Narcolepsy

narcolepticdifficulty in controlling her sleepdifficulty staying awakefall asleep at various timesfalling asleep at odd timesfalling asleep at random occasionsGelineau diseasehypnolepsyNarcolepsy-Cataplexysleeping at odd times
Narcolepsy is a long-term neurological disorder that involves a decreased ability to regulate sleep-wake cycles.wikipedia
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Cataplexy

sudden muscle weakness
About 70% of those affected also experience episodes of sudden loss of muscle strength, known as cataplexy.
Cataplexy affects approximately 70% of people who have narcolepsy, and is caused by an autoimmune destruction of hypothalamic neurons that produce the neuropeptide hypocretin (also called orexin), which regulates arousal and has a role in stabilisation of the transition between wake and sleep states.

Excessive daytime sleepiness

daytime sleepinessEDSexcessive sleepiness
Symptoms often include periods of excessive daytime sleepiness and brief involuntary sleep episodes.
EDS can be considered as a broad condition encompassing several sleep disorders where increased sleep is a symptom, or as a symptom of another underlying disorder like narcolepsy, idiopathic hypersomnia, sleep apnea or a circadian rhythm sleep disorder.

Sleep paralysis

Phi Amold haghag ridden
Less commonly, there may be vivid hallucinations or an inability to move (sleep paralysis) while falling asleep or waking up.
The condition may occur in those who are otherwise healthy or those with narcolepsy, or it may run in families as a result of specific genetic changes.

Orexin

hypocretinorexin Borexin-B
Often, those affected have low levels of the neuropeptide orexin, which may be due to an autoimmune disorder. Part of the mechanism involves the loss of orexin-releasing neurons within the lateral hypothalamus. These genetic variations in the HLA complex are thought to increase the risk of an auto-immune response to orexin-releasing neurons in the lateral hypothalamus.
The most common form of narcolepsy, in which the sufferer experiences brief losses of muscle tone (cataplexy), is caused by a lack of orexin in the brain due to destruction of the cells that produce it.

Sleep

sleepingsleep architectureasleep
People with narcolepsy tend to sleep about the same number of hours per day as people without, but the quality of sleep tends to be worse.
Humans may suffer from various sleep disorders, including dyssomnias such as insomnia, hypersomnia, narcolepsy, and sleep apnea; parasomnias such as sleepwalking and REM behavior disorder; bruxism; and circadian rhythm sleep disorders.

Modafinil

ProvigilAlertecList of modafinil analogues
Medications used include modafinil, sodium oxybate and methylphenidate. The main treatment of excessive daytime sleepiness in narcolepsy is central nervous system stimulants such as methylphenidate, amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, modafinil, and armodafinil.
Modafinil, sold under the brand name Provigil among others, is a medication to treat sleepiness due to narcolepsy, shift work sleep disorder, or obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).

Sleep disorder

sleep disorderssleep disturbancesleep disturbances
Excessive daytime sleepiness can also be caused by other sleep disorders such as sleep apnea, major depressive disorder, anemia, heart failure, drinking alcohol and not getting enough sleep.
Others are sleep apnea, narcolepsy and hypersomnia (excessive sleepiness at inappropriate times), sleeping sickness (disruption of sleep cycle due to infection), sleepwalking, and night terrors.

Methylphenidate

RitalinConcertaMethylin
Medications used include modafinil, sodium oxybate and methylphenidate. The main treatment of excessive daytime sleepiness in narcolepsy is central nervous system stimulants such as methylphenidate, amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, modafinil, and armodafinil.
Methylphenidate, sold under the trade name Ritalin among others, is a stimulant medication used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy.

Sodium oxybate

Xyremsodium ''gamma''-hydroxybutyrate
Medications used include modafinil, sodium oxybate and methylphenidate. Another FDA-approved treatment option for narcolepsy is sodium oxybate, also known as sodium gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB).
Sodium oxybate is a prescription medication used to treat two symptoms of narcolepsy: sudden muscle weakness and excessive daytime sleepiness.

Jean-Baptiste-Édouard Gélineau

Gelineu
The French term was first used in 1880 by Jean-Baptiste-Édouard Gélineau, who used the Greek νάρκη (narkē), meaning "numbness", and λῆψις (lepsis) meaning "attack".
Jean-Baptiste-Édouard Gélineau (23 December 1828 – 2 March 1906) was the French physician who first described narcolepsy.

Hallucination

hallucinationshallucinatehallucinating
Less commonly, there may be vivid hallucinations or an inability to move (sleep paralysis) while falling asleep or waking up.
These may be associated with narcolepsy.

Chronic condition

chronicchronic diseasechronic diseases
Narcolepsy is a long-term neurological disorder that involves a decreased ability to regulate sleep-wake cycles.

Lateral hypothalamus

lateral hypothalamic arealateral hypothalamicLateral nucleus
Part of the mechanism involves the loss of orexin-releasing neurons within the lateral hypothalamus. These genetic variations in the HLA complex are thought to increase the risk of an auto-immune response to orexin-releasing neurons in the lateral hypothalamus.
Clinically significant disorders that involve dysfunctions of the orexinergic projection system include narcolepsy, motility disorders or functional gastrointestinal disorders involving visceral hypersensitivity (e.g., irritable bowel syndrome), and eating disorders.

Neurological disorder

neurological disordersneurological diseaseneurological
Narcolepsy is a long-term neurological disorder that involves a decreased ability to regulate sleep-wake cycles.

Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder

REM sleep behavior disorderREM behavior disorderRapid eye movement behavior disorder
Symptomatic RBD can also be associated with narcolepsy, Guillain Barre syndrome, limbic encephalitis, and Morvan's syndrome.

Pandemrix

A link between GlaxoSmithKline's H1N1 flu vaccine Pandemrix and narcolepsy has been found in both children and adults.
In August 2010, The Swedish Medical Products Agency (MPA) and The Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL) launched investigations regarding the development of narcolepsy as a possible side effect to Pandemrix flu vaccination in children, and found a minimum 6.6-fold increased risk among children and youths, resulting in a minimum of 3.6 additional cases of narcolepsy per 100,000 vaccinated subjects.

Rapid eye movement sleep

REM sleepREMrapid eye movement
There are two main characteristics of narcolepsy: excessive daytime sleepiness and abnormal REM sleep.
Narcolepsy by contrast seems to involve excessive and unwanted REM atonia—i.e., cataplexy and excessive daytime sleepiness while awake, hypnagogic hallucinations before entering slow-wave sleep, or sleep paralysis while waking.

Idiopathic hypersomnia

Primary hypersomniaMajor hypersomnolence disorderPrognosis
It is believed that this subgroup might have dysfunction in multiple arousal systems, including orexin and GABA (see idiopathic hypersomnia causes).
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) defines idiopathic hypersomnia as EDS without narcolepsy or the associated features of other sleep disorders.

Autoimmunity

autoimmuneautoantigenauto-immune
These genetic variations in the HLA complex are thought to increase the risk of an auto-immune response to orexin-releasing neurons in the lateral hypothalamus.

Sleep medicine

sleep laboratorysleep managementsleep specialist
These tests are usually performed by a sleep specialist.
Competence in sleep medicine requires an understanding of a plethora of very diverse disorders, many of which present with similar symptoms such as excessive daytime sleepiness, which, in the absence of volitional sleep deprivation, "is almost inevitably caused by an identifiable and treatable sleep disorder," such as sleep apnea, narcolepsy, idiopathic hypersomnia, Kleine-Levin syndrome, menstrual-related hypersomnia, idiopathic recurrent stupor, or circadian rhythm disturbances.

Hypersomnia

hypersomnolenceoversleepingexcessive sleepiness
Obstructive sleep apnea “occurs frequently in narcolepsy and may delay the diagnosis of narcolepsy by several years and interfere with its proper management.”

Amphetamine

Benzedrinespeedamphetamines
The main treatment of excessive daytime sleepiness in narcolepsy is central nervous system stimulants such as methylphenidate, amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, modafinil, and armodafinil.
Amphetamine (contracted from alpha-methylphenethylamine) is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity.

Dextroamphetamine

Dexedrined-amphetamineDexamphetamine
The main treatment of excessive daytime sleepiness in narcolepsy is central nervous system stimulants such as methylphenidate, amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, modafinil, and armodafinil.
Dextroamphetamine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant and an amphetamine enantiomer that is prescribed for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy.

Gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid

GHBγ-hydroxybutyric acidgamma-hydroxybutyrate
Another FDA-approved treatment option for narcolepsy is sodium oxybate, also known as sodium gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB).
GHB has been used in a medical setting as a general anesthetic and as a treatment for cataplexy, narcolepsy, and alcoholism.