployment: skirt is inflated; on impact the air is pressed out (like an airbag)
Interior of spacecraft
The three axes of rotation for the spacecraft: yaw, pitch and roll
Temperature profile for spacecraft in Fahrenheit
The control panels of Friendship 7.{{sfn|Unknown|1962|p=8}} The panels changed between flights, among others the periscope screen that dominates the center of these panels was dropped for the final flight together with the periscope itself.
3-axis handle for attitude control
Shadowgraph of the reentry shock wave simulated in a wind tunnel, 1957
Evolution of capsule design, 1958–59
Experiment with boilerplate spacecraft, 1959
Drop of boilerplate spacecraft in training of landing and recovery. 56 such qualification tests were made together with tests of individual steps of the system.{{sfn|Catchpole|2001|pp=172-173}}
Little Joe assembling at Wallops Island
Erection of Redstone at Launch Complex 5
Unloading Atlas at Cape Canaveral
Atlas - with spacecraft mounted - on launch pad at Launch Complex 14
Mercury 7 astronaut assignments. Schirra had the most flights with three; Glenn, though being the first to leave NASA, had the last with a Space Shuttle mission in 1998. Shepard was the only one to walk on the Moon.
G-force training, Johnsville, 1960
Weightlessness simulation in a C-131
MASTIF at Lewis Research Center
Flight trainer at Cape Canaveral
Egress training at Langley
Mercury crewed launches
John Glenn in orbit (Mercury-Atlas 6)
Recovery seen from helicopter (Mercury-Redstone 3)
Ground track and tracking stations for Mercury-Atlas 8. Spacecraft starts from Cape Canaveral in Florida and moves east; each new orbit-track is displaced to the left due to the rotation of the Earth. It moves between latitudes 32.5° north and 32.5° south.{{sfn|Catchpole|2001|p=128}} Key: 1–6: orbit number. Yellow: launch. Black dot: tracking station. Red: range of station; Blue: landing.
Shepard's flight watched on TV in the White House. May 1961.
John Glenn honored by the President. February 1962.
USS Kearsarge with crew spelling Mercury-9. May 1963.
Little Joe 1B at launch with Miss Sam, 1960
Mercury-Redstone 1: launch escape system lift-off after 4 launch, 1960
Mercury-Redstone 2: Ham, 1961
Mercury-Atlas 5: Enos, 1961
Mercury monument at Launch Complex 14, 1964
Commemorative Project Mercury 4¢ US Postage stamp{{refn|group=n|The stamp was issued February 20, 1962, the day of John Glenn's flight in Friendship 7. This one has a First day of issue postmark from Cape Canaveral post office.}}
Freedom 7 at the United States Naval Academy, 2010, now exhibited at the John F. Kennedy Library and Museum
Liberty Bell 7 at the Kansas Cosmosphere and Space Center, 2010
Friendship 7 at the National Air and Space Museum, 2009
Aurora 7 at the Museum of Science and Industry (Chicago), 2009
Sigma 7 at the United States Astronaut Hall of Fame, 2011
Faith 7 at Space Center Houston, 2011
NASA illustration comparing boosters and spacecraft from Apollo (biggest), Gemini and Mercury (smallest).

Taken over from the US Air Force by the newly created civilian space agency NASA, it conducted 20 uncrewed developmental flights (some using animals), and six successful flights by astronauts.

Orion (spacecraft)

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Configuration of the Orion spacecraft (the capsule shown in the photo is an early design version of Orion)
Crew module
Interior of the Orion mock-up in October 2014
Interior of a mockup of the Orion crew module outfitted in the On-Orbit configuration that will be used in crewed missions
Testing of Orion's parachute system
Orion Crew Module Model (Neil A. Armstrong Flight Research Center)
Artist's concept of an Orion spacecraft including the European Service Module with Interim Cryogenic Upper Stage attached at the back
Transport of the Orion capsule before the first test (2013)
NASA and DoD personnel familiarize themselves with a Navy-built, 18,000 lb Orion mock-up in a test pool at the Naval Surface Warfare Center's Carderock Division in Potomac, Md.
The Orion Drop Test Article during a test on February 29, 2012
Test article being airlifted to the Pad Abort-1 flight test.
Orion CEV design as of 2009
Orion LAS test assembled at NASA Research Center
Artist's conception of Orion (as then-designed) in lunar orbit
Artist's concept of an astronaut on an EVA taking samples from a captured asteroid, with Orion in the background
Orion approaching the Gateway during Artemis 3
Artist rendering of the Orion CEV docked to a proposed Mars Transfer Vehicle

Orion (officially Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle or Orion MPCV) is a partially reusable crewed spacecraft to be used in NASA's Artemis program.

SLS Block 1 with the Orion spacecraft on pad 39B ahead of the Artemis 1 wet dress rehearsal

Space Launch System

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SLS Block 1 with the Orion spacecraft on pad 39B ahead of the Artemis 1 wet dress rehearsal
The SLS core stage rolling out of the Michoud Assembly Facility for shipping to Stennis Space Center
Planned evolution of the SLS, 2018
Liquid hydrogen tank for Artemis 2 under construction, as of August 2020
"Boat-tail" for Artemis 2 under construction, as of June 2021
Engine section shroud structure for Artemis 3 under construction, as of April 2021
Visual from the March 2020 Inspector General report, showing how NASA used accounting to "mask" a cost increase by moving the boosters (which cost $889 million) from the SLS to another cost center, without updating the SLS budget to match
Space Launch System and Falcon 9 at Launch Complex 39, the former is preparing for the Axiom Mission 1, and the latter for the Artemis 1 mission.
Block 1 configuration
Block 1B configuration
Block 2 configuration

The Space Launch System (abbreviated as SLS) is an American super heavy-lift expendable launch vehicle under development by NASA since 2011.

Cape Canaveral Space Force Station

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Installation of the United States Space Force's Space Launch Delta 45, located on Cape Canaveral in Brevard County, Florida.

Installation of the United States Space Force's Space Launch Delta 45, located on Cape Canaveral in Brevard County, Florida.

A Bumper V-2 was the first missile launched at Cape Canaveral, on July 24, 1950.
Alan Shepard watches Gus Grissom's Liberty Bell 7 launch in the Mercury Control Center.
Gemini-Titan II.
Atlas-Agena target vehicle.
Apollo-Saturn IB.
Pioneer 1 atop its launcher.

The facility is south-southeast of NASA's Kennedy Space Center on adjacent Merritt Island, with the two linked by bridges and causeways.

Aerial view of JPL

Jet Propulsion Laboratory

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Aerial view of JPL
Aerial view of JPL
The control room at JPL
MSL mockup compared with the Mars Exploration Rover and Sojourner rover by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory on May 12, 2008
Research rockets on display at JPL in April 2006.
A 1960s advert reads: "When you were a kid, science fiction gave you a sense of wonder. Now you feel the same just by going to work."
A display at the May 19, 2007 Open House

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is a federally funded research and development center and NASA field center in the city of La Cañada Flintridge in California, United States.

The launch of Apollo 11 on Saturn V SA-506, July 16, 1969

Saturn V

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The launch of Apollo 11 on Saturn V SA-506, July 16, 1969
Saturn V testing vehicle and flight vehicle configurations
All Saturn V launches, 1967–1973
Saturn V diagram
The first stage of Apollo 8 Saturn V being erected in the VAB on February 1, 1968. Engine fairings and fins not yet installed.
An S-II stage hoisted onto the A-2 test stand at the Mississippi Test Facility
The instrument unit for the Apollo 4 Saturn V
Condensation clouds surrounding the Apollo 11 Saturn V as it works its way through the dense lower atmosphere.
Apollo 11 S-IC separation
Apollo 6 interstage falling away. The engine exhaust from the S-II stage glows as it impacts the interstage.
Apollo 17 S-IVB rocket stage, shortly after transposition and docking with the Lunar Module
The Saturn-Shuttle concept
Comparison of Saturn V, Shuttle, Ares I, Ares V, Ares IV, and SLS Block 1
Saturn V Rocket -- Johnson Space Center
Saturn V's F-1 engines—Rocket Park, Houston
National Air and Space Museum
U.S. Space & Rocket Center
Johnson Space Center
Kennedy Space Center
S-IVB stage as Skylab, National Air & Space Museum

Saturn V (pronounced Saturn five) was an American super heavy-lift launch vehicle developed by NASA under the Apollo program for human exploration of the Moon.