Nalanda

NālandāNalanda UniversityArchaeological Site of Nalanda ''Mahavihara'' (Nalanda University) at Nalanda, BiharNalanda districtNalanda MahaviharaNālandā TraditionShakyashriArchaeological Site of Nalanda Mahavihara at Nalanda, BiharBiharNālandā
Nalanda was an ancient Mahavihara, a large and revered Buddhist monastery, in the ancient kingdom of Magadha (modern-day Bihar) in India.wikipedia
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Magadha

MagadhMagadha KingdomMagadhas
Nalanda was an ancient Mahavihara, a large and revered Buddhist monastery, in the ancient kingdom of Magadha (modern-day Bihar) in India. Nalanda was initially a prosperous village by a major trade route that ran through the nearby city of Rajagriha (modern Rajgir) which was then the capital of Magadha.
The kingdom of the Magadh, before its expansion, corresponded to the modern districts of Patna, Jehanabad, Nalanda, Aurangabad, Arwal Nawada and Gaya in southern Bihar.

Bihar Sharif

BiharsharifBihar sharif Municipal CorporationBihar-E-Sharif
The site is located about 95 km southeast of Patna near the city of Bihar Sharif, and was an important centre of learning from the fifth century CE to c.
The ruins of the ancient Nalanda Mahavihara, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, are located near the city.

Patna

Patna, BiharMount Carmel High School, PatnaPatna, India
The site is located about 95 km southeast of Patna near the city of Bihar Sharif, and was an important centre of learning from the fifth century CE to c.
The Buddhist, Hindu and Jain pilgrimage centres of Vaishali, Rajgir, Nalanda, Bodh Gaya and Pawapuri are nearby and Patna City is also a sacred city for Sikhs as the tenth Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh was born here.

Vikramashila

VikramshilaVikramasilaVikramshila University
The highly formalized methods of Vedic scholarship helped inspire the establishment of large teaching institutions such as Taxila, Nalanda, and Vikramashila, which are often characterised as India's early universities. Nalanda, a cultural legacy from the great age of the Guptas, was prized and cherished by the Palas, prolific builders whose rule oversaw the establishment of four other Mahaviharas modeled on the Nalanda Mahavihara at Jagaddala, Odantapura, Somapura, and Vikramashila respectively.
Vikramashila (IAST: ) was one of the two most important centres of learning in India during the Pala Empire, along with Nalanda.

Bihar

Bihar stateBihar, IndiaState of Bihar
Nalanda was an ancient Mahavihara, a large and revered Buddhist monastery, in the ancient kingdom of Magadha (modern-day Bihar) in India.
Buddhism in Magadha went into decline due to the invasion of Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khalji, during which many of the viharas and the famed universities of Nalanda and Vikramashila were destroyed.

Xuanzang

Hiuen TsangHuen TsangHieun Tsang
Much of our knowledge of Nalanda comes from the writings of pilgrim monks from Asia, such as Xuanzang and Yijing, who travelled to the Mahavihara in the 7th century CE. Much of what is known of Nalanda before the 8th century is based on the travelogues of the Chinese monks, Xuanzang (Si-Yu-Ki) and Yijing ([[A Record of the Buddhist Religion As Practised in India and the Malay Archipelago]]).
He became famous for his seventeen-year overland journey to India (including Nalanda), which is recorded in detail in the classic Chinese text Great Tang Records on the Western Regions, which in turn provided the inspiration for the novel Journey to the West written by Wu Cheng'en during the Ming dynasty, around nine centuries after Xuanzang's death.

Pala Empire

PalaPala dynastyPalas
The subsequent centuries were a time of gradual decline, a period during which the tantric developments of Buddhism became most pronounced in eastern India under the Pala Empire.
They built grand temples and monasteries, including the Somapura Mahavihara, and patronised the great universities of Nalanda and Vikramashila.

Nalanda University

Nalanda International Universityinternational universityNālandā University
On November 25, 2010, the Indian government, through an Act of Parliament, resurrected the ancient university through the Nalanda University Bill, and subsequently a new Nalanda University was established.
Nalanda University (also known as Nalanda International University) is an international and research-intensive university located in the historical city of Rajgir, near Nalanda, India, which was established by an Act of Parliament to emulate the famous Nalanda of ancient India.

Mahayana

Mahayana BuddhismMahāyānaMahayana Buddhist
All students at Nalanda studied Mahayana, as well as the texts of the eighteen (Hinayana) sects of Buddhism. He also places 3rd-century CE luminaries such as the Mahayana philosopher, Nagarjuna, and his disciple, Aryadeva, at Nalanda with the former also heading the institution.
Large Mahāyāna scholastic centers such as Nalanda thrived during the latter period of Buddhism in India, between the seventh and twelfth centuries.

Yijing (monk)

YijingI-tsingYi Jing
Much of our knowledge of Nalanda comes from the writings of pilgrim monks from Asia, such as Xuanzang and Yijing, who travelled to the Mahavihara in the 7th century CE. Much of what is known of Nalanda before the 8th century is based on the travelogues of the Chinese monks, Xuanzang (Si-Yu-Ki) and Yijing ([[A Record of the Buddhist Religion As Practised in India and the Malay Archipelago]]).
A student of the Buddhist university at Nālandā (now in Bihar, India), he was also responsible for the translation of many Buddhist texts from Sanskrit and Pali into Chinese.

Monastery

monasteriesmonasticmonastic community
Nalanda was an ancient Mahavihara, a large and revered Buddhist monastery, in the ancient kingdom of Magadha (modern-day Bihar) in India.

Hiranand Sastri

Hiranand Shastri
Hiranand Sastri, an archaeologist who headed the excavation of the ruins, attributes the name to the abundance of (lotus-stalks) in the area and believes that Nalanda would then represent the giver of lotus-stalks.
Hiranand Sastri (1878–1946) was an Indian archaeologist, epigraphist and official of the Archaeological Survey of India who was involved in the excavation of numerous sites including Nalanda, and Sankissa.

Nagarjuna

NāgārjunaAcharya NagarjunaNagarjuna’s
He also places 3rd-century CE luminaries such as the Mahayana philosopher, Nagarjuna, and his disciple, Aryadeva, at Nalanda with the former also heading the institution.
Furthermore, he is traditionally supposed to have written several treatises on rasayana as well as serving a term as the head of Nālandā.

Northern Black Polished Ware

NBP wareearly historicalNBPW
recent archaeological evidences have pushed back Nalanda history to 1200 BC where earliest occurrences of Northern Black Polished Ware have been recorded and carbon dated from the site of Juafardih.
Recent archaeological evidences have pushed back NBPW date to 1200 BC at Nalanda where its earliest occurrences have been recorded and carbon dated from the site of Juafardih.

Rajgir

RajagrihaRajgrihaRajagaha
Nalanda was initially a prosperous village by a major trade route that ran through the nearby city of Rajagriha (modern Rajgir) which was then the capital of Magadha.
The ancient Nalanda university was located in the vicinity of Rajgir, and the contemporary Nalanda University named after it was founded in 2010 at Rajgir.

Gupta Empire

GuptaGupta periodGuptas
Nalanda flourished under the patronage of the Gupta Empire in the 5th and 6th centuries, and later under Harsha, the emperor of Kannauj.
Yijing states that this temple was located more than 40 yojanas east of Nalanda, which would mean it was situated somewhere in the modern Bengal region.

Śīlabhadra

SilabhadraShilabhadra
He was warmly welcomed in Nalanda where he received the Indian name of Mokshadeva and studied under the guidance of Shilabhadra, the venerable head of the institution at the time.
He is best known as being an abbot of Nālandā monastery in India, as being an expert on Yogācāra teachings, and for being the personal tutor of the Chinese Buddhist monk Xuanzang.

Vedas

VedicVedaVedic literature
The highly formalized methods of Vedic scholarship helped inspire the establishment of large teaching institutions such as Taxila, Nalanda, and Vikramashila, which are often characterised as India's early universities.
The Vedas, Vedic rituals and its ancillary sciences called the Vedangas, were part of the curriculum at ancient universities such as at Taxila, Nalanda and Vikramashila.

Vajrayana

Vajrayana BuddhismTantric Buddhismtantric
The subsequent centuries were a time of gradual decline, a period during which the tantric developments of Buddhism became most pronounced in eastern India under the Pala Empire.
According to David Gray, these sexual practices probably originated in a non-monastic context, but were later adopted by monastic establishments (such as Nalanda and Vikramashila).

Ashoka

AsokaAshoka the GreatEmperor Ashoka
The 17th-century Tibetan Lama, states that the 3rd-century BCE Mauryan and Buddhist emperor, Ashoka, built a great temple at Nalanda at the site of Shariputra's chaitya.

Somapura Mahavihara

SomapuraPaharpurRuins of the Buddhist Vihara at Paharpur
Nalanda, a cultural legacy from the great age of the Guptas, was prized and cherished by the Palas, prolific builders whose rule oversaw the establishment of four other Mahaviharas modeled on the Nalanda Mahavihara at Jagaddala, Odantapura, Somapura, and Vikramashila respectively.
According to Tibetan sources, five great Mahaviharas stood out: Vikramashila, the premier university of the era; Nalanda, past its prime but still illustrious; Somapura Mahavihara; Odantapurā; and Jaggadala.

Kamalaśīla

KamalashilaKamalasilaKamalaśila
He and his disciple Kamalashila (who was also of Nalanda) essentially taught Tibetans how to do philosophy.
740-795) was an Indian Buddhist of Nalanda Mahavihara who accompanied Śāntarakṣita (725–788) to Tibet at the request of Trisong Detsen.

Dharmakirti

Dharmakīrti DharmakīrtiDharmakîrti
The scholar Dharmakirti (c.
c. 6th or 7th century) was an influential Indian Buddhist philosopher who worked at Nālandā.

A Record of Buddhist Practices Sent Home from the Southern Sea

A Record of the Buddhist Religion As Practised in India and the Malay ArchipelagoAccount of Buddhism sent from the South Seas
Much of what is known of Nalanda before the 8th century is based on the travelogues of the Chinese monks, Xuanzang (Si-Yu-Ki) and Yijing ([[A Record of the Buddhist Religion As Practised in India and the Malay Archipelago]]).
The book records Yijing's stay at Nalanda, a Buddhist Mahāvihāra in North-eastern India, and describes the life and practices of the monks therein.

Kumaragupta I

KumaraguptaKumara Gupta IKumara Gupta
Shakraditya is identified with the 5th-century CE Gupta emperor, Kumaragupta I ((r.
The Chinese traveler Xuanzang mentions Budhagupta after king Shakraditya (identified as Kumaragupta I by some scholars) while naming the patrons of the Nalanda monastery.