Napoleonic Wars

Napoleonic WarNapoleonicwar with FrancewarNapoleonic eraNapoleonic campaignsNapoleonic timesThe Napoleonic WarsFrench invasionresumption of war with France
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.wikipedia
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Coalition forces of the Napoleonic Wars

allied coalitionEuropean powers formed into various coalitionsAllies
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
The Coalition Forces of the Napoleonic Wars were composed of Napoleon Bonaparte's enemies: the United Kingdom, the Austrian Empire, Kingdom of Prussia, Kingdom of Spain, Kingdom of Naples and Sicily, Kingdom of Sardinia, Dutch Republic, Russian Empire, the Ottoman Empire, Kingdom of Portugal, Kingdom of Sweden, various Confederation of the Rhine and Italian states at differing times in the wars.

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland

United KingdomBritishUK
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
The United Kingdom, having financed the European coalition that defeated France during the Napoleonic Wars, developed a large Royal Navy that enabled the British Empire to become the foremost world power for the next century.

Battle of Trafalgar

TrafalgarTrafalgar 200The Battle of Trafalgar
At sea, the British severely defeated the joint Franco-Spanish navy in the Battle of Trafalgar on 21 October 1805.
The Battle of Trafalgar (21 October 1805) was a naval engagement fought by the British Royal Navy against the combined fleets of the French and Spanish Navies during the War of the Third Coalition (August–December 1805) of the Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815).

Battle of Friedland

Friedlandat Friedlandbattles of Friedland
Napoleon quickly defeated the Prussians in Jena and the Russians in Friedland, bringing an uneasy peace to the continent.
The Battle of Friedland (June 14, 1807) was a major engagement of the Napoleonic Wars between the armies of the French Empire commanded by Napoleon I and the armies of the Russian Empire led by Count von Bennigsen.

First French Empire

French EmpireFranceFrench
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
A series of wars, known collectively as the Napoleonic Wars, extended French influence to much of Western Europe and into Poland.

Battle of Wagram

WagramWagram 1809victory at Wagram
The peace failed, though, as war broke out in 1809, when the badly prepared Fifth Coalition, led by Austria, was quickly defeated in Wagram.
The Battle of Wagram (5–6 July 1809) was a military engagement of the Napoleonic Wars that ended in a costly but decisive victory for Emperor Napoleon I's French and allied army against the Austrian army under the command of Archduke Charles of Austria-Teschen.

Peninsular War

Peninsula WarSpanish War of IndependencePeninsula
The Spanish and Portuguese revolted with British support and expelled the French from Iberia in 1814 after six years of fighting.
The Peninsular War (1807–1814) was a military conflict between Napoleon's empire and Bourbon Spain (assisted by the United Kingdom and its ally, Portugal), for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars.

French Revolution

RevolutionRevolutionary FranceRevolutionary
The wars stemmed from the unresolved disputes associated with the French Revolution and its resultant conflict.
Napoleon, who became the hero of the Revolution through his popular military campaigns, established the Consulate and later the First Empire, setting the stage for a wider array of global conflicts in the Napoleonic Wars.

Kingdom of Prussia

PrussiaPrussianPrussian court
Concerned about increasing French power, Prussia led the creation of the Fourth Coalition with Russia, Saxony and Sweden, and the resumption of war in October 1806.
After the Napoleonic Wars led to the creation of the German Confederation, the issue of more closely unifying the many German states caused revolution throughout the German states, with each wanting its own constitution.

French Revolutionary Wars

French RevolutionaryFrench Revolutionary WarFrench Revolutionary troops
The wars stemmed from the unresolved disputes associated with the French Revolution and its resultant conflict.
However, the lingering tensions proved too difficult to contain, and the Napoleonic Wars began over a year later with the formation of the Third Coalition, continuing the series of Coalition Wars.

Continental System

Continental BlockadeNapoleonic blockade anti-British policies
Hoping to isolate Britain economically, Napoleon launched an invasion of Portugal, the only remaining British ally in continental Europe. Attempts to disrupt the British blockade led to the United States declaring war on Britain, while grievances over control of Poland, and Russia's withdrawal from the Continental System, led to Napoleon invading Russia in June 1812.
]]The Continental System or Continental Blockade (known in French as Blocus continental) was the foreign policy of Napoleon I of France against the United Kingdom during the Napoleonic Wars.

Congress of Vienna

Vienna CongressTreaty of ViennaFinal Act of the Congress of Vienna
The Congress of Vienna redrew the borders of Europe, and brought a period of relative peace.
The objective of the Congress was to provide a long-term peace plan for Europe by settling critical issues arising from the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars.

Invasion of Portugal (1807)

Invasion of Portugal1807 Invasion of PortugalFrench invasion
Hoping to isolate Britain economically, Napoleon launched an invasion of Portugal, the only remaining British ally in continental Europe.
The invasion marked the start of the Peninsular War, part of the Napoleonic Wars.

War of the Sixth Coalition

Sixth CoalitionWar of LiberationSecond War against Napoleon
The wars are often categorised into five conflicts, each termed after the coalition that fought Napoleon: the Third Coalition (1805), the Fourth (1806–07), the Fifth (1809), the Sixth (1813), and the Seventh (1815).
This was not, however, the end of the Napoleonic Wars.

British Empire

BritishEmpireBritain
The wars had profound consequences on global history, including the spread of nationalism and liberalism, the rise of the British Empire as the world's foremost power, the appearance of independence movements in Latin America and subsequent collapse of the Spanish Empire, the fundamental reorganisation of German and Italian territories into larger states, and the establishment of radically new methods of conducting warfare.
After the defeat of France in the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars (1792–1815), Britain emerged as the principal naval and imperial power of the 19th century.

Holy Roman Empire

ImperialHoly Roman EmperorGermany
Furthermore, Britons felt insulted when Napoleon stated that their country deserved no voice in European affairs, even though King George III was an elector of the Holy Roman Empire. The Holy Roman Empire was dissolved, and the philosophy of nationalism, that emerged early in the war, greatly contributed to the later unification of the German states, and those of the Italian peninsula.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Imperium Romanum; Heiliges Römisches Reich), also known as Holy Roman Empire of the German nation, was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western and Central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars.

France

FrenchFRAFrench Republic
The Napoleonic Wars began with the War of the Third Coalition, which was the first of the Coalition Wars against the First French Republic after Napoleon's accession as leader of France.
His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (1803–15) shaped the course of continental Europe.

War of 1812

The War of 1812American War of 1812war
Attempts to disrupt the British blockade led to the United States declaring war on Britain, while grievances over control of Poland, and Russia's withdrawal from the Continental System, led to Napoleon invading Russia in June 1812.
Historians in Britain often see it as a minor theatre of the Napoleonic Wars; historians in the United States and Canada see it as a war in its own right.

Battle of Borodino

Borodinola Moskowaat Borodino
The invasion was an unmitigated disaster for Napoleon; scorched earth tactics, desertion, French strategic failures and the onset of the Russian winter compelled Napoleon to retreat with massive losses.
The Battle of Borodino (Bataille de la Moskova) was a battle fought on 7 September 1812 in the Napoleonic Wars during the French invasion of Russia.

Coalition Wars

between 1793 and 1814anti-French coalitionEuropean Coalitions
The Napoleonic Wars began with the War of the Third Coalition, which was the first of the Coalition Wars against the First French Republic after Napoleon's accession as leader of France.
The term encompasses both the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars, though, strictly speaking, it excludes conflicts like the French invasion of Switzerland that did not pit France against a coalition of powers.

Russian Empire

RussiaImperial RussiaRussian
In 1805, Austria and Russia started the Third Coalition and waged war against France.
The background of this revolt lay in the Napoleonic Wars, when a number of well-educated Russian officers travelled in Europe in the course of military campaigns, where their exposure to the liberalism of Western Europe encouraged them to seek change on their return to autocratic Russia.

Battle of Corunna

CorunnaBattle of Coruñaretreat to Corunna
Napoleon oversaw the situation in Iberia, defeating the Spanish, and expelling the British from the Peninsula.
The battle took place amidst the Peninsular War, which was a part of the wider Napoleonic Wars.

Unification of Germany

German unificationunificationunified Germany
The Holy Roman Empire was dissolved, and the philosophy of nationalism, that emerged early in the war, greatly contributed to the later unification of the German states, and those of the Italian peninsula.
The self-interests of the various parties hampered the process over nearly a century of autocratic experimentation, beginning in the era of the Napoleonic Wars, which prompted the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, and the subsequent rise of German nationalism.

Austrian Empire

AustrianAustriaAustrians
In 1805, Austria and Russia started the Third Coalition and waged war against France.
Following the Napoleonic Wars, Metternich was the chief architect of the Congress of Vienna in 1815.

Napoleon

Napoleon BonaparteNapoleon INapoleon I of France
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
Napoleon dominated European and global affairs for more than a decade while leading France against a series of coalitions in the Napoleonic Wars.