# Nathan Rosen

**RosenN. Rosen**

Nathan Rosen (Hebrew: נתן רוזן; March 22, 1909 – December 18, 1995) was an Israeli physicist noted for his study on the structure of the hydrogen atom and his work with Albert Einstein and Boris Podolsky on entangled wave functions and the EPR paradox.wikipedia

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### EPR paradox

**Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen paradoxEPREinstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox**

Nathan Rosen (Hebrew: נתן רוזן; March 22, 1909 – December 18, 1995) was an Israeli physicist noted for his study on the structure of the hydrogen atom and his work with Albert Einstein and Boris Podolsky on entangled wave functions and the EPR paradox.

The Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen paradox (EPR paradox) is a thought experiment proposed by physicists Albert Einstein, Boris Podolsky and Nathan Rosen (EPR) that they interpreted as indicating that the explanation of physical reality provided by quantum mechanics was incomplete.

### Boris Podolsky

**PodolskyB. PodolskyQuantum**

Nathan Rosen (Hebrew: נתן רוזן; March 22, 1909 – December 18, 1995) was an Israeli physicist noted for his study on the structure of the hydrogen atom and his work with Albert Einstein and Boris Podolsky on entangled wave functions and the EPR paradox.

Boris Yakovlevich Podolsky (Бори́с Я́ковлевич Подо́льский; 29 June 1896 – 28 November 1966) was a Russian-American physicist of Russian Jewish descent, noted for his work with Albert Einstein and Nathan Rosen on entangled wave functions and the EPR paradox.

### Wormhole

**wormholesEinstein–Rosen bridgeEinstein-Rosen bridge**

The Einstein–Rosen bridge, later named the wormhole, was a theory of Nathan Rosen.

Schwarzschild wormholes, also known as Einstein–Rosen bridges (named after Albert Einstein and Nathan Rosen), are connections between areas of space that can be modeled as vacuum solutions to the Einstein field equations, and that are now understood to be intrinsic parts of the maximally extended version of the Schwarzschild metric describing an eternal black hole with no charge and no rotation.

### Albert Einstein

**EinsteinEinsteinianA. Einstein**

Nathan Rosen (Hebrew: נתן רוזן; March 22, 1909 – December 18, 1995) was an Israeli physicist noted for his study on the structure of the hydrogen atom and his work with Albert Einstein and Boris Podolsky on entangled wave functions and the EPR paradox.

In 1935, Einstein collaborated with Nathan Rosen to produce a model of a wormhole, often called Einstein–Rosen bridges.

### Bimetric gravity

**bimetric theorybimetric theories of gravitybimetric theories**

Between 1940 and 1989 Rosen published a series of articles on his versions of bimetric gravity, an attempt to improve on General Relativity by removing singularities and replacing pseudo-tensors with tensors to eliminate nonlocality.

Several bimetric theories with massive gravitons exist, such as those attributed to Nathan Rosen (1909–1995) or Mordehai Milgrom with Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND).

### Asher Peres

**PeresA. Peres**

During this time Rosen was advisor to Asher Peres.

Peres obtained his Ph.D. in 1959 at Technion – Israel Institute of Technology under Nathan Rosen.

### International Society on General Relativity and Gravitation

**International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitationrelativity specialists**

Additionally, Nathan Rosen helped found the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, the Physical Society of Israel (serving as president from 1955–57), and the International Society on General Relativity and Gravitation (president 1974-77).

In the past, the office has been held by Christian Møller (1971–74), Nathan Rosen (1974–77), Peter Bergmann (1977–80), Yvonne Choquet-Bruhat (1980–83), Dennis Sciama (1983–86), Ezra Ted Newman (1986–89), George Ellis (1989–92), Roger Penrose (1992–95), Jürgen Ehlers (1995–98), Werner Israel (1998–2001), Robert Wald (2001–04), Clifford Will (2004–07), Abhay Ashtekar (2007–10), and Malcolm A. H. MacCallum (2010–13).

### Sticky bead argument

In 1936, together with Nathan Rosen, Einstein rediscovered the Beck vacuums, a family of exact gravitational wave solutions with cylindrical symmetry (sometimes also called Einstein–Rosen waves).

### Technion – Israel Institute of Technology

**TechnionTechnion - Israel Institute of TechnologyTechnion-Israel Institute of Technology**

In 1953, after permanently moving to Israel, he joined the Technion in Haifa, Israel.

### John C. Slater

**John Clarke SlaterSlaterJohn Slater**

Slater's doctoral students, during this time, included Nathan Rosen Ph.D. in 1932 for a theoretical study of the hydrogen molecule, and William Shockley Ph.D. 1936 for an energy band structure of sodium chloride, who later received a Nobel Prize for the discovery of the transistor.

### Moshe Carmeli

In 1964, he received his Doctor of Science from the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology in Haifa, Israel under the supervision of Nathan Rosen.

### Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities

**Israel Academy of SciencesIsrael Academic CenterAcademy of Sciences and Humanities**

Additionally, Nathan Rosen helped found the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, the Physical Society of Israel (serving as president from 1955–57), and the International Society on General Relativity and Gravitation (president 1974-77).

### Hebrew language

**HebrewHebrew grammarHeb.**

### Brooklyn

**Brooklyn, New YorkBrooklyn, NYKings**

Nathan Rosen was born into a Jewish family in Brooklyn, New York.

### New York (state)

**New YorkNew York StateNY**

Nathan Rosen was born into a Jewish family in Brooklyn, New York.

### Great Depression

**DepressionThe Great DepressionDepression era**

He attended MIT during the Great Depression, where he received a bachelor's degree in electromechanical engineering and later a master's and a doctorate in physics.

### James Chadwick

**Sir James ChadwickChadwickChadwick Medal**

As a student he published several papers of note, one being "The Neutron," which attempted to explain the structure of the atomic nucleus a year before their discovery by James Chadwick.

### University of Michigan

**MichiganUniversity of Michigan, Ann ArborUniversity of Michigan at Ann Arbor**

He also developed an interest in wave functions, and later, gravitation, when he worked as a fellow at the University of Michigan and Princeton University.

### Princeton University

**PrincetonPrinceton CollegeCollege of New Jersey**

He also developed an interest in wave functions, and later, gravitation, when he worked as a fellow at the University of Michigan and Princeton University.

### Max Planck

**PlanckMax Karl Ernst Ludwig PlanckPlanck, M.**

In 1900, Max Planck proposed the quantum theory, the idea that all energy moves in discrete amounts called quanta.

### Quantum mechanics

**quantum physicsquantum mechanicalquantum theory**

In 1900, Max Planck proposed the quantum theory, the idea that all energy moves in discrete amounts called quanta.

### Energy

**energy transferenergiestotal energy**

In 1900, Max Planck proposed the quantum theory, the idea that all energy moves in discrete amounts called quanta.

### Quantum

**quantaquantizedquantal**

### Special relativity

**special theory of relativityrelativisticspecial**

In 1905, Albert Einstein published his theory of special relativity, which would be instrumental in the progression of physics and the understanding of the universe.

### Niels Bohr

**BohrNiels Henrik David BohrBohr, Niels**

Around 1927, Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg, collaborating with many other physicists, developed the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum theory, determining the probabilities of the movement of particles.