A report on Napoleonic Wars

French victory over the Prussians at the Battle of Valmy in 1792
Bonaparte defeating the Austrians at the Battle of Rivoli in 1797
French victory over the Austrians and Russians at the Second Battle of Zürich
The British victory over the French at the Battle of Alexandria, resulted in the end of Napoleon's military presence in Egypt.
"Maniac-raving's-or-Little Boney in a strong fit" by James Gillray. His caricatures ridiculing Napoleon greatly annoyed the Frenchman, who wanted them suppressed by the British government.
The Battle of San Domingo, 6 February 1806
The Battle of the Pyrenees, July 1813
The British managed to occupy and take control of Cape Colony, British Guiana, Malta, Mauritius and Ceylon during the Napoleonic Wars.
The British HMS Sandwich fires at the French flagship Bucentaure (completely dismasted) in the battle of Trafalgar. Bucentaure also fights HMS Victory (behind her) and HMS Temeraire (left side of the picture). HMS Sandwich did not fight at Trafalgar and her depiction is a mistake by the painter.
European strategic situation in 1805 before the War of the Third Coalition
Surrender of the town of Ulm, 20 October 1805
The French entering Vienna on 13 November 1805
After defeating Prussian forces at Jena, the French Army entered Berlin on 27 October 1806.
Charge of the Russian Imperial Guard cavalry against French cuirassiers at the Battle of Friedland, 14 June 1807
The Battle of Trangen during the Dano–Swedish War, 1808–1809. The Norwegians fought bravely and defeated the Swedes.
Polish cavalry at the Battle of Somosierra in Spain, 1808
Napoleon accepting the surrender of Madrid during the Peninsular War
The Second of May 1808: The Charge of the Mamelukes, by Francisco de Goya (1814)
The strategic situation in Europe in February 1809
The French Empire in 1812 at its greatest extent
Political map of the Americas in 1794
The Battle of Borodino as depicted by Louis Lejeune. The battle was the largest and bloodiest single-day action of the Napoleonic Wars.
Napoleon's withdrawal from Russia, a painting by Adolph Northen
Charles Joseph Minard's graph of the decreasing size of the Grande Armée represented by the width of the line as it marches to Moscow (tan) and back (black)
Fragment from the manuscript "Memoires on Napoleon's campaigns, experienced as a soldier of the second regiment". Written by Joseph Abbeel, a soldier participating in the War of the Sixth Coalition, 1805–1815.
The Battle of Leipzig involved over 600,000 soldiers, making it the largest battle in Europe prior to World War I.
The Battle of Hanau (30–31 October 1813), took part between Austro-Bavarian and French forces.
Russian army enters Paris, 31 March 1814
Wellington at Waterloo by Robert Alexander Hillingford
Map of the Waterloo campaign
The charge of the French Cuirassiers at the Battle of Waterloo against a square of Scottish Highlanders
The national boundaries within Europe set by the Congress of Vienna, 1815
In 1800, Bonaparte took the French Army across the Alps, eventually defeating the Austrians at Marengo.
Napoleon on the field of Eylau
Napoleon's retreat from Russia in 1812. His Grande Armée had lost about half a million men.
The Battle of Trafalgar
French soldiers in skirmish with Bashkirs and Cossacks in 1813
Goya's The Disasters of War, showing French atrocities against Spanish civilians

The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major global conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European states formed into various coalitions.

- Napoleonic Wars
French victory over the Prussians at the Battle of Valmy in 1792

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The Emperor Napoleon in His Study at the Tuileries, by Jacques-Louis David, 1812

Napoleon

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French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the Revolutionary Wars.

French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the Revolutionary Wars.

The Emperor Napoleon in His Study at the Tuileries, by Jacques-Louis David, 1812
Napoleon's father, Carlo Buonaparte, was Corsica's representative to the court of Louis XVI.
Statue of Napoleon as a schoolboy in Brienne, aged 15, by Louis Rochet (1853)
Napoleon Bonaparte, aged 23, as lieutenant-colonel of a battalion of Corsican Republican volunteers. Portrait by Henri Félix Emmanuel Philippoteaux
Bonaparte at the Siege of Toulon
Journée du 13 Vendémiaire, artillery fire in front of the Church of Saint-Roch, Paris, Rue Saint-Honoré
Bonaparte at the Pont d'Arcole, by Baron Antoine-Jean Gros, (c. 1801), Musée du Louvre, Paris
Bonaparte during the Italian campaign in 1797
Bonaparte Before the Sphinx (c. 1886) by Jean-Léon Gérôme, Hearst Castle
Battle of the Pyramids on 21 July 1798 by Louis-François, Baron Lejeune, 1808
General Bonaparte surrounded by members of the Council of Five Hundred during the Coup of 18 Brumaire, by François Bouchot
Bonaparte, First Consul, by Ingres. Posing the hand inside the waistcoat was often used in portraits of rulers to indicate calm and stable leadership.
Silver coin: 5 francs_AN XI, 1802, Bonaparte, First Consul
Silver coin: 5 francs, 1811
The Battle of Marengo was Napoleon's first great victory as head of state.
The 1803 Louisiana Purchase totalled 827,987 sqmi, doubling the size of the United States.
The Coronation of Napoleon by Jacques-Louis David (1804)
Napoleon's throne room at Fontainebleau
Napoleon and the Grande Armée receive the surrender of Austrian General Mack after the Battle of Ulm in October 1805. The decisive finale of the Ulm Campaign raised the tally of captured Austrian soldiers to 60,000. With the Austrian army destroyed, Vienna would fall to the French in November.
Napoléon in his coronation robes by François Gérard, c. 1805
Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz, by François Gérard 1805. The Battle of Austerlitz, also known as the Battle of the Three Emperors, was one of Napoleon's many victories, where the French Empire defeated the Third Coalition.
The Iranian envoy Mirza Mohammed Reza-Qazvini meeting with Napoleon I at the Finckenstein Palace in West Prussia, 27 April 1807, to sign the Treaty of Finckenstein
Napoleon reviewing the Imperial Guard before the Battle of Jena
The Treaties of Tilsit: Napoleon meeting with Alexander I of Russia on a raft in the middle of the Neman River
Joseph Bonaparte, Napoleon's brother, as King of Spain
Napoleon accepting the surrender of Madrid, 4 December 1808
Napoleon at the Battle of Wagram, painted by Horace Vernet
The entry of Napoleon in Schönbrunn, Vienna
The French Empire at its greatest extent in 1812:
Napoleon watching the fire of Moscow in September 1812, by Adam Albrecht (1841)
Napoleon's withdrawal from Russia, painting by Adolph Northen
Napoleon's farewell to his Imperial Guard, 20 April 1814, by Antoine-Alphonse Montfort
Napoleon after his abdication in Fontainebleau, 4 April 1814, by Paul Delaroche
Napoleon leaving Elba on 26 February 1815, by Joseph Beaume (1836)
Napoleon's Return from Elba, by Charles de Steuben, 1818
Napoleon on Saint Helena, watercolor by Franz Josef Sandmann, c. 1820
Longwood House, Saint Helena, site of Napoleon's captivity
Frederick Marryat's sketch of Napoleon's body on his deathbed
Death mask of Napoleon
Napoleon's tomb at Les Invalides in Paris
Napoleon's remains passing through Jamestown, St Helena on 13 October 1840
Napoleon on His Death Bed, by Horace Vernet, 1826
Situation of Napoleon's body when his coffin was reopened on St Helena, by Jules Rigo, 1840
Reorganisation of the religious geography: France is divided into 59 dioceses and 10 ecclesiastical provinces.
Leaders of the Catholic Church taking the civil oath required by the Concordat
Napoleon visiting the Palais Royal for the opening of the 8th session of the Tribunat in 1807, by Merry-Joseph Blondel
Napoleon is often represented in his green colonel uniform of the Chasseur à Cheval of the Imperial Guard, the regiment that often served as his personal escort, with a large bicorne and a hand-in-waistcoat gesture.
First remittance of the Légion d'Honneur, 15 July 1804, at Saint-Louis des Invalides, by Jean-Baptiste Debret (1812)
First page of the 1804 original edition of the Code Civil
Statue in Cherbourg-Octeville unveiled by Napoleon III in 1858. Napoleon I strengthened the town's defences to prevent British naval incursions.
The Third of May 1808 by Francisco Goya, showing Spanish resisters being executed by French troops
A mass grave of soldiers killed at the Battle of Waterloo
1814 caricature of Napoleon being exiled to Elba: the ex-emperor is riding a donkey backwards while holding a broken sword.
Ceramic pitcher of Bonaparte: Where is he going to. To Elba. (Musée de la Révolution française).
Bas-relief of Napoleon in the chamber of the United States House of Representatives
Joséphine, first wife of Napoleon, obtained the civil dissolution of her marriage under the Napoleonic Code, painting by Henri Frédéric Schopin, 1843
Marriage of Napoleon and Marie-Louise by Georges Rouget, 1843
Napoleon Crossing the Alps, romantic version by Jacques-Louis David in 1805
Bonaparte Crossing the Alps, realist version by Paul Delaroche in 1848

During the Napoleonic Wars, he was taken seriously by the British press as a dangerous tyrant, poised to invade.

First French Empire

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The empire ruled by Napoleon Bonaparte who established French hegemony over much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century.

The empire ruled by Napoleon Bonaparte who established French hegemony over much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century.

The First French Empire at its greatest extent in 1812:
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Napoleon I on his Imperial Throne by Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, 1806
The First French Empire at its greatest extent in 1812:
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Imperial standard of Napoleon I
The Battle of Austerlitz, 2nd December 1805, by François Gérard
The Arc de Triomphe, ordered by Napoleon in honour of the Grande Armée, is one of several landmarks whose construction was started in Paris during the First French Empire.
Napoleon reviewing the Imperial Guard before the Battle of Jena, 1806
Aftermath of the Battle of Eylau, 1807
Napoleon demanded that Alexander I of Russia and Frederick William III of Prussia meet him at Tilsit in July 1807.
Napoleon and his staff during the War of the Sixth Coalition, by Jean-Louis-Ernest Meissonier
Organigramme of the French Consulate and later the Empire
The Napoleonic Code
French départements in 1801 during the Consulate
French départements in 1812
Map of the First French Empire in 1812, divided into 130 départements, with the kingdoms of Spain, Portugal, Italy and Naples, and the Confederation of the Rhine and Illyria and Dalmatia
Europe in 1812, with the French Empire at its peak before the Russian Campaign

A series of wars, known collectively as the Napoleonic Wars, extended French influence to much of Western Europe and into Poland.

Portrait of Prince John of Braganza by Jean-Baptiste Debret (1817).

Peninsular War

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Portrait of Prince John of Braganza by Jean-Baptiste Debret (1817).
Napoleon Bonaparte by Andrea Appiani (1805).
Vicent López Portaña: Prince Fernando VII of Spain.
Francisco Goya: King Charles IV of Spain.
The Portuguese royal family escaping to Brazil
Portrait of Manuel Godoy (1792).
François Kinson: Joseph I of Spain (1811)
Second of May 1808: the defenders of Monteleón make their last stand
Goya: The Second of May 1808
Goya: The Third of May 1808 French soldiers execute civilians
Joaquín Sorolla: Valencians prepare to resist the invaders (1884)
The Spanish Army's triumph at Bailén was the French Empire's first land defeat. Painting by José Casado del Alisal
Portuguese and British troops fighting the French at Vimeiro
La bataille de Somosierra by Louis-François, Baron Lejeune (1775–1848). Oil on canvas, 1810
Death of Sir John Moore, 17 January 1809
Saragossa: The assault on the Santa Engracia monastery. Oil on canvas, 1827
Marshal Jean-de-Dieu Soult at the First Battle of Porto by Joseph Beaume
The Battle of Talavera by William Heath
Joseph I of Spain
Juan Martín Díez, El Empecinado, a key guerrilla leader
The Proclamation of the Constitution of 1812 by Salvador Viniegra
Silver coin: 1000 reis Manuel II of Portugal, 1910 - commemorating the Peninsular War
The Battle of Chiclana, 5th March 1811 (1824) captures the fight between British redcoats and the French troops for Barrosa Ridge.
Marshal Beresford disarming a Polish officer at La Albuera (16 May 1811)
British infantry attempt to scale the walls of Badajoz, 1812
The Battle of Salamanca
Thomas Lawrence: Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington.
Battle of the Pyrenees, 25 July 1813
The Battle of the Bidassoa, 1813
The Battle of Castalla
The Battle of Nivelle
The Battle of St Jean de Luz, 10 December 1813 by Thomas Sutherland
The sortie from the besieged city of Bayonne, on 14 April 1814
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Horace Vernet: Napoleon on the island of Elba awaiting the brig Inconstant.(1863)''
The Disasters of War by Francisco Goya, 1810–1820
French victories of the Peninsular War inscribed on the Arc de Triomphe
Statue of Juana Galán in Valdepeñas, by sculptor Francisco Javier Galán
Agustina, maid of Aragón, fires a gun on the French invaders

The Peninsular War (1807–1814) was the military conflict fought in the Iberian Peninsula by Spain, Portugal, and the United Kingdom against the invading and occupying forces of the First French Empire during the Napoleonic Wars.

The national boundaries within Europe set by the Congress of Vienna

Congress of Vienna

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International diplomatic conference to reconstitute the European political order after the downfall of the French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte.

International diplomatic conference to reconstitute the European political order after the downfall of the French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte.

The national boundaries within Europe set by the Congress of Vienna
Frontispiece of the Acts of the Congress of Vienna
1. Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington
 2. Joaquim Lobo Silveira, 7th Count of Oriola
 3.  António de Saldanha da Gama, Count of Porto Santo
 4. 🇸🇪 Count Carl Löwenhielm
 5.  Louis Joseph Alexis, Comte de Noailles
 6.  Klemens Wenzel, Prince von Metternich
 7.  André Dupin
 8.  Count Karl Robert Nesselrode
 9.  Pedro de Sousa Holstein, 1st Count of Palmela
 10.  Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh
 11.  Emmerich Joseph, Duke of Dalberg
 12.  Baron Johann von Wessenberg
 13.  Prince Andrey Kirillovich Razumovsky
 14.  Charles Stewart, 1st Baron Stewart
 15. 🇪🇸 Pedro Gómez Labrador, 1st Marquess of Labrador
 16.  Richard Le Poer Trench, 2nd Earl of Clancarty
 17. Clear.gif  (Recorder)
 18.  Friedrich von Gentz (Congress Secretary)
 19.  Baron Wilhelm von Humboldt
 20.  William Cathcart, 1st Earl Cathcart
 21.  Prince Karl August von Hardenberg
 22.  Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord
 23.  Count Gustav Ernst von Stackelberg
Talleyrand proved an able negotiator for the defeated French.
In pink: territories left to France in 1814, but removed after the Treaty of Paris
Italian states after the Congress of Vienna with Austrian-annexed territories shown in yellow
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The objective of the Congress was to provide a long-term peace plan for Europe by settling critical issues arising from the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars.

Clockwise from top left: The Battle of Borodino by Louis-François Lejeune

Napoleon watching the fire of Moscow by Albrecht Adam

Marshal Ney at the Battle of Kowno by Auguste Raffet

French retreat by Illarion Pryanishnikov

French invasion of Russia

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Launched by Napoleon Bonaparte to force the Russian Empire back into the continental blockade of the United Kingdom.

Launched by Napoleon Bonaparte to force the Russian Empire back into the continental blockade of the United Kingdom.

Clockwise from top left: The Battle of Borodino by Louis-François Lejeune

Napoleon watching the fire of Moscow by Albrecht Adam

Marshal Ney at the Battle of Kowno by Auguste Raffet

French retreat by Illarion Pryanishnikov
The French Empire in 1812
The three partitions of Poland (the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth). The Russian Partition (brown), the Austrian Partition (green), and the Prussian Partition (blue)
French infantry in 1812
On the border of Nieman 1812 by Christian Wilhelm von Faber du Faur
The Grande Armée crossing the Niemen by Waterloo Clark
Napoleon's Hill or Jiesia mound from the other bank of the Niemen river
Anonymous, "Grande Armée" crossing the river
Italian corps of Eugene de Beauharnais crossing the Niemen on 30 June 1812. Oil and gouache on paper by Albrecht Adam who travelled with IV Corps. In: Hermitage Museum
Albrecht Adam on 3 July 1812: Eugene's tent in Rykantai, Lithuania where he received orders to avoid the capital.
Marshes near Trakai
Halšany by A. Adam, on 11 July 1812
Cossacks feigning retreat against Polish uhlans at the Battle of Mir
Mid July; the IV corps struggling with fatigue and heat by Albrecht Adam
General Raevsky leading a detachment of the Russian Imperial Guard at the Battle of Saltanovka
Liozna: French soldiers between Vitebsk and Smolensk organizing something to eat. (C. Faber du Faur, 4.08.1812)
French troops leaving Polotsk (C. Faber du Faur, 25.07.1812)
Napoleon and Poniatowski with the burning city of Smolensk
The total length of the city wall around the Smolensk Kremlin was 6.5 kilometres, with a height of up to 19 metres and a width of up to 5.2 metres, and a total of 38 watchtowers. The Kremlin lost nine towers because of the bombardment and fire.
Napoleon and his staff at Borodino
Pyotr Bagration giving orders during the Battle of Borodino while being wounded
Bolshiye Vyazemy, Moscow region
Michail Illarionovich Kutuzov (1745–1813), commander-in-chief of the Russian Army on the far left, with his generals at the talks deciding to surrender Moscow to the French
Napoleon watching the fire of Moscow in September 1812
Areas of Moscow destroyed by the fire in red
Moskau 1812 (Faber du Faur )
Russian prisoners of war in 1812. (Faber du Faur)
Napoleon and his marshals struggling to manage the deteriorating situation in the retreat
The night bivouac of Napoleon's army during the retreat from Russia by Vasily Vereshchagin. Oil on canvas. Historical Museum, Moscow, Russia.
Kalmyks and Bashkirs attacking French troops at the Berezina
The Berezina in Studzenke (2015)
The French Army crossing the Berezina
Napoleon's withdrawal from Russia, painting by Adolph Northen
French Carabiniers-à-Cheval during the Russian Campaign
The hall of military fame in the Winter Palace with portraits of Russian generals
Bad News from France, painting depicting Napoleon encamped in a Russian Orthodox church (Vasily Vereshchagin, part of his series, "Napoleon, 1812", 1887–95)
As irregular cavalry, the Cossack horsemen of the Russian steppes were best suited to reconnaissance, scouting and harassing the enemy's flanks and supply lines.
Napoleon's retreat, surrounded by the Old Guards, by Vasily Vereshchagin
The French Army in the Town Hall Square of Vilna during the retreat
Treaties of Tilsit signed on the Neman River

Starting in 1803, the Napoleonic Wars had proven Napoleon's abilities.

Emblem of Napoleon

Grande Armée

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Emblem of Napoleon
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Charge of the French cuirassiers at Friedland (1807), by Ernest Meissonier
The Battle of Borodino was the bloodiest single-day battle of the Napoleonic Wars.
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Napoleon snatching a moment's rest on the battlefield of Wagram, with his staff and household working around him
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A Marine of the Guard
Le Chasseur de la Garde (Chasseur of the Guard, often mistranslated as The Charging Chasseur), 1812, by Théodore Géricault
A French line infantry grenadier (left) and voltigeur (right) c. 1808, by Hippolyte Bellangé
Fusiliers of the line, c. 1812
Sample of the cavalry of the Grande Armée during a reenactment of the Battle of Waterloo
A gunner from the horse artillery of the Imperial Guard
A Gribeauval artillery caisson on display at the Musée de l'Armée, Paris
Józef Poniatowski, a Polish general and prince of the Duchy of Warsaw who served with the Grande Armée from 1807 to 1813, and was later made a Marshal of the Empire at the Battle of Leipzig
Dutch sappers of the Grande Armée during the Battle of Berezina in 1812
A French pioneer during the Napoleonic Wars
The Flying Ambulances were developed by French battlefield surgeon Dominque-Jean Larrey to rapidly transport the wounded from the battlefield to field hospitals.
A Chappe semaphore tower near Saverne, France
Banner of the 1st Regiment of Grenadier a Pied, showing the regiment's battle honours
A Grenadier à Pied, 1812 (Napoleon can be seen in the background)
A Grognard of the Old Guard, 1813
A Tirailleur of the 1e Regiment Tirailleurs, Young Guard, 1811
Fusilier-Grenadiers and Fusilier-Chasseurs of the Middle Guard, 1806–1814
A grenadier of the line, {{circa|1812}}
Officers of Infanterie Légère, 1803–1815
Chasseurs of Infanterie Légère, 1806
A Carabiniers-à-Cheval
A dragoon officer of the 21ème Régiment de Dragons
French 4th Hussars at the Battle of Friedland
A lancer of the Régiment de la Vistule Uhlans
Hat of a soldier of the 17th Lithuanian Uhlan Regiment with Vytis

La Grande Armée was the main military component of the French Imperial Army commanded by Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte during the Napoleonic Wars.

The journey of a modern hero, to the island of Elba. Print shows Napoleon seated backwards on a donkey on the road "to Elba" from Fontainebleau; he holds a broken sword in one hand and the donkey's tail in the other while two drummers follow him playing a farewell(?) march.

Hundred Days

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The Hundred Days (les Cent-Jours ), also known as the War of the Seventh Coalition, marked the period between Napoleon's return from eleven months of exile on the island of Elba to Paris on20 March 1815 and the second restoration of King Louis XVIII on 8 July 1815 (a period of 110 days).

The Hundred Days (les Cent-Jours ), also known as the War of the Seventh Coalition, marked the period between Napoleon's return from eleven months of exile on the island of Elba to Paris on20 March 1815 and the second restoration of King Louis XVIII on 8 July 1815 (a period of 110 days).

The journey of a modern hero, to the island of Elba. Print shows Napoleon seated backwards on a donkey on the road "to Elba" from Fontainebleau; he holds a broken sword in one hand and the donkey's tail in the other while two drummers follow him playing a farewell(?) march.
Napoleon with the Elba Squadron of volunteers from the 1st Polish Light Cavalry of his Imperial Guard
Napoleon leaving Elba, painted by Joseph Beaume
The brig Inconstant, under Captain Taillade and ferrying Napoleon to France, crosses the path of the brig Zéphir, under Captain Andrieux. Inconstant flies the tricolour of the Empire, while Zéphir flies the white ensign of the House of Bourbon.
Strategic situation in Western Europe in 1815: 250,000 Frenchmen faced a coalition of about 850,000 soldiers on four fronts. In addition, Napoleon had to leave 20,000 men in Western France to reduce a royalist insurrection.
Plenipotentiaries at the Congress of Vienna
A portion of Belgium with some places marked in colour to indicate the initial deployments of the armies just before the commencement of hostilities on 15 June 1815, with British forces in red, Prussians in green, and French in blue
Map of the Waterloo campaign
Invasion of France by the Seventh Coalition armies in 1815
The Château de Malmaison
Napoleon on Board the Bellerophon, exhibited in 1880 by Sir William Quiller Orchardson. Orchardson depicts the morning of 23 July 1815, as Napoleon watches the French shoreline recede.
All the participants of the War of the Seventh Coalition. Blue : The Coalition and their colonies and allies. Green : The First French Empire, its protectorates, colonies and allies.

This set the stage for the last conflict in the Napoleonic Wars, the defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo, the second restoration of the French kingdom, and the permanent exile of Napoleon to the distant island of Saint Helena, where he died in May 1821.

Anonymous caricature depicting the treatment given to the Brunswick Manifesto by the French population

French Revolutionary Wars

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The French Revolutionary Wars (Guerres de la Révolution française) were a series of sweeping military conflicts lasting from 1792 until 1802 and resulting from the French Revolution.

The French Revolutionary Wars (Guerres de la Révolution française) were a series of sweeping military conflicts lasting from 1792 until 1802 and resulting from the French Revolution.

Anonymous caricature depicting the treatment given to the Brunswick Manifesto by the French population
While the First Coalition attacked the new Republic, France faced civil war and counter-revolutionary guerrilla war. Here, several insurgents of the Chouannerie have been taken prisoner.
General Jourdan at the battle of Fleurus, 26 June 1794
Armée des Émigrés at the Battle of Quiberon
Capture of the Dutch fleet by the French hussars
General Bonaparte and his troops crossing the bridge of Arcole
Napoleon Bonaparte defeats the Austrians at the Battle of Lodi
Napoleon Bonaparte at the Battle of Rivoli
Soldiers killed in battle in 1797
In July 1798, French forces under Napoleon annihilated an Egyptian army at the Battle of the Pyramids. The victory facilitated the conquest of Egypt and remains one of the most important battles of the era.
Battle of the Nile, August 1798. The British fleet bears down on the French line.
The Battle of Abukir in 1799
The Battle of Mount Tabor against the Ottomans
Russian General Alexander Suvorov crossing the St. Gotthard Pass during the Italian and Swiss expedition in 1799
Napoleon Crossing the Alps by Jacques-Louis David. In one of the famous paintings of Napoleon, the Consul and his army are depicted crossing the Swiss Alps on their way to Italy. The daring maneuver surprised the Austrians and forced a decisive engagement at Marengo in June 1800. Victory there allowed Napoleon to strengthen his political position back in France.
General Moreau at the Battle of Hohenlinden, a decisive French victory in Bavaria which precipitated the end of the Revolutionary Wars
First Battle of Algeciras
The armies of the Revolution at Jemappes in 1792. With chaos internally and enemies on the borders, the French were in a period of uncertainty during the early years of the Revolutionary Wars. By 1797, however, France dominated much of Western Europe, conquering the Rhineland, the Netherlands, and the Italian peninsula while erecting a series of sister republics and puppet states stretching from Spain to the German heartland.

However, the lingering tensions proved too difficult to contain, and the Napoleonic Wars began over a year later with the formation of the Third Coalition, continuing the series of Coalition Wars.

Strategic situation in Europe in February 1809

War of the Fifth Coalition

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Strategic situation in Europe in February 1809
The general situation from 17 to 19 April involved the Austrians moving towards the strategic city of Regensburg in hopes of attacking the isolated French III Corps.
The Landshut Maneuver and the expulsion of Austrian forces from Bavaria
The strategic situation and the Battle of Aspern-Essling on 22 May 1809
The strategic situation and the Battle of Wagram in early July 1809
A depiction of the evacuation from Walcheren
A depiction of the Battle of the Basque Roads
A 1901 depiction of Tyrol rebels

The War of the Fifth Coalition was a European conflict in 1809 that was part of the Napoleonic Wars and the Coalition Wars.

Rapp Presenting Prince Repnin-Volkonsky, François Gérard

Battle of Austerlitz

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Rapp Presenting Prince Repnin-Volkonsky, François Gérard
Rapp Presenting Prince Repnin-Volkonsky, François Gérard
Napoleon takes the surrender of General Mack and the Austrian army at Ulm. Painting by Charles Thévenin.
Napoleon with his troops on the eve of battle. Painting by Louis-François, Baron Lejeune
Allied (red) and French (blue) deployments at 1800 hours on 1 December 1805
French cuirassiers taking position
Capture of a French regiment's eagle by the cavalry of the Russian guard, by Bogdan Willewalde (1884)
The decisive attacks on the Allied center by St. Hilaire and Vandamme split the Allied army in two and left the French in a golden tactical position to win the battle.
By 1400 hours, the Allied army had been dangerously separated. Napoleon now had the option to strike at one of the wings, and he chose the Allied left since other enemy sectors had already been cleared or were conducting fighting retreats.
The Battle of Austerlitz, 2 December 1805 by Joseph Swebach-Desfontaines
Napoleon and Francis II after the Battle of Austerlitz
Map of the landscape monument zone
The Pyramid of Austerlitz in Utrecht

The Battle of Austerlitz (2 December 1805/11 Frimaire An XIV FRC), also known as the Battle of the Three Emperors, was one of the most important and decisive engagements of the Napoleonic Wars.