Napoleon III

Napoléon IIILouis NapoleonNapoleon III of FranceLouis-Napoléon BonaparteEmperor Napoleon IIILouis-Napoleon BonaparteLouis Napoleon BonaparteLouis-NapoleonLouis Napoléon BonaparteNapoleon III, Emperor of the French
Napoleon III (born Charles-Louis Napoléon Bonaparte; 20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873), the nephew of Napoleon I, was the first President of France from 1848 to 1852, and the last French monarch from 1852 to 1870.wikipedia
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French Second Republic

Second RepublicSecond French RepublicFrance
First elected president of the French Second Republic in 1848, he seized power in 1851, when he could not constitutionally be re-elected, and became the Emperor of the French.
The French Second Republic was a short-lived republican government of France under President Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte.

Second French Empire

Second EmpireFranceFrench Empire
He founded the Second French Empire and was its only emperor until the defeat of the French army and his capture by Prussia and its allies in the Franco-Prussian War in 1870.
The Second French Empire (Second Empire), officially the French Empire (Empire français), was the regime of Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870, between the Second Republic and the Third Republic, in France.

Haussmann's renovation of Paris

renovation of ParisHaussmanianHaussmann
Napoleon III commissioned the grand reconstruction of Paris, carried out by his prefect of the Seine, Baron Haussmann.
Haussmann's renovation of Paris was a vast public works program commissioned by Emperor Napoléon III and directed by his prefect of Seine, Georges-Eugène Haussmann, between 1853 and 1870.

Crimean War

CrimeaCrimea WarCrimean
He worked to modernize the French economy, rebuilt the center of Paris, expanded the overseas empire, and engaged in the Crimean War and the Second Italian War of Independence.
While the churches worked out their differences and came to an agreement, Nicholas I of Russia and the French Emperor Napoleon III refused to back down.

Franco-Prussian War

Franco-German WarWar of 1870Franco Prussian War
He founded the Second French Empire and was its only emperor until the defeat of the French army and his capture by Prussia and its allies in the Franco-Prussian War in 1870.
A series of swift Prussian and German victories in eastern France, culminating in the Siege of Metz and the Battle of Sedan, saw French Emperor Napoleon III captured and the army of the Second Empire decisively defeated.

1848 French presidential election

18481848 election1848 presidential election
First elected president of the French Second Republic in 1848, he seized power in 1851, when he could not constitutionally be re-elected, and became the Emperor of the French.
The election was held on 10 December 1848 and led to the surprise victory of Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte with 74% of the vote.

Second Mexican Empire

Mexican EmpireMexicoEmperor of Mexico
Napoleon III doubled the area of the French overseas empire in Asia, the Pacific and Africa, however his army's intervention in Mexico, which aimed to create a Second Mexican Empire under French protection, ended in total failure.
It was created with the support of Napoleon III of France, who wanted to establish a monarchist ally in the Americas.

French Third Republic

FranceThird RepublicFrench
The French Third Republic was proclaimed in Paris and Napoleon went into exile in England, where he died in 1873.
The early days of the Third Republic were dominated by political disruptions caused by the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71, which the Republic continued to wage after the fall of Emperor Napoleon III in 1870.

Battle of Sedan

SedanBattle of Sedan (1870)surrender
The French army was rapidly defeated and Napoleon III was captured at the Battle of Sedan.
It resulted in the capture of Emperor Napoleon III and large numbers of his troops and for all intents and purposes decided the war in favour of Prussia and its allies, though fighting continued under a new French government.

Second French intervention in Mexico

French intervention in MexicoFrench InterventionMexico
Napoleon III doubled the area of the French overseas empire in Asia, the Pacific and Africa, however his army's intervention in Mexico, which aimed to create a Second Mexican Empire under French protection, ended in total failure.
To extend the influence of Imperial France, Napoleon III instigated the intervention in Mexico by claiming that the military adventure was a foreign policy commitment to free trade.

Empress Joséphine

Joséphine de BeauharnaisEmpress JosephineJoséphine
His mother was Hortense de Beauharnais, the only daughter of Napoleon's wife Joséphine de Beauharnais by her first marriage to Alexandre de Beauharnais.
Through her daughter Hortense, she was the maternal grandmother of Napoleon III.

List of French monarchs

King of FranceMonarchKing
Napoleon III (born Charles-Louis Napoléon Bonaparte; 20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873), the nephew of Napoleon I, was the first President of France from 1848 to 1852, and the last French monarch from 1852 to 1870.
In addition to the Kingdom of France, there were also two French Empires, the first from 1804 to 1814 and again in 1815, founded and ruled by Napoleon I, and the second from 1852 to 1870, founded and ruled by his nephew Napoleon III (also known as Louis-Napoleon).

President of France

PresidentFrench PresidentPresident of the French Republic
Napoleon III (born Charles-Louis Napoléon Bonaparte; 20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873), the nephew of Napoleon I, was the first President of France from 1848 to 1852, and the last French monarch from 1852 to 1870.
Eighteen years later, during the opening phases of the Second Republic, the title was created for a popularly elected head of state, the first of whom was Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, nephew of Emperor Napoleon.

Tuileries Palace

TuileriesPalais des TuileriesPalace of the Tuileries
At the age of seven, Louis-Napoleon visited his uncle at the Tuileries Palace in Paris.
It was the usual Parisian residence of most French monarchs, from Henry IV to Napoleon III, until it was burned by the Paris Commune in 1871.

Hortense de Beauharnais

HortenseQueen HortenseHortense de Beauharnais, Queen of Holland
His mother was Hortense de Beauharnais, the only daughter of Napoleon's wife Joséphine de Beauharnais by her first marriage to Alexandre de Beauharnais.
She later became the wife of the former's brother, Louis Bonaparte, King of Holland, and the mother of Napoléon III, Emperor of the French.

Savoy

SavoyardSavoiaSavoie
His regime assisted Italian unification by defeating the Austrian Empire in the Franco-Austrian War, and as its deferred reward later annexed Savoy and the County of Nice.
Savoy, along with the county of Nice, was finally annexed to France by a plebiscite, under the Second French Empire in 1860, as part of a political agreement (Treaty of Turin) brokered between the French emperor Napoleon III and King Victor Emmanuel II of the Kingdom of Sardinia that began the final steps in the process of unification of Italy.

Italian unification

Risorgimentounification of ItalyKingdom of Italy
His regime assisted Italian unification by defeating the Austrian Empire in the Franco-Austrian War, and as its deferred reward later annexed Savoy and the County of Nice.
The Carbonari condemned Napoleon III (who, as a young man, had fought on the side of the Carbonari) to death for failing to unite Italy, and the group almost succeeded in assassinating him in 1858, when Felice Orsini, Giovanni Andrea Pieri, Carlo Di Rudio and Andrea Gomez launched three bombs at him.

Victor Hugo

HugoCharles VacquerieCharles
Louis-Napoleon's enemies, including Victor Hugo, spread the gossip that he was the child of a different man, but most historians agree today that he was the legitimate son of Louis Bonaparte (see ancestry). In the next elections, on 4 June, where candidates could run in multiple departments, he was elected in four different departments; in Paris, he was among the top five candidates, just after the conservative leader Adolphe Thiers and Victor Hugo.
Hugo decided to live in exile after Napoleon III's coup d'état at the end of 1851.

Bois de Boulogne

Boulogne ForestBoisAbbaye royale de Longchamp
He strolled in Hyde Park, which he later used as a model when he created the Bois de Boulogne in Paris.
The land was ceded to the city of Paris by the Emperor Napoleon III to be turned into a public park in 1852.

Rachel Félix

RachelRachel FelixMademoiselle Rachel
He had an affair with the actress Rachel, the most famous French actress of the period, during her tours to Britain.
She became a prominent figure in French society, and was the mistress of, among others, Napoleon III, Napoléon Joseph Charles Paul Bonaparte and Alexandre Colonna-Walewski, the illegitimate son of Napoleon I.

Jérôme Bonaparte

JérômeJerome BonaparteKing of Westphalia
He did not run in the first elections for the National Assembly, held in April 1848, but three members of the Bonaparte family, Jérôme Napoléon Bonaparte, Pierre Napoléon Bonaparte, and Lucien Murat were elected; the name Bonaparte still had political power.
After 1848, when his nephew, Louis Napoleon, became President of the French Second Republic, he served in several official roles, including Marshal of France from 1850 onward, and [[List_of_Presidents_of_the_Senate_of_France#Presidents_of_the_Senate.2C_1852.E2.80.931940|President of the Senate]] in 1852.

Fontainebleau

Fontainebleau, FranceFontainbleauFontainebleu
Charles-Louis was baptized at the Palace of Fontainebleau on 5 November 1810, with Emperor Napoleon serving as his godfather and Empress Marie-Louise as his godmother.
In all, thirty-four sovereigns, from Louis VI, the Fat, (1081–1137) to Napoleon III (1808–1873), spent time at Fontainebleau.

Harriet Howard

More important for his future career, he had an affair with the wealthy heiress Harriet Howard (1823–1865).
Harriet Howard, born Elizabeth Ann Haryett (1823–1865) was a mistress and financial backer of Louis Napoleon, later Napoleon III of France.

Cobden–Chevalier Treaty

Cobden-Chevalier TreatyAnglo-French commercial treaty of 1860Cob den-Chevalier Treaty
Napoleon III negotiated the 1860 Cobden–Chevalier free trade agreement with Britain and similar agreements with France's other European trading partners.
In a Parliamentary session of 1859, Cobden's friend and political ally John Bright asked why, instead of spending money on armaments against a possible French invasion, did not the Government attempt to persuade the French Emperor to trade freely with Britain.

Adolphe Thiers

ThiersLouis Adolphe ThiersLouis-Adolphe Thiers
In the next elections, on 4 June, where candidates could run in multiple departments, he was elected in four different departments; in Paris, he was among the top five candidates, just after the conservative leader Adolphe Thiers and Victor Hugo.
He was first a supporter, then a vocal opponent of Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (who served from 1848 to 1852 as President of the Second Republic and then called himself Emperor Napoleon III, reigning from 1852 to 1871).