National CSS

National CSS, Inc. (NCSS) was a time-sharing firm in the 1960-80s, until its acquisition by Dun & Bradstreet in 1979.wikipedia
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Time-sharing

timesharingtime sharingtime-sharing system
National CSS, Inc. (NCSS) was a time-sharing firm in the 1960-80s, until its acquisition by Dun & Bradstreet in 1979.
Companies providing this service included GE's GEISCO, IBM subsidiary The Service Bureau Corporation, Tymshare (founded in 1966), National CSS (founded in 1967 and bought by Dun & Bradstreet in 1979), Dial Data (bought by Tymshare in 1968), Bolt, Beranek, and Newman (BBN) and Time Sharing Ltd. in the U.K..

VP/CSS

NCSS was best known for two products: the VP/CSS operating system, and the NOMAD database system.
VP/CSS was a time-sharing operating system developed by National CSS.

Nomad software

NOMADNOMAD2
NCSS was best known for two products: the VP/CSS operating system, and the NOMAD database system.
NOMAD is a relational database and fourth-generation language (4GL), originally developed in the 1970s by time-sharing vendor National CSS.

CP/CMS

CP-40 CP[-67]/CMSCMS
In 1967, joined by Dick Orenstein (one of the authors of CTSS), the company began exploring the idea of offering time-sharing services based on CP/CMS. After IBM released CP/CMS under the IBM Type-III Library in 1968, and thus became available to CSS, this dream became possible.
Other users, such as National CSS and some academic sites, continued independent development of CP/CMS, rather than switching to VM/370 when it became available.

IBM System/360 Model 67

IBM System/360-67System/360 Model 67Model 67
The small firm persuaded IBM to take an order for a S/360-67, and key technical people were recruited.
IBM also could not ignore the large number of S/360-67 time-sharing installations – including the new industry of time-sharing vendors, such as National CSS and Interactive Data Corporation (IDC), that were quickly achieving commercial success.

Dun & Bradstreet

Dun and BradstreetD&BBradstreet
National CSS, Inc. (NCSS) was a time-sharing firm in the 1960-80s, until its acquisition by Dun & Bradstreet in 1979.

Norwalk, Connecticut

NorwalkNorwalk, CTWilson Point
NCSS was originally headquartered in Norwalk, Connecticut, but relocated to Wilton in 1978.

Wilton, Connecticut

WiltonWilton, CTWilton parish
NCSS was originally headquartered in Norwalk, Connecticut, but relocated to Wilton in 1978.

Compatible Time-Sharing System

CTSSCompatible Time Sharing System
In 1967, joined by Dick Orenstein (one of the authors of CTSS), the company began exploring the idea of offering time-sharing services based on CP/CMS.

IBM Type-III Library

IBM-LibraType-III software
After IBM released CP/CMS under the IBM Type-III Library in 1968, and thus became available to CSS, this dream became possible.

Modem

modemsdial-up modem56k modem
Most customers connected to the NCSS system using dial-up terminals and modems: 110 or 300 baud was typical for the early years; 1200 baud became more common after the mid 70s.

Baud

megabaudkilobaudBaud rate
Most customers connected to the NCSS system using dial-up terminals and modems: 110 or 300 baud was typical for the early years; 1200 baud became more common after the mid 70s.

Packet switching

packet-switched networkpacket switchedpacket-switched
An innovative, nationwide packet-switching network, running primarily on DEC PDP-11s, provided access between modem banks and up to a dozen large IBM and Amdahl mainframes.

PDP-11

LSI-11PDP-11/70DEC PDP-11
An innovative, nationwide packet-switching network, running primarily on DEC PDP-11s, provided access between modem banks and up to a dozen large IBM and Amdahl mainframes.

Amdahl Corporation

AmdahlAmdahl CorpAmdahl Corp.
An innovative, nationwide packet-switching network, running primarily on DEC PDP-11s, provided access between modem banks and up to a dozen large IBM and Amdahl mainframes.

Teleconference

teleconferencingconferencingTeleconferencing systems
Various distributed applications at NCSS pioneered early implementations of teleconferencing, inter-user messaging, client/server database processing (before commercial SQL systems existed), and file sharing, both on a single machine and between machines.

Client–server model

client–serverclient-serverclient/server
Various distributed applications at NCSS pioneered early implementations of teleconferencing, inter-user messaging, client/server database processing (before commercial SQL systems existed), and file sharing, both on a single machine and between machines.

SQL

Structured Query LanguageSQL databaseSQL Databases
Various distributed applications at NCSS pioneered early implementations of teleconferencing, inter-user messaging, client/server database processing (before commercial SQL systems existed), and file sharing, both on a single machine and between machines.

File sharing

file-sharingfilesharingsharing
Various distributed applications at NCSS pioneered early implementations of teleconferencing, inter-user messaging, client/server database processing (before commercial SQL systems existed), and file sharing, both on a single machine and between machines.

Inter-process communication

interprocess communicationIPCinterapplication communication
(An interprocess communication interface, for example, was implemented providing transparent read/write access between remote applications – using normal file system I/O, analogous to a UNIX pipe.

Rapid prototyping

Rapid prototyper3D fabricationengineers
These changes fostered a transformation of business structures of the 80s and 90s, forcing technical resources to respond more directly to corporate and customer needs, and encouraging the creation of new user-centered methodologies (such as rapid prototyping and joint application design).

Joint application design

Facilitated Application Specification TechniquesJoint Application DevelopmentJoint applications development
These changes fostered a transformation of business structures of the 80s and 90s, forcing technical resources to respond more directly to corporate and customer needs, and encouraging the creation of new user-centered methodologies (such as rapid prototyping and joint application design).

Personal computer

PCPCspersonal computers
The same users who used timesharing to outfox their MIS departments eventually became early adopters of PC technology.