Narcissus (plant)

Narcissusdaffodildaffodilsnarcissijonquilnarcissus flowera NarcissusCyclamineus Groupdaffodil flowersDaffodil or "daffy
[[File:Narcissus Floral Diagram.jpg|thumb| Floral diagram From centre outwards: Trilocular ovary, 6 stamens, corona, perianthwikipedia
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Narcissus (mythology)

Narcissusyouth of that nameeponymous figure from Greek legend
The exact origin of the name Narcissus is unknown, but it is often linked to a Greek word for intoxicated (narcotic) and the myth of the youth of that name who fell in love with his own reflection.
The word narcissus has come to be used for the daffodil, but there is no clarity on whether the flower is named for the myth, or the myth for the flower, or if there is any true connection at all.

Amaryllidaceae

Amaryllis familyAmaryllidaceae sp.Amaryllid family
Narcissus is a genus of predominantly spring perennial plants of the Amaryllidaceae (amaryllis) family.
The family, which was originally created in 1805, now contains about 1600 species, divided into about 75 genera, 17 tribes and three subfamilies, the Agapanthoideae (agapanthus), Allioideae (onions and chives) and Amaryllidoideae (amaryllis, daffodils, snowdrops).

Galantamine

galanthamineNivalin
This property has been exploited for medicinal use in traditional healing and has resulted in the production of galantamine for the treatment of Alzheimer's dementia.
It is an alkaloid that has been isolated from the bulbs and flowers of Galanthus caucasicus (Caucasian snowdrop), Galanthus woronowii (Voronov's snowdrop), and some other members of the family Amaryllidaceae, such as Narcissus (daffodil), Leucojum aestivum (snowflake), and Lycoris including Lycoris radiata (red spider lily).

Plant stem

stemstemsinternode
The plants are scapose, having a single central leafless hollow flower stem (scape).
Bulb – a short vertical underground stem with fleshy storage leaves attached, e.g. onion, daffodil, tulip. Bulbs often function in reproduction by splitting to form new bulbs or producing small new bulbs termed bulblets. Bulbs are a combination of stem and leaves so may better be considered as leaves because the leaves make up the greater part.

Narcissus poeticus

N. poeticusnarcisinarcissus
In addition the corona of N. poeticus has a red crenulate margin (see Table I). Flower orientation varies from pendent or deflexed (hanging down) as in N. triandrus (see illustration, left), through declinate-ascendant as in N. alpestris = N. pseudonarcissus subsp. moschatus, horizontal (patent, spreading) such as N. gaditanus or N. poeticus, erect as in N. cavanillesii, N. serotinus and N. rupicola (Table I), or intermediate between these positions (erecto-patent).
Narcissus poeticus (poet's daffodil, poet's narcissus, nargis, pheasant's eye, findern flower, and pinkster lily) was one of the first daffodils to be cultivated, and is frequently identified as the narcissus of ancient times (although Narcissus tazetta and Narcissus jonquilla have also been considered as possibilities).

Monocotyledon

monocotmonocotsmonocotyledonous
Like many monocotyledons, the perianth is homochlamydeous, that is undifferentiated into separate calyx (sepals) and corolla (petals), but rather has six tepals.
Additionally most of the horticultural bulbs, plants cultivated for their blooms, such as lilies, daffodils, irises, amaryllis, cannas, bluebells and tulips, are monocots.

Bulb

bulbousbulbsbulbous plants
Narcissus is a genus of perennial herbaceous bulbiferous geophytes, dying back after flowering to an underground storage bulb.
Species in the genera Allium, Hippeastrum, Narcissus, and Tulipa all have tunicate bulbs.

Narcissus hedraeanthus

N. hedraeanthus
In a few species such as N. hedraeanthus the stem is oblique (asymmetrical).
Narcissus hedraeanthus is a species of the genus Narcissus (daffodils) in the family Amaryllidaceae.

Narcissus cavanillesii

N. cavanillesii
The three major floral parts (in all species except N. cavanillesii in which the corona is virtually absent - Table I: Section Tapeinanthus) are;
Narcissus cavanillesii is a species of the genus Narcissus (daffodils) in the family Amaryllidaceae.

Narcissus gaditanus

N. gaditanus
Flower orientation varies from pendent or deflexed (hanging down) as in N. triandrus (see illustration, left), through declinate-ascendant as in N. alpestris = N. pseudonarcissus subsp. moschatus, horizontal (patent, spreading) such as N. gaditanus or N. poeticus, erect as in N. cavanillesii, N. serotinus and N. rupicola (Table I), or intermediate between these positions (erecto-patent).
Narcissus gaditanus is a species of the genus Narcissus (Daffodils) in the family Amaryllidaceae.

Narcissus albimarginatus

N. albimarginatus
The "triandrus" form is seen in only two species, N. albimarginatus (a Moroccan endemic) and N. triandrus.
Narcissus albimarginatus is a species of the genus Narcissus (daffodils) in the family Amaryllidaceae.

Narcissus jonquilla

jonquilN. jonquillaflower
Fragrances are predominantly monoterpene isoprenoids, with a small amount of benzenoids, although N. jonquilla has both equally represented.
Narcissus jonquilla (jonquil, rush daffodil) is a bulbous flowering plant, a species of Narcissus (daffodil) that is native to Spain and Portugal, but has now become naturalised in many other regions: France, Italy, Turkey, the former Yugoslavia, Madeira, British Columbia, Utah, Illinois, Ohio, and the southeastern United States from Texas to Maryland.

Lycorine

The first alkaloid to be identified was lycorine, from N. pseudonarcissus in 1877.
Lycorine is a toxic crystalline alkaloid found in various Amaryllidaceae species, such as the cultivated bush lily (Clivia miniata), surprise lilies (Lycoris), and daffodils (Narcissus). It may be highly poisonous, or even lethal, when ingested in certain quantities.

Narcissus cuatrecasasii

Another exception is N. cuatrecasasii which produces mainly fatty acid derivatives.
Narcissus cuatrecasasii is a species of the genus Narcissus (daffodils) in the family Amaryllidaceae.

Narcisseae

Narcisses
Within Amaryllidaceae the genus Narcissus belongs to the Narcisseae tribe, one of 13 within the Amaryllidoideae subfamily.
It contains two genera (Narcissus and Sternbergia) and approximately 58 species, but probably also Lapiedra.

Sternbergia

Sternbergia clusiana
It is one of two sister clades corresponding to genera in the Narcisseae, being distinguished from Sternbergia by the presence of a paraperigonium, and is monophyletic.
Sternbergia lutea was first described in 1601 by Clusius, who included the plants in the genus Narcissus.

Narcissus asturiensis

N. asturiensis
Dwarf species such as N. asturiensis have a maximum height of 5–8 cm, while Narcissus tazetta may grow as tall as 80 cm.
This dwarf Narcissus is 7–12 cm (2.5– 5 in) tall and has small yellow flowers growing singly.

Narcissus rupicola

N. rupicola
Flower orientation varies from pendent or deflexed (hanging down) as in N. triandrus (see illustration, left), through declinate-ascendant as in N. alpestris = N. pseudonarcissus subsp. moschatus, horizontal (patent, spreading) such as N. gaditanus or N. poeticus, erect as in N. cavanillesii, N. serotinus and N. rupicola (Table I), or intermediate between these positions (erecto-patent).
Narcissus rupicola is a species of the genus Narcissus (daffodils) in the family Amaryllidaceae.

Narcissus elegans

N. elegans
The basic chromosome number is 7, with the exception of N. tazetta, N. elegans and N. broussonetii in which it is 10 or 11; this subgenus (Hermione) was in fact characterised by this characteristic.
Narcissus elegans is a species of the genus Narcissus (daffodils) in the family Amaryllidaceae.

Narcissus common latent virus

These include the Narcissus common latent virus (NCLV, Narcissus mottling-associated virus), Narcissus latent virus (NLV, Narcissus mild mottle virus) which causes green mottling near leaf tips, Narcissus degeneration virus (NDV), Narcissus late season yellows virus (NLSYV) which occurs after flowering, streaking the leaves and stems, Narcissus mosaic virus, Narcissus yellow stripe virus (NYSV, Narcissus yellow streak virus), Narcissus tip necrosis virus (NTNV) which produces necrosis of leaf tips after flowering and Narcissus white streak virus (NWSV).
It infects Narcissus plants.

Storage organ

geophytegeophytesgeophytic
Narcissus is a genus of perennial herbaceous bulbiferous geophytes, dying back after flowering to an underground storage bulb.
Bulb (a short stem that produces fleshy scale leaves or modified leaf bases) — e.g. Lilium, Narcissus, onion

Narcissus symptomless virus

Less host specific viruses include Raspberry ringspot virus, Nerine latent virus (NeLV) =Narcissus symptomless virus, Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV), Broad Bean Wilt Viruses (BBWV) Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Tomato black ring virus (TBRV), Tomato ringspot virus (TomRSV) and Tobacco rattle virus (TRV).
It infects Narcissus plants.

Wales

🏴󠁧󠁢󠁷󠁬󠁳󠁿WelshWAL
The daffodil is the national flower of Wales and the symbol of cancer charities in many countries.
The daffodil and the leek are both symbols of Wales.

Ben Zonneveld

ZonneveldBernardus J.M. "Ben" Zonneveld
A large molecular analysis by Zonneveld (2008) sought to reduce some of the paraphyly identified by Graham and Barrett.
Ben Zonneveld ( Bernardus Joannes Maria Zonneveld) (b. 1940- ) is a Dutch plant scientist and botanist known for his work on the genetics of Tulips and Daffodils, and their infrageneric classification.

Petal

corollapetalscorollas
Closest to the stem (proximal) is a floral tube above the ovary, then an outer ring composed of six tepals (undifferentiated sepals and petals), and a central disc to conical shaped corona.
In some plants such as Narcissus the lower part of the petals or tepals are fused to form a floral cup (hypanthium) above the ovary, and from which the petals proper extend.