NTSC

analogNTSC-M30panalogue broadcastingNational Television System Committee30RS-17060North AmericanNTSC-U/C
NTSC, named after the National Television System Committee, is the analog television color system that was introduced in North America in 1954 and stayed in use until digital conversion.wikipedia
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PAL

colour television25pPAL-N
It was one of three major analog color television standards, the others being PAL and SECAM. For comparison, 576i systems such as PAL-B/G and SECAM use 625 lines (576 visible), and so have a higher vertical resolution, but a lower temporal resolution of 25 frames or 50 fields per second.
It was one of three major analogue colour television standards, the others being NTSC and SECAM.

SECAM

SÉCAMCIS-SECAMSECAM L
It was one of three major analog color television standards, the others being PAL and SECAM. For comparison, 576i systems such as PAL-B/G and SECAM use 625 lines (576 visible), and so have a higher vertical resolution, but a lower temporal resolution of 25 frames or 50 fields per second.
It was one of three major color television standards, the others being PAL and NTSC.

Analog television

analoganalogueanalogue television
NTSC, named after the National Television System Committee, is the analog television color system that was introduced in North America in 1954 and stayed in use until digital conversion. Most countries using the NTSC standard, as well as those using other analog television standards, have switched to, or are in process of switching to, newer digital television standards, with there being at least four different standards in use around the world.
The colors in those systems are encoded with one of three color coding schemes: NTSC, PAL, or SECAM, and then use RF modulation to modulate this signal onto a very high frequency (VHF) or ultra high frequency (UHF) carrier.

Television in Japan

Japanese televisionJapanese television programstelevision
It was used in most of North America and western South America, Liberia; Myanmar, South Korea, Taiwan, Philippines, Japan, and some Pacific island nations and territories (see map).
A modified version of the NTSC system for analog signals, called NTSC-J, was used for analog broadcast between 1950 and the early 2010s.

Color television

colorcolour televisioncolour
In 1953, a second NTSC standard was adopted, which allowed for color television broadcasting which was compatible with the existing stock of black-and-white receivers.
The NTSC standard represented a major technical achievement.

High-definition television

HDTVhigh definitionHD
Digital broadcasting allows higher-resolution television, but digital standard definition television continues to use the frame rate and number of lines of resolution established by the analog NTSC standard.
The US NTSC 555-line system joined in 1941.

Digital television transition

digital switchoveranalog shutdowntransition
All the countries using NTSC are currently in the process of conversion, or have already converted to the ATSC standard, or to DVB, ISDB or DTMB.

Black and white

black-and-whiteblack and white filmblack & white
In March 1941, the committee issued a technical standard for black-and-white television that built upon a 1936 recommendation made by the Radio Manufacturers Association (RMA).
In the United States, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) settled on a color NTSC standard in 1953, and the NBC network began broadcasting a limited color television schedule in January 1954.

RCA TK-40/41

RCA TK-41RCA TK-40RCA TK-40A
The first color NTSC television camera was the RCA TK-40, used for experimental broadcasts in 1953; an improved version, the TK-40A, introduced in March 1954, was the first commercially available color television camera.
The TK-40 was produced by RCA Broadcast to showcase the new compatible color system for NTSC—eventually named NTSC-M or simply M—which the company is credited with inventing (though several other companies including Philco were involved in development).

Standard-definition television

SDTVstandard definitionSD
Digital broadcasting allows higher-resolution television, but digital standard definition television continues to use the frame rate and number of lines of resolution established by the analog NTSC standard.
The two common SDTV signal types are 576i, with 576 interlaced lines of resolution, derived from the European-developed PAL and SECAM systems, and 480i based on the American NTSC system.

ATSC standards

ATSCdigitalATSC standard
All the countries using NTSC are currently in the process of conversion, or have already converted to the ATSC standard, or to DVB, ISDB or DTMB.
It is largely a replacement for the analog NTSC standard, and like that standard, used mostly in the United States, Mexico and Canada.

Video

analog videovideo albumvideo recording
NTSC color encoding is used with the System M television signal, which consists of 30⁄1.001 (approximately 29.97) interlaced frames of video per second.
PAL standards (Europe, Asia, Australia, etc.) and SECAM (France, Russia, parts of Africa etc.) specify 25 frame/s, while NTSC standards (USA, Canada, Japan, etc.) specify 29.97 frame/s.

Digital television

digitaldigital TVDTV
Most countries using the NTSC standard, as well as those using other analog television standards, have switched to, or are in process of switching to, newer digital television standards, with there being at least four different standards in use around the world.
In terms of rectangular pixels, NTSC countries can deliver a 640 × 480 resolution in 4:3 and 854 × 480 in 16:9, while PAL can give 768 × 576 in 4:3 and 1024 × 576 in 16:9.

RCA

Radio Corporation of AmericaRCA CorporationRCA Astro
The NTSC selected 525 scan lines as a compromise between RCA's 441-scan line standard (already being used by RCA's NBC TV network) and Philco's and DuMont's desire to increase the number of scan lines to between 605 and 800.
Following the adoption of National Television System Committee (NTSC) recommended standards, the FCC authorized the start of commercial television broadcasts on July 1, 1941.

Television channel

channelTV channeltelevision channels
An NTSC television channel as transmitted occupies a total bandwidth of 6 MHz.
For example, in North America, "channel 2" refers to the terrestrial or cable band of 54 to 60 MHz, with carrier frequencies of 55.25 MHz for NTSC analog video (VSB) and 59.75 MHz for analog audio (FM), or 55.31 MHz for digital ATSC (8VSB).

Office of Defense Mobilization

Office of Defense Transportation
Legal action by rival RCA kept commercial use of the system off the air until June 1951, and regular broadcasts only lasted a few months before manufacture of all color television sets was banned by the Office of Defense Mobilization in October, ostensibly due to the Korean War.
RCA had already developed a purely electronic color television system, and was engaged in a long and bitter legal battle with CBS before the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) over which system would be adopted.

Multichannel television sound

MTSMTS stereoBTSC
Sometimes a channel may contain an MTS signal, which offers more than one audio signal by adding one or two subcarriers on the audio signal, each synchronized to a multiple of the line frequency.
Multichannel television sound, better known as MTS (often still as BTSC, for the Broadcast Television Systems Committee that created it), is the method of encoding three additional channels of audio into an analog NTSC-format audio carrier.

Second audio program

SAPsecondary audio programSAP channel
This is normally the case when stereo audio and/or second audio program signals are used.
Used mostly for audio description or other languages, SAP is part of the multichannel television sound (MTS) standard originally set by the National Television Systems Committee (NTSC) in 1984 in the United States.

Closed captioning

closed captionsclosed captioncaptioning
However, some of these lines may now contain other data such as closed captioning and vertical interval timecode (VITC).
For all types of NTSC programming, captions are "encoded" into line 21 of the vertical blanking interval - a part of the TV picture that sits just above the visible portion and is usually unseen.

Colorburst

color burstcolourburstburst
The NTSC signal includes a short sample of this reference signal, known as the colorburst, located on the 'back porch' of each horizontal synchronization pulse.
In NTSC, its frequency is exactly 315/88 = 3.579 MHz with a phase of 180°.

Broadcast television systems

broadcast television systembroadcast TVbroadcast
The articles on broadcast television systems, and analogue television further describe frame rates, image resolution and audio modulation.
There were three main analog television systems in use around the world until the late 2010s (expected): NTSC, PAL, and SECAM.

576i

625-line720x576analogue
For comparison, 576i systems such as PAL-B/G and SECAM use 625 lines (576 visible), and so have a higher vertical resolution, but a lower temporal resolution of 25 frames or 50 fields per second.
Because of its close association with the color encoding system, it is often referred to as simply PAL, PAL/SECAM or SECAM when compared to its 60 Hz (typically, see PAL-M) NTSC-color-encoded counterpart, 480i.

Gamma correction

gammagamma curvegamma compression
Since such color correction can not be performed accurately on the nonlinear gamma corrected signals transmitted, the adjustment can only be approximated, introducing both hue and luminance errors for highly saturated colors.
For television signals, the actual gamma values are defined by the video standards (NTSC, PAL or SECAM), and are always fixed and well-known values.

Colorplexer

This process is applied to each color source by its own Colorplexer, thereby allowing a compatible color source to be managed as if it were an ordinary monochrome source.
The First NTSC Standard (441/30, pre-1941) had no such expectation, as even the extant motion picture 3-color system, "Three-Strip" Technicolor, was then only five years old.

Three-two pull down

3:2 pulldown3:2 pull down3:2 pull-down
For 30-fps standards, a process called "3:2 pulldown" is used.
Film runs at a standard rate of 24 frames per second, whereas NTSC video has a signal frame rate of 29.97 frames per second.