A report on Nagarjuna

Painting of Nāgārjuna from the Shingon Hassozō, a series of scrolls authored by the Shingon school of Buddhism. Japan, Kamakura Period (13th-14th century)
Painting of Nāgārjuna
A map of the Satavahana Kingdom, showing the location of Amaravathi (where Nāgārjuna may have lived and worked according to Walser) and Vidarbha (the birthplace of Nāgārjuna according to Kumārajīva).
A model of the Amaravati Stupa
Nicholas Roerich "Nagarjuna Conqueror of the Serpent" (1925)
Golden statue of Nāgārjuna at Kagyu Samye Ling Monastery, Scotland

Nāgārjuna (c.

- Nagarjuna
Painting of Nāgārjuna from the Shingon Hassozō, a series of scrolls authored by the Shingon school of Buddhism. Japan, Kamakura Period (13th-14th century)

51 related topics with Alpha

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Nāgārjuna (right) and Āryadeva (middle).

Madhyamaka

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Nāgārjuna (right) and Āryadeva (middle).
Kamalashila
Thangkha with Jonang lama Dolpopa Sherab Gyaltsen (1292–1361)
Tsongkhapa
Gorampa Sonam Senge, the most important madhyamaka philosopher in Sakya
Mikyö Dorje, 8th Karmapa Lama
Jamgön Ju Mipham Gyatso (1846–1912), a key exponent of madhyamaka thought in the Nyingma school, known for harmonizing madhyamaka with the dzogchen view.
A painting of Kumārajīva at White Horse Pagoda, Dunhuang

Mādhyamaka ("middle way" or "centrism"; ; Tibetan: དབུ་མ་པ ; dbu ma pa), otherwise known as Śūnyavāda ("the emptiness doctrine") and Niḥsvabhāvavāda ("the no svabhāva doctrine"), refers to a tradition of Buddhist philosophy and practice founded by the Indian Buddhist monk and philosopher Nāgārjuna (c.

An illustration in a manuscript of the Aṣṭasāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra from Nalanda, depicting the bodhisattva Maitreya, an important figure in Mahāyāna.

Mahayana

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Term for a broad group of Buddhist traditions, texts, philosophies, and practices.

Term for a broad group of Buddhist traditions, texts, philosophies, and practices.

An illustration in a manuscript of the Aṣṭasāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra from Nalanda, depicting the bodhisattva Maitreya, an important figure in Mahāyāna.
The Five Tathāgatas in Shishoin Temple (Tokyo). A unique feature of Mahāyāna is the belief that there are multiple Buddhas which are currently teaching the Dharma.
Mahāyāna Buddhist triad, including Bodhisattva Maitreya, the Buddha, and Bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara. 2nd–3rd century CE, Gandhāra
Seated Avalokiteshvara bodhisattva. Gandharan, from Loriyan Tangai. Kushan period, 1st – 3rd century CE. Indian Museum, Calcutta.
Cave complex associated with the Mahāsāṃghika sect. Karla Caves, Mahārāṣtra, India
Ruins of the Nalanda Mahavihara (Great Monastery) in Bihar, a major center for the study of Mahāyāna Buddhism from the fifth century CE to c.  1200 CE.
Buddhist expansion in Asia, from Buddhist heartland in northern India (dark orange) starting 5th century BCE, to Buddhist majority realm (orange), and historical extent of Buddhism influences (yellow). Mahāyāna (red arrow), Theravāda (green arrow), and Tantric-Vajrayāna (blue arrow). The overland and maritime "Silk Roads" were interlinked and complementary, forming what scholars have called the "great circle of Buddhism".
The use of mandalas was one new feature of Tantric Buddhism, which also adopted new deities such as Chakrasamvara (pictured).
A Ming bronze of the Buddha Mahāvairocana which depicts his body as being composed of numerous other Buddhas.
The female bodhisattva Prajñaparamita.
Tibetan depiction of Buddha Amitāyus in his Pure Land of Sukhavati.
Avalokiteśvara, the bodhisattva of compassion. Ajaṇṭā Caves, Maharashtra, India.
Illustrated Korean manuscript of the Lotus Sutra, Goryeo Dynasty, c. 1340. The three carts at the top which are symbolic of the three vehicles.
Guanyin (Avalokiteśvara) with multiple arms symbolizing upaya and great compassion, Leshan, China.
The Lotus, especially the puṇḍarīka (white lotus), is used in Mahāyāna to symbolize the nature of bodhisattvas. The lotus is rooted in the earthly mud and yet flowers above the water in the open air. Similarly, the bodhisattva lives in the world but remains unstained by it.
A statue of the Mahāyāna philosopher Nagarjuna, founder of the Madhyamaka school. Considered by some to be an Arya (noble) bodhisattva or even the "second Buddha".
A Kamakura period reliquary topped with a cintamani (wish fulfilling jewel). Buddha nature texts often use the metaphor of a jewel (i.e. buddha-nature) which all beings have but are unaware of.
The Japanese monk Kūya reciting the nembutsu, depicted as six small Amida Buddha figures.
Zen master Bodhidharma meditating, Ukiyo-e woodblock print by Tsukioka Yoshitoshi, 1887.
An 18th century Mongolian miniature which depicts a monk generating a tantric visualization.
Astasahasrika Prajñaparamita Manuscript. Prajñaparamita and Scenes from the Buddha's Life (top), Maitreya and Scenes from the Buddha's Life (bottom), c. 1075
Frontispiece of the Chinese Vajracchedikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra, the oldest known dated printed book in the world.
Map showing the three major Buddhist divisions.
Fo Guang Shan Buddha Museum, Taiwan.
The 14th Dalai Lama Tenzin Gyatso with Desmond Tutu in 2004. Due to his charisma, the Dalai Lama has become the international face of contemporary Tibetan Buddhism.

Some scholars also see Mahāyāna figures like Nāgārjuna, Dignaga, Candrakīrti, Āryadeva, and Bhavaviveka as having ties to the Mahāsāṃghika tradition of Āndhra.

A simile from the Pali scriptures (SN 22.95) compares form and feelings with foam and bubbles.

Śūnyatā

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Indian philosophical and mathematical construct.

Indian philosophical and mathematical construct.

A simile from the Pali scriptures (SN 22.95) compares form and feelings with foam and bubbles.
Sea froth at sunset
In the Prajñaparamita sutras, the emptiness of phenomena is often illustrated by metaphors like drops of dew.
Nāgārjuna and Āryadeva, two classic Indian philosophers of the Buddhist emptiness doctrine.
In Tibetan Buddhism, emptiness is often symbolized by and compared to the open sky which is associated with openness and freedom.

After the Buddha, emptiness was further developed by the Abhidharma schools, Nāgārjuna and the Mādhyamaka school, an early Mahāyāna school.

A modern statue of Nāgārjuna, protected by the Nagas, snake spirits who are said to be the guardians of the Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

Mūlamadhyamakakārikā

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Foundational text of the Madhyamaka school of Mahāyāna Buddhist philosophy.

Foundational text of the Madhyamaka school of Mahāyāna Buddhist philosophy.

A modern statue of Nāgārjuna, protected by the Nagas, snake spirits who are said to be the guardians of the Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

It was composed by the Indian philosopher Nāgārjuna (approximately around 150 CE).

Prajñāpāramitā Devi, a personification of Transcendent Wisdom, Folio from a Tibetan 100,000 line Prajñāpāramitā manuscript.

Prajnaparamita

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Prajñāpāramitā (प्रज्ञापारमिता) means "the Perfection of Wisdom" or "Transcendental Knowledge" in Mahāyāna and Theravāda Buddhism.

Prajñāpāramitā (प्रज्ञापारमिता) means "the Perfection of Wisdom" or "Transcendental Knowledge" in Mahāyāna and Theravāda Buddhism.

Prajñāpāramitā Devi, a personification of Transcendent Wisdom, Folio from a Tibetan 100,000 line Prajñāpāramitā manuscript.
Prajñāpāramitā personified. From the, a Sanskrit Manuscript of the 8000 line PP sutra, Nalanda, Bihar, India. Circa 700-1100 CE.
Prajñāpāramitā illustrated manuscript cover, circa 15th century
Illustration from a 100000 line PP sutra manuscript
The world's earliest printed book is a Chinese translation of the Vajracchedikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra (Vajra Cutter Sutra) from Dunhuang (circa 868 CE).
A Tibetan illustration of Subhuti (Tib. Rabjor), a major character in the Prajñāpāramitā literature, who is proclaimed as the foremost "dweller in non-conflict" (araṇavihārīnaṃ) and "of those worthy of offering" (dakkhiṇeyyānaṃ).
Gandharan depiction of the Bodhisattva (the future Buddha Shakyamuni) prostrating at the feet of the past Buddha Dipankara
Avalokiteśvara. manuscript. Nālandā, Bihar, India
Illustration of Bodhisattva Sadāprarudita (Ever weeping), a character in the Aṣṭasāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra Avadana section, which is used by the Buddha as an exemplar of those who seek Prajñāpāramitā
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A Tibetan painting with a Prajñāpāramitā sūtra at the center of the mandala
Manuscript of the Perfection of Wisdom in 8000 lines
Illustrated frontispiece to the Great Perfection of Wisdom Sutra, Japan, Heian period, late 12th century, handscroll, gold on blue paper, Honolulu Museum of Art
Tibetan prajñāpāramitā manuscript depicting Sakyamuni Buddha and Prajñāpāramitā devi, 13th century
Prajñāpāramitā, Cambodia, Bayon style, ca. 1200, Sandstone
Prajñāpāramitā, Tibet, 15th century, gilt bronze, Berkeley Art Museum

Prajñāpāramitā is a central concept in Mahāyāna Buddhism and is generally associated with ideas such as emptiness (śūnyatā), 'lack of svabhāva' (essence), the illusory (māyā) nature of things, how all phenomena are characterized by "non-arising" (anutpāda, i.e. unborn) and the madhyamaka thought of Nāgārjuna.

Nepalese Thangka with Prajñāpāramitā, the personification of transcendent wisdom, holding a Mahāyāna Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra

Mahayana sutras

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The Mahāyāna sūtras (𑀫𑀳𑀸𑀬𑀸𑀦 𑀲𑀽𑀢𑁆𑀭𑀸𑀡𑀺) are a broad genre of Buddhist scriptures (sūtra) that are accepted as canonical and as buddhavacana ("Buddha word") in Mahāyāna Buddhism.

The Mahāyāna sūtras (𑀫𑀳𑀸𑀬𑀸𑀦 𑀲𑀽𑀢𑁆𑀭𑀸𑀡𑀺) are a broad genre of Buddhist scriptures (sūtra) that are accepted as canonical and as buddhavacana ("Buddha word") in Mahāyāna Buddhism.

Nepalese Thangka with Prajñāpāramitā, the personification of transcendent wisdom, holding a Mahāyāna Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra
A painting by Nicholas Roerich (1925) depicting Nāgārjuna in the realm of the Nagas, where the Prajñāpāramitā was said to have been hidden.
Folio from a manuscript of the Aṣṭasāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra depicting Shadakshari Lokesvara, early 12th century, Opaque watercolor on palm leaf.
Chanting the Buddhist Scriptures, by Taiwanese painter Li Mei-shu
The Tripiṭaka Koreana, an early edition of the Chinese Buddhist canon
Sanskrit manuscript of the Heart Sūtra in the Siddhaṃ script. Bibliothèque nationale de France
The world's earliest printed book is a Chinese translation of the Vajracchedikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra from Dunhuang (circa 868 CE).
The floating jeweled stupa; illustrated Lotus Sutra, Japan 1257.
Vietnamese Sukhāvatīvyūha Sūtra
A Goryeo (918-1392) illustration of the Descent of Maitreya Sutra, Myomanji, Kyoto, Japan.
Copy of the Laṅkāvatāra Sūtra from Dunhuang in the British Library
The layman Vimalakīrti Debates Manjusri, Dunhuang Mogao Caves
Goryeo Buddhāvataṃsaka manuscript, 14th century.
Jeweled pagoda mandala from a copy of the Golden Light Sutra. Japan, Heian period, 12th century
A Chinese illustration of the apotropaic Mahāpratisarādhāraṇī, in Sanskrit and Siddhaṃ script, Later Tang, 927 CE.

Later, these sūtras were retrieved by Nāgārjuna.

The Buddhist Nalanda university and monastery was a major center of learning in India from the 5th century CE until the 12th century.

Buddhist philosophy

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Buddhist philosophy refers to the philosophical investigations and systems of inquiry that developed among various Buddhist schools in India following the parinirvana (i.e. death) of the Buddha and later spread throughout Asia.

Buddhist philosophy refers to the philosophical investigations and systems of inquiry that developed among various Buddhist schools in India following the parinirvana (i.e. death) of the Buddha and later spread throughout Asia.

The Buddhist Nalanda university and monastery was a major center of learning in India from the 5th century CE until the 12th century.
Gautama Buddha surrounded by followers, from an 18th-century Burmese watercolour
Indian Emperor Aśoka and the elder Moggaliputta-Tissa, who is seen as a key thinker of the Vibhajyavāda tradition (and thus, of Theravada).
Buddhaghosa (c. 5th century), the most important Abhidharma scholar of Theravāda Buddhism, presenting three copies of the Visuddhimagga.
Nagarjuna, protected by the Nagas snake spirits who are said to be the guardians of the Prajnaparamita sutras.
Vasubandhu wrote in defense of Vijñapti-matra (appearance only) as well as writing a massive work on Abhidharma, the Abhidharmakosa.
Dignāga in formal debating stance
Abhayākaragupta, one of "the last great masters" of Indian Buddhism (Kapstein).
Tsongkapa, 15th-century painting, Rubin Museum of Art
Gorampa Sonam Senge
Jamgon Ju Mipham Gyatso.
Painting of Śramaṇa Zhiyi of the Tiantai school.
A 3D rendering of Indra's net.
The Garbhadhatu mandala. The center square represents the young stage of Vairocana Buddha.
A portrait of Gendün Chöphel in India, 1936.
Kitarō Nishida, professor of philosophy at Kyoto University and founder of the Kyoto School.

The Prajñāpāramitā teachings are associated with the work of the Buddhist philosopher Nāgārjuna (c.

The Statue of Kumārajīva in front of the Kizil Caves in Kuqa County, Xinjiang, China

Kumārajīva

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Buddhist monk, scholar, missionary and translator from the Kingdom of Kucha (present-day Aksu Prefecture, Xinjiang, China).

Buddhist monk, scholar, missionary and translator from the Kingdom of Kucha (present-day Aksu Prefecture, Xinjiang, China).

The Statue of Kumārajīva in front of the Kizil Caves in Kuqa County, Xinjiang, China
White Horse Pagoda, Dunhuang, commemorating Kumarajiva's white horse which carried the scriptures to China, c. 384 CE.
Brief map of Han Chang'an painted in Qing dynasty
Section of the Diamond Sutra, a handwritten copy by Zhang Jizhi, based on Kumarajiva's translation from Sanskrit to Chinese.
A painting of Kumārajīva at White Horse Pagoda, Dunhuang

Kumārajīva first studied teachings of the Sarvastivadin schools, later studied under Buddhasvāmin, and finally became an adherent of Mahayana Buddhism, studying the Mādhyamaka doctrine of Nāgārjuna. After mastering the Chinese language, Kumārajīva settled as a translator and scholar in Chang'an (c.

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Aṣṭasāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra

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Mahāyāna Buddhist sūtra in the category of Prajñāpāramitā sūtra literature.

Mahāyāna Buddhist sūtra in the category of Prajñāpāramitā sūtra literature.

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Aṣṭasāhasrikā manuscript. Cleveland Museum of Art.
Śakra.
Naraka: Buddhist hell
Depictions of Māra's demons from an Aṣṭasāhasrikā manuscript.
Akṣobhya Buddha
A 1307 Korean painting depicting Sadāprarudita rising in the air after learning from Dharmodgata.

In terms of its influence in the development of Buddhist philosophical thought, P.L. Vaidya writes that "all Buddhist writers from Nāgārjuna, Āryadeva, Maitreyanātha, Asaṅga, Vasubandhu, Dignāga, down to Haribhadra concentrated their energies in interpreting Aṣṭasāhasrikā only," making it of great significance in the development of Madhyāmaka and Yogācāra thought.

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Chandrakirti

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Chandrakirti ( c. 600, meaning "glory of the moon" in Sanskrit) or "Chandra" was a Buddhist scholar of the madhyamaka school and a noted commentator on the works of Nagarjuna (c.