NOD-like receptor

Nod-like receptorsNOD-like receptors (NLRs)(NOD)-like receptorNB-LRRNLRNLRsNOD domainNOD Like Receptorsnod-like receptor (NLRs) familyNod-like-receptor
The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors, or NOD-like receptors (NLRs), are intracellular sensors of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that enter the cell via phagocytosis or pores, and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) that are associated with cell stress.wikipedia
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Pattern recognition receptor

pattern recognition receptorspattern recognition receptors (PRRs)(PRRs)
They are types of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), and play key roles in the regulation of innate immune response.
For more details, see NOD-like receptor.

NLRC5

NLRC5, short for NOD-like receptor family CARD domain containing 5, is an intracellular protein that plays a role in the immune system.

NLRX1

A member of this subfamily is NLRX1.
It is also known as NOD-like receptor X1, NLR family, X1, NOD5, NOD9, and CLR11.3, and is a member of the NOD-like receptor family of pattern recognition receptors.

NLRC3

NLRC3, short for NOD-like receptor family CARD domain containing 3, is an intracellular protein that plays a role in the immune system.

NLRP5

NLRP5, short for NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 5, is an intracellular protein that plays a role in early embryogenesis.

NLRP6

NLRP6, short for NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 6, is an intracellular protein that plays a role in the immune system.

NLRP10

NLRP10, short for NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 10, is an intracellular protein of mammals that functions in apoptosis and the immune system.

NLRP9

NLRP9, short for NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 9, is an intracellular protein that is expressed in the ovaries, testes, oocytes, and preimplantation embryos of mammals that is likely involved in reproductive processes.

NLRP8

NLRP8, short for NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 8, is an intracellular protein that is expressed in the ovaries, testes, and preimplantation embryos of mammals.

NOD1

NOD-1
NOD1 is a member of NOD-like receptor protein family and is a close relative of NOD2.

NOD2

CARD15NOD-2NOD2 (CARD15) gene
The middle part of the protein is characterized by a NOD domain involved in protein self-oligomerization.

NLRP14

NLRP14, short for NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 14, is an intracellular protein of mammals associated with a role in spermatogenesis.

NLRP11

NLRP11, short for NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 11, is an intracellular protein of mammals.

NLRP13

NLPR13
NLRP13, short for NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 13, is an intracellular protein of mammals.

Innate immune system

innate immunityinnateinnate immune response
They are types of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), and play key roles in the regulation of innate immune response.
These proteins contain domains similar to the NOD Like Receptors and Toll-like receptors utilized in animal innate immunity.

Toll-like receptor

Toll-like receptorsTLRToll
NLRs can cooperate with toll-like receptors (TLRs) and regulate inflammatory and apoptotic response.

Pyrin domain

PYDpyrinpyrin domain (PYD)
N-terminal domain is responsible for homotypic protein-protein interaction and it can consist of caspase recruitment domain (CARD), pyrin domain (PYD), acidic transactivating domain or baculovirus inhibitor repeats (BIRs).
Proteins that possess a pyrin domain include intracellular microbial sensors called NOD-like receptors, and proteins associated with their function, such as PYCARD and certain fish caspases.

Inflammasome

inflammasomesinflammasome protein complexinflammasomes,
NLRPs and IPAF subfamilies are involved in the formation of the inflammasome.
These may either be on the membrane surface e.g. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) or inside the cytoplasm e.g. Nod-like receptors (NLRs) and RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs).

NALP3

NLRP3CIAS1cryopyrin
The best characterized inflammasome is NLRP3, the activation through PAMPs or DAMPs leads to the oligomerization.
NALP3 belongs to the NOD-like receptor (NLR) subfamily of PRRs and NALP3 together with the adaptor ASC protein PYCARD forms a caspase-1 activating complex known as the NALP3 inflammasome.

Caspase 1

caspase-1CASP1Caspase-1/Interleukin-1 converting enzyme
ASC contains PYD and CARD domain and links the NLRs to inactive form of caspase 1 through the CARD domain.
It interacts with other CARD containing proteins such as Apoptosis-Associated Speck-like Protein Containing a CARD (ASC) and Nod-Like Receptor (NLR) Family CARD Domain-Containing Protein 4 (NLRC4) through CARD-CARD interactions in the formation of inflammasomes.

PYCARD

ASCapoptosis-associated speck-like proteiASC (PYCARD)
The pyrin domain of NLRs binds to an adaptor protein ASC (PYCARD) via PYD-PYD interaction.
They co-localize with nucleotide oligomerization domain-like receptors (NLRs) and caspase-1.

RIG-I-like receptor

RLR(RIG)-I-like receptorsretinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I)-like receptor

Phagocytosis

phagocyticphagocytosedphagocytose
The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors, or NOD-like receptors (NLRs), are intracellular sensors of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that enter the cell via phagocytosis or pores, and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) that are associated with cell stress.

Apoptosis

apoptoticprogrammed cell deathcell death
NLRs can cooperate with toll-like receptors (TLRs) and regulate inflammatory and apoptotic response.

Lymphocyte

lymphocyteslymphocyticlymphoid cells
They are found in lymphocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells and also in non-immune cells, for example in epithelium.