A report on Nahuatl

Tree diagram of the relation between the Nahuan languages and the rest of the Uto-Aztecan language family, based on the internal classification of Nahuan given by Terrence
Page 51 of Book IX from the Florentine Codex. The text is in Nahuatl written in the Latin alphabet.
Map showing the areas of Mexico where Nahuatl is spoken today
The Aztecs called (red) tomatoes xitōmatl, whereas the green tomatillo was called tōmatl; the latter is the source for the English word tomato.
The place names Mapachtepec ('Raccoon Hill'), Mazatlan ('Deer Place') and Huitztlan ('Thorn Place') written in the Aztec writing system, from the Codex Mendoza
Page of Book IV from the Florentine Codex. The text is in Nahuatl written in the Latin alphabet.
Illustrated alphabet of the Nahuatl, Aztec or Mexicano language.

Language or, by some definitions, a group of languages of the Uto-Aztecan language family.

- Nahuatl

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Mexico

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Country in the southern portion of North America.

Country in the southern portion of North America.

Depiction of the founding myth of Mexico-Tenochtitlan from the Codex Mendoza. The eagle perched on a cactus has been incorporated into the Mexican flag since its independence, and was a motif in colonial-era art.
View of the Pyramid of the Sun of Teotihuacan with first human establishment in the area dating back to 600 BCE
Cultivation of maize, shown in the Florentine Codex (1576) drawn by an indigenous scribe, with text in Nahuatl on this folio
1945 mural by Diego Rivera depicting the view from the Tlatelolco markets into Mexico-Tenochtitlan, the largest city in the Americas at the time
Hernán Cortés and his multilingual cultural translator, Doña Marina ("Malinche"), meeting Moctezuma II from the Lienzo de Tlaxcala, a document created ca. 1550 by the Tlaxcalans to remind the Spanish of their loyalty and the importance of Tlaxcala during the conquest of the Aztec Empire.
Smallpox depicted by an indigenous artist in the 1576 Florentine Codex
View of the Plaza Mayor (today Zócalo) in Mexico City (ca. 1695) by Cristóbal de Villalpando
New Spain was essential to the Spanish global trading system. White represents the route of the Spanish Manila Galleons in the Pacific and the Spanish convoys in the Atlantic. (Blue represents Portuguese routes.)
Silver peso mined and minted in colonial Mexico, which became a global currency
Viceroyalty of New Spain following the signing of the 1819 Adams-Onís Treaty
Luis de Mena, Virgin of Guadalupe and castas, showing race mixture and hierarchy as well as fruits of the realm, ca. 1750
Father Hidalgo used this banner of the Virgin of Guadalupe as their emblem
Siege of the Alhondiga de Granaditas, Guanajuato, 28 Sept. 1810.
Flag of the Army of the Three Guarantees, the force formed by ex-royalist Iturbide and insurgent Vicente Guerrero in February 1821
Flag of the First Mexican Empire under Agustín I, 1822-23, with the eagle wearing a crown
Flag of the First Republic of Mexico, with the eagle without a crown, signaling the new republic
General Antonio López de Santa Anna
Portrait of Liberal President Benito Juárez
The Execution of Emperor Maximilian, 19 June 1867. Gen. Tomás Mejía, left, Maximiian, center, Gen. Miguel Miramón, right. Painting by Édouard Manet 1868.
President Porfirio Díaz linking himself to independence hero Hidalgo and liberal hero Juárez September 1910.
Francisco I. Madero, who challenged Díaz in the fraudulent 1910 election and was elected president when Díaz was forced to resign in May 1911.
Revolutionary Generals Pancho Villa (left) and Emiliano Zapata (right)
General Álvaro Obregón (far left) shown with a cigar in his left hand and his right arm missing, center with the white beard is First Chief Venustiano Carranza
Logo of the Institutional Revolutionary Party, which incorporates the colors of the Mexican flag
Pemex, the national oil company created in 1938 for reasons of economic nationalism; it continues to provide major revenues for the government
NAFTA signing ceremony, October 1992. From left to right: (standing) President Carlos Salinas de Gortari (Mexico), President George H. W. Bush (U.S.), and Prime Minister Brian Mulroney (Canada)
Zapatista leader Comandanta Ramona
Vicente Fox and his opposition National Action Party won the 2000 general election, ending one-party rule.
Topographic map of Mexico
Mexico map of Köppen climate classification
Mexican wolf
Gray whale
The National Palace on the east side of Plaza de la Constitución or Zócalo, the main square of Mexico City; it was the residence of viceroys and Presidents of Mexico and now the seat of the Mexican government.
Andrés Manuel López Obrador President of Mexico
Alfonso García Robles diplomat who received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1982
A Mexican Navy Eurocopter
Demonstration on 26 September 2015, in the first anniversary of the disappearance of the 43 students in the Mexican town of Iguala
The territorial evolution of Mexico after independence: secession of Central America (purple), Chiapas annexed from Guatemala (blue), losses to the U.S. (red, white and orange) and the reannexation of the Republic of Yucatán (red)
A proportional representation of Mexico's exports. The country has the most complex economy in Latin America.
Historical GDP per capita development of Mexico
Mexican Stock Exchange building
Telmex Tower, Mexico City.
The Central Eólica Sureste I, Fase II in Oaxaca. The Isthmus of Tehuantepec is the region of Mexico with the highest capacity for wind energy. (see Tehuantepecer, a strong wind that affects the region)
Guillermo Haro Observatory in Cananea, Sonora.
Cancun and the Riviera Maya is the most visited region in Latin America
The Baluarte Bridge is the highest cable-stayed bridge in the world, the fifth-highest bridge overall and the highest bridge in the Americas.
El Cajon Dam
Mexican states by population density
Las castas. Casta painting showing 16 racial groupings. Anonymous, 18th century, oil on canvas, 148×104 cm, Museo Nacional del Virreinato, Tepotzotlán, Mexico.
Colonial caste painting of Mexican family in Viceroyalty of New Spain
Octavio Paz was awarded the 1981 Miguel de Cervantes Prize, the 1982 Neustadt International Prize for Literature, and the 1990 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Our Lady of Guadalupe, patron saint of Mexico. This painting of her at the Basilica of Guadalupe is among her most notable depictions. Scientists debate if it should be dated 1531, the year of the first apparition was said to appear, or the 1550s.
Cathedral of Zacatecas
General Hospital of Mexico in Mexico City.
Central Library of the National Autonomous University of Mexico
Olga Sánchez Cordero, Minister of the Interior (Gobernacion) in President López Obrador's cabinet
Palacio de Bellas Artes (Palace of Fine Arts), with murals, other artwork, and a major performance space
Mexican Muralism. A cultural expression starting in the 1920s created by a group of Mexican painters after the Mexican Revolution.
Monument to Cuauhtémoc, Paseo de la Reforma, Mexico City (1887)
Teotihuacán, State of Mexico
The colonial-era Cathedral Mexico City dominates one side of the main square of the capital
Museo Soumaya in Mexico City building
David Alfaro Siqueiros by Héctor García Cobo at Lecumberri prison, Mexico City, 1960.
Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, "The Tenth Muse." Posthmous portrait Juan Cabrera
Actress Dolores del Río, Hollywood star in the 1920s and 1930s and prominent figure of the Golden Age of Mexican cinema in the 1940s and 1950s
Mole sauce, which has dozens of varieties across the Republic, is seen as a symbol of Mexicanidad and is considered Mexico's national dish.
Portrait of composer Carlos Chávez by Carl van Vechten
Azteca Stadium, Mexico City.
Logo for the 1968 Mexico Olympics
Plaque in Mexico City commemorating Lucha libre as an intangible cultural heritage
View of the Pyramid of the Sun of Teotihuacan, the first human establishment in the area dating back to 600 BCE
View of the Pyramid of the Sun in the ancient city-state of Teotihuacan, which was the 6th largest city in the world at its peak (1 AD to 500 AD)
Temple of Kukulcán (El Castillo) in the maya city of Chichen Itza
A proportional representation of Mexico's exports. The country has the most complex economy in Latin America.
Storming of the Teocalli by Cortez and his Troops (1848)
Telmex Tower, Mexico City.
New Spain was essential to the Spanish global trading system. White represents the route of the Spanish Manila Galleons in the Pacific and the Spanish convoys in the Atlantic. (Blue represents Portuguese routes.)
The Baluarte Bridge was the highest cable-stayed bridge in the world, the fifth-highest bridge overall and is the highest bridge in the Americas.
Map of the First Mexican Empire
Central Library of the National Autonomous University of Mexico
Students in a burned bus during the protests of 1968
Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo, two of the most famous mexican artists
Pico de Orizaba, the highest mountain in Mexico
Palacio de Bellas Artes (Palace of Fine Arts), with murals, other artwork, and a major performance space
Chamber of Deputies, the lower house of the Congress of Mexico
Alfonso Cuarón, the first mexican filmmaker to win the Academy Award for Best Director
Andrés Manuel López Obrador President of Mexico
Televisa headquarters in Mexico City
Headquarters of the Secretariat of Foreign Affairs
El Santo, one of the most iconic Mexican luchadores
Mexican Federal Police celebration.
Mexico City, the financial center of Mexico
Mexican Stock Exchange building
Large Millimeter Telescope in Puebla.
The Baluarte Bridge is the highest cable-stayed bridge in the world, the fifth-highest bridge overall and the highest bridge in the Americas.
Lake Chapala is Mexico's largest freshwater lake.
Regional variation of ancestry according to a study made by Ruiz-Linares in 2014, each dot represents a volunteer, with most coming from south Mexico and Mexico City.
Map for the year 2000 of the indigenous languages of Mexico having more than 100,000 speakers.
Mexico–United States barrier between San Diego's border patrol offices in California, USA (left) and Tijuana, Mexico (right)
Secretary of Health, Mexico City, Mexico.
Central Library of the National Autonomous University of Mexico
Frida Kahlo, the most famous woman artist in Mexican history.
Palacio de Bellas Artes (Palace of Fine Arts), with murals, other artwork, and a major performance space
Octavio Paz was awarded the 1990 Nobel Prize in Literature
Azteca Stadium, Mexico City.
El Santo, one of the most famous and iconic Mexican luchadores

Mēxihco is the Nahuatl term for the heartland of the Aztec Empire, namely the Valley of Mexico and surrounding territories, with its people being known as the Mexica.

Nahua children in traditional clothes

Nahuas

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The Nahuas are a group of the indigenous people of Mexico, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua.

The Nahuas are a group of the indigenous people of Mexico, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua.

Nahua children in traditional clothes
Number of Nahuatl speakers per state, according to the 2000 Mexican census
Current distribution of Nahuatl variants
Ceramic sculpture of Nahua deity from Puebla
"Atlantean figures" from the Nahua culture of the Toltecs at Tula.
Depiction of Tlaxcaltec soldiers leading a Spaniard to Chalco from Lienzo de Tlaxcala
Depiction of Tlaxcaltecs and Spanish at the founding of the Colonial Province of Tlaxcala in 1545.
Nahua man of Morelos ploughing a bean field by mule

Their Nahuan languages, or Nahuatl, consist of many variants, several of which are mutually unintelligible.

The Aztec Empire in 1519 within Mesoamerica

Aztecs

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The Aztecs were a Mesoamerican culture that flourished in central Mexico in the post-classic period from 1300 to 1521.

The Aztecs were a Mesoamerican culture that flourished in central Mexico in the post-classic period from 1300 to 1521.

The Aztec Empire in 1519 within Mesoamerica
Aztec metal axe blades. Prior of the arrival of the European settlers, see: Metallurgy in pre-Columbian Mesoamerica
Large ceramic statue of an Aztec eagle warrior
A page from the Codex Boturini depicting the departure from Aztlán
The Valley of Mexico with the locations of the main city states in 1519
The coronation of Motecuzuma I, Tovar Codex
Ahuitzotl in Codex Mendoza
The meeting of Moctezuma II and Hernán Cortés, with his cultural translator La Malinche, 8 November 1519, as depicted in the Lienzo de Tlaxcala
"The Martyrdom of Cuauhtémoc", (1892) painting by Leandro Izaguirre
Folio from the Codex Mendoza showing a commoner advancing through the ranks by taking captives in war. Each attire can be achieved by taking a certain number of captives.
Jaguar warrior uniform as tax pay method, from Codex Mendoza
Folio from the Codex Mendoza showing the rearing and education of Aztec boys and girls in an ages list, how they were instructed in different types of labor, and how they were harshly punished for misbehavior
Pre-Hispanic "Tepeyac" Road of city-state of Tlatelolco ruins with semi-underground unidentified small and simply built buildings, probably houses (left). Tlatelolco archaeological site.
The maximal extent of the Aztec Empire
Cultivation of maize, the main foodstuff, using simple tools. Florentine Codex
Typical Aztec black on orange ceramic ware
Diorama model of the Aztec market at Tlatelolco
A folio from the Codex Mendoza showing the tribute paid to Tenochtitlan in exotic trade goods by the altepetl of Xoconochco on the Pacific coast
Map of the Island city of Tenochtitlan
Mexico-Tenochtitlan urban standard, Templo Mayor Museum
Great Temple in Historic center of Mexico City
The deity Tezcatlipoca depicted in the Codex Borgia, one of the few extant pre-Hispanic codices
Aztec cosmological drawing with the god Xiuhtecuhtli, the lord of fire in the center and the four corners of the cosmos marked by four trees with associated birds, deities and calendar names, and each direction marked by a dismembered limb of the god Tezcatlipoca. From the Codex Fejérváry-Mayer
The "Aztec calendar stone" or "Sun Stone", a large stone monolith unearthed in 1790 in Mexico City depicting the five eras of Aztec mythical history, with calendric images.
Ritual human sacrifice as shown in the Codex Magliabechiano
Ma (hand) and pach (moss). In Nahuatl, handmoss is synonym of raccoon.
Frame drum huehuetl played by a youth in Aztec-themed costume in Amecameca, State of Mexico, 2010
Page from the pre-Columbian Codex Borgia a folding codex painted on deer skin prepared with gesso
The Coatlicue statue in the National Museum of Anthropology
Aztec feather shield displaying the "stepped fret" design called xicalcoliuhqui in Nahuatl (c. 1520, Landesmuseum Württemberg)
Codex Kingsborough, showing the abuse by Spaniards of a Nahua under the encomienda Spanish labor system
Depiction of smallpox during the Spanish conquest in Book XII of the Florentine Codex
José Sarmiento de Valladares, Count of Moctezuma, viceroy of Mexico
Motecuhzoma II's Teocalli of the Sacred War emblem, this depiction mythologically describes the reason when Aztecs searched an eagle on a cactus hunting a rattlesnake for begin the new city, the founding myth of Mexica.
Tezontle is a material for elements in architectural styles.
Virgin of Guadalupe and the symbols of the founding of Tenochtitlan, Josefus De Ribera Argomanis. (1778)
Monument to Cuauhtémoc, inaugurated 1887 by Porfirio Díaz in Mexico City
Detail of Diego Rivera's mural depicting the Aztec market of Tlatelolco at the Mexican National palace
President Porfirio Díaz in 1910 at the National Museum of Anthropology with the Aztec Calendar Stone. The International Congress of Americanists met in Mexico City in 1910 on the centennial of Mexican independence.
Metro Moctezuma, with a stylized feathered crown as its logo
Las Tortilleras, an 1836 lithograph after a painting by Carl Nebel of women grinding corn and making tortillas.
Chapulines, grasshoppers toasted and dusted with chilis, continue to be a popular delicacy.
Urban standard details; Mexico-Tenochtitlan wall remnants stone bricks in Templo Mayor Museum (Mexico City)
The Mask of Xiuhtecuhtli; 1400–1521; cedrela wood, turquoise, pine resin, mother-of-pearl, conch shell, cinnabar; height: {{convert|16.8|cm|in|abbr=on}}, width: {{convert|15.2|cm|in|abbr=on}}; British Museum (London)
The Mask of Tezcatlipoca; 1400–1521; turquoise, pyrite, pine, lignite, human bone, deer skin, conch shell and agave; height: {{convert|19|cm|in|abbr=on}}, width: {{convert|13.9|cm|in|abbr=on}}, length: {{convert|12.2|cm|in|abbr=on}}; British Museum
Double-headed serpent; 1450–1521; Spanish cedar wood (Cedrela odorata), turquoise, shell, traces of gilding & 2 resins are used as adhesive (pine resin and Bursera resin); height: {{convert|20.3|cm|in|abbr=on}}, width: {{convert|43.3|cm|in|abbr=on}}, depth: {{convert|5.9|cm|in|abbr=on}}; British Museum
Chalchihuite relief of Ehecatl Temple; basalt; overall: {{convert|31.4|x|33.82|cm|in|abbr=on}}; discovered in August 2005 during repairs on the Mexico City Cathedral's floor; Ehecatl Temple in Cathedral archeological site (Mexico City)
Page 12 of the Codex Borbonicus, (in the big square): Tezcatlipoca (night and fate) and Quetzalcoatl (feathered serpent); before 1500; bast fiber paper; height: {{convert|38|cm|in|abbr=on}}, length of the full manuscript: {{convert|142|cm|in|abbr=on}}; Bibliothèque de l'Assemblée nationale (Paris)
Aztec calendar stone; 1502–1521; basalt; diameter: {{convert|3.58|m|ft|abbr=on}}; thick: {{convert|98|cm|in|abbr=on}}; discovered on 17 December 1790 during repairs on the Mexico City Cathedral; National Museum of Anthropology (Mexico City)
Underground Great Temple's Chacmool statue; 1440–1469; painted earthenware; length: {{convert|1.26|m|ft|abbr=on}}; Templo Mayor (Mexico City)
Tlāloc effigy vessel; 1440–1469; painted earthenware; height: {{convert|35|cm|in|abbr=on}}; Templo Mayor Museum (Mexico City)
Kneeling female figure; 15th–early 16th century; painted stone; overall: {{convert|54.61|x|26.67|cm|in|abbr=on}}; Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City)
Frog-shaped necklace ornaments; 15th–early 16th century; gold; height: {{convert|2.1|cm|in|abbr=on}}; Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City)
The Coatlicue statue in the National Museum of Anthropology

The Aztec peoples included different ethnic groups of central Mexico, particularly those groups who spoke the Nahuatl language and who dominated large parts of Mesoamerica from the 14th to the 16th centuries.

Mesoamerica and its cultural areas

Mesoamerica

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Historical region and cultural area in southern North America and most of Central America.

Historical region and cultural area in southern North America and most of Central America.

Mesoamerica and its cultural areas
Ballgame court at Monte Albán
A pair of swinging Remojadas figurines, Classic Veracruz culture, 300 to 900 CE.
Page 9 of the Dresden Codex (from the 1880 Förstermann edition)
El Mirador flourished from 600 BCE to 100 CE, and may have had a population of over 100,000.
Landscape of the Mesoamerican highlands
Yojoa Lake in Honduras.
Tikal is one of the largest archaeological sites, urban centers, and tourist attractions of the pre-Columbian Maya civilization. It is located in the archaeological region of the Petén Basin in what is now northern Guatemala.
Olmec Colossal Head No. 3 1200–900 BCE
Pyramid of the Moon viewed from atop of the Pyramid of the Sun.
Xochicalco, Temple of the Feathered Serpent, 650–900 CE
Detail of the Nunnery Quadrangle at Uxmal, 10th century
Mesoamerica and Central America in the 16th century before Spanish arrival
Examples of the diversity of maize
The Aztec Empire in 1512
K'inich Kan B'alam II, the Classic period ruler of Palenque, as depicted on a stele
Illustration that recreates the structures of the archaeological site of Yarumela or El Chircal in Honduras, this place reflects the Olmec influence that existed in Central America in the pre-classic period.
"Head Variant" or "Patron Gods" glyphs for Maya days
The emblem glyph of Tikal (Mutal)
One of the earliest examples of the Mesoamerican writing systems, the Epi-Olmec script on the La Mojarra Stela 1 dated to around 150 CE. Mesoamerica is one of the five places in the world where writing has developed independently.
The xoloitzcuintle is one of the naguales of the god Quetzalcoatl. In this form, it helps the dead cross the Chicnahuapan, a river that separates the world of the living from the dead.
Zapotec mask of the Bat God.
Ritual human sacrifice portrayed in Codex Laud
A small ceremonial ballcourt at Uaxactun.
Ballgame marker from the classic Lowland Maya site of Chinkultic, Mexico depicting a ballplayer in full gear
The Avenue of the Dead in Teotihuacan, an example of a Mesoamerican settlement planned according to concepts of directionality
Art with ideological and political meaning: depiction of an Aztec tzompantli (skull-rack) from the Ramirez Codex
Holy Spirit Grotto
Joya de Cerén
Tazumal
Casa Blanca
San Andres
Cihuatán
Sculpture of "The Acrobat" from Tlatilco
Pyramid of the archaeological site of La Venta 1000-400 BCE
Cuicuilco 800–600 BCE
The partly excavated main structure of San José Mogote 1500–500 BCE
Monte Albán, Building J in the foreground. 200 BCE – 200 CE
Great Goddess of Teotihuacan 200–500 CE
A reconstruction of Guachimontones, flourished from 200 to 400 CE
Temple of the Owl, Dzibanche 200–600 CE
Acanceh, 200–300 CE<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.mesoweb.com/features/acanceh/history.html|title=Mesoweb Articles|work=mesoweb.com}}</ref>
Mask located on the "Temple of the Masks" Kohunlich c. 500 CE
Main palace of Palenque, 7th century AD
K'inich Janaab Pakal I of Palenque 603–683 AD
Copan Stela H commissioned by Uaxaclajuun Ubʼaah Kʼawiil 695–738 AD
Jaina Island type figure (Maya) 650–800 AD
Cacaxtla, Mural depicting the Bird Man 650–900 AD
Chichen Itza, Temple of the Jaguars 900–1000 AD
Governor's Palace rear view and details, 10th century CE, Uxmal
Codz Poop, 7th–10th centuries CE Kabah
Sayil, three-story palace, 600–900 CE
Chichen Itza, "Temple of Three Dintels" 600–1000 CE
Palace of Mitla, Oaxaca 12th century
The Calendar temple of Tlatelolco, 1200 CE
Detail of page 20 from the Codex Zouche-Nuttall, 14–15th century
Pectoral mixtec, Shield of Yanhuitlan.
Aztec sun stone, early 16th century
A small ceremonial ballcourt at Tikal.

This volcano, which retains its Nahuatl name, is located 70 km (43 mi) southeast of Mexico City.

Conquest of Mexico by Cortés, oil on canvas Conquista de México por Cortés

Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire

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One of the primary events in the Spanish colonization of the Americas.

One of the primary events in the Spanish colonization of the Americas.

Conquest of Mexico by Cortés, oil on canvas Conquista de México por Cortés
Cortés and his counselor, the Nahua woman La Malinche, meet Moctezuma in Tenochtitlan, 8 November 1519
The death of Moctezuma, depicted in the Florentine Codex
Smallpox depicted in Book XII on the conquest of Mexico in the Florentine Codex
The capture of Cuauhtemoc. 17th century, oil on canvas.
Bernal Díaz del Castillo's True History of the Conquest of Mexico
Tlaxcalan allies of the Spanish, showing their leaders, porters, as well as a Spanish warrior and a Spanish war dog. Lienzo de Tlaxcala
A comet seen by Moctezuma, interpreted as a sign of impending peril. Diego Durán's account from indigenous informants.
Aztec empire on the eve of the Spanish Invasion
Diego de Velázquez, who commissioned Cortés's limited expedition of exploration in 1519
Hernán Cortés in his later years; his coat of arms on the upper left corner. Painting reproduced in the book America (R. Cronau 19th century).
Map depicting Cortés' conquest route
Codex Azcatitlan depicting the Spanish-Tlaxcalan army, with Cortés and La Malinche, along with an African slave in front the meeting with Moctezuma. The facing page is no longer extant.
Coat of arms of Villa Rica, Veracruz; the first town council founded by the Spanish. The tile mosaic is located in Mexico City.
Cortés scuttling fleet off Veracruz coast
Meeting of Cortés and Xicotencatl
The massacre of Cholula. Lienzo de Tlaxcala
Cholula Massacre, by Felix Parra, 1877.
Map of the Valley of Mexico on the eve of the Spanish conquest
"Motecuhzuma receives Cortés. Mexican dances in the lake." by Juan González and Miguel González. 1698
Conquistadors and their Tlaxcalan allies enter Tenochtitlan
La Noche Triste depicted in the 17th century
A page from the Lienzo de Tlaxcala, depicting the battle of Otumba
"The Last Days of Tenochtitlan, Conquest of Mexico by Cortez", a 19th-century painting by William de Leftwich Dodge.
Hernan Cortés fight with two Aztecs.
Nuño de Guzmán, a rival of Cortés, led Spanish soldiers with Tlaxcalan allies in the conquest of Michoacan.
Pedro de Alvarado's death in 1541, depicted in the indigenous Codex Telleriano-Remensis. The glyph to the right of his head represents his Nahuatl name, Tonatiuh ("Sun").
Evangelization of Mexico
Scene from the opera La Conquista, 2005
Hernán Cortés in his later years; his coat of arms on the upper right corner (17th century).

In a letter in Nahuatl to the Spanish Crown, the indigenous lords of Huexotzinco lay out their case in for their valorous service.

Mexico City

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The city was the place of Mexico-Tenochtitlan, the Aztec capital.
Storming of the Teocalli by Cortez and his Troops (1848)
Mexico City Metropolitan Cathedral's (1571–1813) 18th century painting. The cathedral was built by the Spaniards over the ruins of the main Aztec temple.
Mexico City in 1628
Palacio de Mineria, Mexico City. The elevation of silver mining as a profession and the ennoblement of silver miners was a development of the eighteenth-century Bourbon Reforms
A painting of the American assault on the Chapultepec Castle.
Mexican President and later dictator Porfirio Díaz (second from right) commissioned many of the ornate European style buildings constructed from the 1890–1910 and hoped for Mexico City to eventually rival European cities like Paris in opulence
Corpses in front of the National Palace during the Ten Tragic Days. Photographer, Manuel Ramos.
Frida Kahlo and Diego Rivera house in San Ángel designed by Juan O'Gorman, an example of 20th-century Modernist architecture in Mexico
Students in a burned bus during the protests of 1968
First ladies Paloma Cordero of Mexico (left) and Nancy Reagan of the United States (right) with U.S. Ambassador to Mexico, John Gavin observing the damage done by the 1985 earthquake.
Satellite image of Mexico City
Trajineras in the canals of Xochimilco. Xochimilco and the historic center of Mexico City were declared a World Heritage Site in 1987.
Air pollution over Mexico City. Air quality is poorest during the winter.
The Chapultepec was an important park during the Aztecs whose access had been limited to its nobility, was declared open to the public by a decree of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor in 1530, it is one of the world's largest city parks.
Lightning in the background of the Torre Mayor
Growth of Mexico city's area from 1900 to 2000
Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe in La Villa de Guadalupe, the main Catholic pilgrimage site in the Americas. It houses the original image of Our Lady of Guadalupe.
Secretariat of Health building
Central Campus of the University City of the UNAM. Since 2007 the University City is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The National Palace of Mexico
Senate of the Republic
Legislative Palace of San Lázaro
Offices of the Secretariat of Foreign Affairs
Mexico City's Legislative Assembly building
The 16 boroughs of Mexico City
Federal Police headquarters in Mexico City
The Paseo de la Reforma is a wide avenue designed by Ferdinand von Rosenzweig in the 1860s and was modeled after the Champs-Élysées in Paris.
Palacio de Hierro store
The Turibus runs through many of the most important tourist attractions in the city.
The Art Nouveau/Neoclassical Palacio de Bellas Artes is the prominent cultural center in the city
Receptions Hall at the Museo Nacional de Arte
lReconstruction of the entrance to the Hochob temple in the National Museum of Anthropology
Museo Soumaya
The City Theatre built in 1918.
A guajolota, a tamale torta invention.
Televisa headquarters in Mexico City
Azteca Stadium, the 21st largest stadium in the world
Autódromo Hermanos Rodríguez
Mexico City Arena
Mexico City Metro
Metrobús rapid transit bus stop station at Indios Verdes
The Anillo Periférico and Paseo de la Reforma in Miguel Hidalgo
Bicycles available for rental in Zona Rosa
Mexico City International Airport
Felipe Ángeles International Airport
Santa Fe is one of the centers of greatest economic activity in the city.
Central de Abasto is one of the two large wholesale markets in Mexico City, along with the Nueva Viga market, which specializes in fish and seafood.
Biblioteca Vasconcelos
Street tacos in Mexico City
A pesero or microbús

Mexico City (Ciudad de México, ; abbr.: CDMX; Nahuatl: Altepetl Mexico) is the capital and largest city of Mexico, and the most populous city in North America.

Mexica

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The Mexica (Nahuatl: Mēxihkah, ; singular Mēxihkatl), or Mexicas, were a Nahuatl-speaking indigenous people of the Valley of Mexico who were the rulers of the Aztec Empire.

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Uto-Aztecan languages

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Family of indigenous languages of the Americas, consisting of over thirty languages.

Family of indigenous languages of the Americas, consisting of over thirty languages.

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Speakers of Nahuatl languages account for almost four-fifths of these.

Nahuan languages

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Original *t to Voiceless alveolar lateral affricate before *a.

Original *t to Voiceless alveolar lateral affricate before *a.

The best known Nahuan language is Nahuatl.

Maya glyphs in stucco at the Museo de sitio in Palenque, Mexico. An example of text in a Mesoamerican language written in an indigenous Mesoamerican writing system.

Mesoamerican languages

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Mesoamerican languages are the languages indigenous to the Mesoamerican cultural area, which covers southern Mexico, all of Guatemala and Belize and parts of Honduras and El Salvador and Nicaragua.

Mesoamerican languages are the languages indigenous to the Mesoamerican cultural area, which covers southern Mexico, all of Guatemala and Belize and parts of Honduras and El Salvador and Nicaragua.

Maya glyphs in stucco at the Museo de sitio in Palenque, Mexico. An example of text in a Mesoamerican language written in an indigenous Mesoamerican writing system.
Mesoamerica and its cultural areas
Page from Olmos' "Arte de la Lengua Mexicana", a grammar of the Nahuatl language published in 1547 three years earlier than the first Grammar of French
Mesoamerican languages geodistribution
Detail showing glyphs from the Epi-Olmec script dating from the 2nd century CE La Mojarra Stela 1
Language clusters of Mexico with more than 100,000 speakers

Many Mesoamerican languages today are either endangered or already extinct, but others, including the Mayan languages, Nahuatl, Mixtec and Zapotec, have several hundred thousand speakers and remain viable.