Nation state

Portrait of "The Ratification of the Treaty of Münster", one of the treaties leading to the Peace of Westphalia, where the concept of the "nation state" was born.
The Revolutions of 1848 were democratic and liberal in nature, with the aim of removing the old monarchical structures and creating independent nation-states.
Dissolution of the multiethnic Austro-Hungarian Empire (1918)
Ethnolinguistic map of mainland China and Taiwan
School map of Spain from 1850. It can be seen the State divided into four parts:- The "fully constitutional Spain", that includes Castilia, but also Galician-speacking territories. - The "assimilated Spain": territories from the Crown of Aragon,larguely Catalan-speaking territory- the "Foral Spain", which includes Basque-speaking territories- the "Colonial Spain", with last colonial territories.
The Greater German Reich under Nazi Germany in 1943

Political unit where the state and nation are congruent.

- Nation state

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City-state

Independent sovereign city which serves as the center of political, economic, and cultural life over its contiguous territory.

The Republic of Ragusa, a maritime city-state, was based in the walled city of Dubrovnik
The Free imperial cities as of 1792.
Italy in 1494, after the Peace of Lodi
Tangier
Vatican City, a city-state well known for being the smallest country in the world
The city of Basel, located on the Rhine, is a historic city-state and a Swiss canton.

With the rise of nation states worldwide, only a few modern sovereign city-states exist, with some disagreement as to which qualify; Monaco, Singapore, and Vatican City are most commonly accepted as such.

Nationalism

Idea and movement that holds that the nation should be congruent with the state.

Title page from the second edition (Amsterdam 1631) of De jure belli ac pacis
A postcard from 1916 showing national personifications of some of the Allies of World War I, each holding a national flag
Senator Johan Vilhelm Snellman (1806–1881), who also possessed the professions of philosopher, journalist and author, was one of the most influential Fennomans and Finnish nationalists in the 19th century.
A painting by Alphonse-Marie-Adolphe de Neuville from 1887 depicting French students being taught about the lost provinces of Alsace-Lorraine, taken by Germany in 1871.
The Millennium of Russia monument built in 1862 to celebrate one thousand years of Russian history.
Revolutionaries in Vienna with German tricolor flags, May 1848
Adolf Hitler being welcomed by a crowd in Sudetenland, where the pro-Nazi Sudeten German Party gained 88% of ethnic-German votes in May 1938.
People cheering as Giuseppe Garibaldi enters Naples in 1860
Beginning in 1821, the Greek War of Independence began as a rebellion by Greek revolutionaries against the ruling Ottoman Empire.
Breakup of Yugoslavia
General Simón Bolívar (1783–1830), a leader of independence in Latin America
Kenneth Kaunda, an anti-colonial political leader from Zambia, pictured at a nationalist rally in colonial Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia) in 1960
Changes in national boundaries in post-Soviet states after the revolutions of 1989 followed by a resurgence of nationalism
Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro, sometimes called the "Tropical Trump", with United States President Donald Trump
Nationalist and liberal pressure led to the European Revolutions of 1848
Crowd demonstrates against Britain in Cairo on 23 October 1951 as tension continued to mount in the dispute between Egypt and Britain over control of the Suez Canal and Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.
Ukrainian nationalists carry portraits of Stepan Bandera and flags of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army
World War II United States Patriotic Army Recruiting Poster
A political mural in Caracas featuring an anti-American and anti-imperialist message
Nationalist slogan "Brazil, love it or leave it", used during the Brazilian military dictatorship

As a movement, nationalism tends to promote the interests of a particular nation (as in a group of people), especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining the nation's sovereignty (self-governance) over its homeland to create a nation state.

Multiculturalism

The term multiculturalism has a range of meanings within the contexts of sociology, political philosophy, and colloquial use.

The Monument to Multiculturalism in Toronto, Canada. Four identical sculptures are located in East London, South Africa; in Changchun, China; in Sarajevo, Bosnia and in Sydney, Australia.
Ethno-linguistic map of Austria-Hungary, 1910.
People of Indian origin have been able to achieve a high demographic profile in India Square, Jersey City, New Jersey, US, known as Little Bombay, home to the highest concentration of Asian Indians in the Western Hemisphere and one of at least 24 enclaves characterized as a Little India which have emerged within the New York City Metropolitan Area, with the largest metropolitan Indian population outside Asia, as large-scale immigration from India continues into New York, through the support of the surrounding community.
Russian Orthodox Cathedral of the Most Holy Trinity in Buenos Aires.
House with elements of people from different countries, including Russians and Germans, in Carambeí, south of the country, a city of Dutch majority
Sikhs celebrating the Sikh new year in Toronto, Canada
Teotihuacan
Tambomachay, Cuzco, Peru
Staff of President Clinton's One America Initiative. The President's Initiative on Race was a critical element in President Clinton's effort to prepare the country to embrace diversity.
Bartizan in Venezuela
Ethno-linguistic map of the Second Polish Republic, 1937.
Sofia Synagogue
Banya Bashi Mosque in Sofia
Süleymanìye Mosque in Tilburg built in 2001
The population structure of the Vuosaari district in Helsinki, Finland, is strongly based on multiculturalism.
Source: Gävle University College
Csárdás traditional Hungarian folk dance in Doroslovo
The Durga Puja celebrated in Kolkata
Jama Masjid, Delhi, one of the largest mosques in India
An Ainu man, circa 1930
Sydney's Chinatown
Educational attainment of migrants in Norway in 2018
High density public housing in Singapore, which are a common sight in the country, consists of different ethnic groups living together.

The term multiculturalism is most often used in reference to Western nation-states, which had seemingly achieved a de facto single national identity during the 18th and/or 19th centuries.

Sovereign state

Political entity represented by one centralized government that has supreme legitimate authority over territory.

Member states of the United Nations (UN), as defined by the UN.
De facto map of control of the world, May 2019

Westphalian sovereignty is the concept of nation-state sovereignty based on territoriality and the absence of a role for external agents in domestic structures.

Ethnic nationalism

Form of nationalism wherein the nation and nationality are defined in terms of ethnicity, with emphasis on an ethnocentric approach to various political issues related to national affirmation of a particular ethnic group.

In the context of the Mapuche conflict, the Coordinadora Arauco-Malleco (CAM) presents a strictly ethno-nationalist demand.

Hence, nation-states with strong traditions of ethnic nationalism tend to define nationality or citizenship by jus sanguinis (the law of blood, descent from a person of that nationality), and countries with strong traditions of civic nationalism tend to define nationality or citizenship by jus soli (the law of soil, birth within the nation state).

Dutch Republic

Federal republic which existed from 1588, during the Dutch Revolt, to 1795 (the Batavian Revolution).

Republic of the Seven United Netherlands in 1789
Silver coin: 1 ducaton Overijssel – 1734
Republic of the Seven United Netherlands in 1789
Amsterdam Stock Exchange courtyard, 1653
Silver coin: 1 ducaton Utrecht – 1772
Silver coin: 1 ducaton Holland – 1780
Silver coin: 1 ducaton Friesland – 1784
Silver coin: 1 ducaton Zeeland – 1790
Silver coin: 1 ducaton Gelderland – 1792
Silver coin: 3 gulder Utrecht –- 1795
The united provinces, with Drenthe and the Generality Lands
Sermon at the Oude Kerk at Delft, 1651
Dutch East India Company factory in Hugli-Chuchura, Mughal Bengal. Painting by Hendrik van Schuylenburgh, 1665

It was a predecessor state of the Netherlands and the first fully independent Dutch nation state.

Portugal

Country whose mainland is located on the Iberian Peninsula of Southwestern Europe, and whose territory also includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira.

Chalcolithic Dolmen Anta da Arca
Prehistoric Rock Art Sites in the Côa Valley.
Megalithic Monuments of Alcalar, built in the 3rd millennium BCE.
Roman Temple of Évora, in the Alentejo, is one of the best preserved Roman-built structures in the country.
Centum Cellas, in the Beira region, is a Roman villa rustica from the 1st century CE.
Map of the Kingdom of the Suebi in the 5th and 6th centuries
Visigothic kingdom in Iberia c.560
Illustrated depiction of the First Council of Braga of 561 CE
Suebi King Miro and St. Martin of Braga; c. 1145
The Caliphate of Cordoba in the early 10th century
Statue of Ibn Qasi outside the Castle of Mértola, in the Alentejo
A statue of Count Vímara Peres, first Count of Portugal
Alfonso VI of León investing Henry, Count of Portugal, in 1093
Afonso Henriques was the last Count of Portugal and the first King of Portugal after winning the Battle of Ourique in 1139.
Henry the Navigator
Vasco da Gama
Areas across the world that were, at one point in their history, part of the Portuguese Empire
The 1st Marquis of Pombal effectively ruled Portugal as an enlightened despot during the reign of King Joseph I.
The frontispiece of the 1826 Portuguese Constitution featuring King-Emperor Pedro IV and his daughter Queen Maria II
Left to right: President Bernardino Machado, President Teófilo Braga, President António José de Almeida, and Prime Minister Afonso Costa; 1911
António de Oliveira Salazar ruled Portugal from 1932 to 1968, within the Estado Novo regime.
Portuguese Africa before independence in 1975
Mário Soares became Portugal's first democratically elected Prime-Minister in 1976.
The Treaty of Lisbon was signed in 2007, when Portugal held the presidency for the European Council.
Köppen climate classification map of continental Portugal
The Marinha Beach in Lagoa, Algarve is considered by the Michelin Guide as one of the 10 most beautiful beaches in Europe and as one of the 100 most beautiful beaches in the world.
Peneda-Gerês National Park is the only nationally designated park in Portugal, owing to the rarity and significance of its environment.
Chameleo from Algarve
Exclusive economic zone of Portugal
Belém Palace serves as the official residence and workplace of the President of the Republic.
The Praça do Comércio houses multiple ministries of the Government of Portugal.
The Assembly of the Republic is housed in São Bento Palace in Lisbon.
Necessidades Palace houses the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
Current Secretary-General of the United Nations and former Prime Minister António Guterres
Portuguese Army - Leopard 2A6
Portuguese Navy - MEKO-200 PN
Portuguese Air Force - F-16 Fighting Falcons
Lisbon's Campus of Justice
A cavalryman of the National Republican Guard's honour guard
Debt as a percentage of the economy of Portugal, compared to eurozone average
A proportional representation of Portugal's exports,
Avenida da Liberdade leading to Marquis of Pombal Square, Lisbon, is one of the most expensive shopping streets in Europe.
November 2011 protests against austerity measures outside the Assembly of the Republic
Portugal has the thirteenth-largest gold reserve in the world.
The Alentejo is known as the "bread basket of Portugal", being the country's leading region in wheat and cork production.
"Cupa", Roman tombstones into the shape of wooden wine barrels, were used to mark the grave of wine makers in the 3rd century in Alentejo, a region to this day renowned for its wines.
A Portucel Soporcel pulp and paper factory in Setúbal
A view of Nazaré, in Estremadura
Rooster of Barcelos, an iconic Portuguese souvenir
The Observatório Astronómico de Lisboa is Portugal's oldest (1878) astronomical observatory.
Vasco da Gama Bridge is the longest bridge in the EU.
Portugal electricity production 1980-2019
Top origins for foreign-born naturalized citizens of Portugal
A sign in Mirandese in Miranda do Douro, Trás-os-Montes
University of Evora, Portugal's second oldest university.
King Diniz statue at the University of Coimbra: the first university in Portugal (now the University of Coimbra), then called the Estudo Geral (General Study), was founded in Lisbon with his signing of the document Scientiae thesaurus mirabilis in Leiria on 3 March 1290.
The Medical Department of NOVA University Lisbon
Pasteis de Nata in Lisbon
Fado, depicted in this famous painting (c. 1910) by José Malhoa, is Portugal's traditional music.
Amália Rodrigues, known as the Queen of Fado, performing in 1969
Domingos Sequeira was one of the most prolific neoclassical painters. (Adoration of the Magi; 1828)
Cristiano Ronaldo is consistently ranked as one of the best football players in the world and considered to be one of the greatest players of all time.
Miguel Oliveira, Portuguese professional motorcycle racer.

Portugal is the oldest continuously existing nation state on the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.

Federation

[[File:Map of unitary and federal states.svg|thumb|upright=1.7|

The pathway of regional integration or separation
A map of the Russian Federation, showing its eighty-three federal subjects before the annexation of Crimea in 2014.
A map of Brazil, showing its twenty-six constituent states and the Federal District.
A map of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, showing its 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory.
A map of the United Mexican States (Mexico), showing its thirty-one constituent states and the Mexico City.
A map of the United States of America showing its fifty constituent states and the District of Columbia.
A map of Canada showing its ten provinces and three territories.
A map of Australia showing its six states and ten territories.
A political map of India showing 28 states and 8 union territories including the National Capital Territory.
A map of the Federal Republic of Germany showing its sixteen constituent states (Länder) including three city-states.
The Swiss Confederation and its 26 cantons.
The Autonomous communities of Spain.
Provinces of South Africa.
The United Provinces of Central America was a short-lived federal republic

Germany is another nation-state that has switched between confederal, federal and unitary rules, since the German Confederation was founded in 1815.

Ethnic group

Ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from other groups.

A group of ethnic Bengalis in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The Bengalis form the third-largest ethnic group in the world after the Han Chinese and Arabs.
The Javanese people of Indonesia are the largest Austronesian ethnic group.
The racial diversity of Asia's ethnic groups, Nordisk familjebok (1904)
Assyrians are the indigenous peoples of Northern Iraq.
The Basque people constitute an indigenous ethnic minority in both France and Spain.
Sámi family in Lapland of Finland, 1936
The Irish are an ethnic group indigenous to Ireland of which 70–80 million people worldwide claim ancestry.

Ethno-national, emphasizing a shared polity or sense of national identity – example: Austrians

Nation

Community of people formed on the basis of a combination of shared features such as language, history, ethnicity, culture and/or territory.

A community of interest gathers at Stonehenge, England, for the summer solstice.

Some nations are equated with ethnic groups (see ethnic nationalism and nation state) and some are equated with an affiliation with a social and political constitution (see civic nationalism and multiculturalism).