National Defense Research Committee

NDRCNational Defence Research CommitteeNational Defense Research council
The National Defense Research Committee (NDRC) was an organization created "to coordinate, supervise, and conduct scientific research on the problems underlying the development, production, and use of mechanisms and devices of warfare" in the United States from June 27, 1940, until June 28, 1941.wikipedia
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Office of Scientific Research and Development

OSRDOffice of Scientific R&DOSRD contracts
It was superseded by the Office of Scientific Research and Development in 1941, and reduced to merely an advisory organization until it was eventually terminated during 1947.
It superseded the work of the National Defense Research Committee (NDRC), was given almost unlimited access to funding and resources, and was directed by Vannevar Bush, who reported only to President Franklin Delano Roosevelt.

Vannevar Bush

Bush, VannevarBushV. Bush
Vannevar Bush, the director of the Carnegie Institution, had pressed for the creation of the NDRC because he had experienced during World War I the lack of cooperation between civilian scientists and the military. The original eight members of the NDRC were: Vannevar Bush, President of the Carnegie Institution (Chairman); Rear Admiral Harold G. Bowen, Sr.; Conway P. Coe, Commissioner of Patents; Karl Compton, President of MIT; James B. Conant, President of Harvard University; Frank B. Jewett, President of the National Academy of Sciences and President of Bell Telephone Laboratories; Brigadier General George V. Strong; and Richard C. Tolman, Professor of Physical Chemistry and Mathematical Physics at California Institute of Technology.
As chairman of the National Defense Research Committee (NDRC), and later director of OSRD, Bush coordinated the activities of some six thousand leading American scientists in the application of science to warfare.

Council of National Defense

Council of DefenseCouncil of National Defense (World War I)Council of National Defense (WWI)
The NDRC was created as part of the Council of National Defense, which had been created during 1916 to coordinate industry and resources for national security purposes, by an order of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt on June 27, 1940.
It was briefly revived for World War II to hold agencies such as National Defense Research Committee.

James B. Conant

James Bryant ConantJames ConantDr. James Bryant Conant
The original eight members of the NDRC were: Vannevar Bush, President of the Carnegie Institution (Chairman); Rear Admiral Harold G. Bowen, Sr.; Conway P. Coe, Commissioner of Patents; Karl Compton, President of MIT; James B. Conant, President of Harvard University; Frank B. Jewett, President of the National Academy of Sciences and President of Bell Telephone Laboratories; Brigadier General George V. Strong; and Richard C. Tolman, Professor of Physical Chemistry and Mathematical Physics at California Institute of Technology.
Conant was appointed to the National Defense Research Committee (NDRC) in 1940, becoming its chairman in 1941.

S-1 Executive Committee

Advisory Committee on UraniumS-1 SectionUranium Committee
An Advisory Committee on Uranium had been established to consider the feasibility of an atomic bomb as part of the National Bureau of Standards during 1939 as the result of the Einstein–Szilárd letter, but had not made significant progress.
The Uranium Committee was a committee of the National Defense Research Committee (NDRC) that succeeded the Advisory Committee on Uranium and later evolved into the S-1 Section of the Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD), when that organization absorbed the NDRC in June 1941, and the S-1 Executive Committee in June 1942.

MIT Radiation Laboratory

Radiation LaboratoryRadiation LabMIT Radiation Lab
Under the chairmanship of Bush the NDRC created new laboratories, including the Radiation Laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, which aided the development of radar, and the Underwater Sound Laboratory at New London, Connecticut, which developed sonar.
Loomis arranged for funding under the National Defense Research Committee (NDRC) and reorganized the Microwave Committee at MIT to study the magnetron and radar technology in general.

California Institute of Technology

CaltechCalifornia Institute of Technology (Caltech)Cal Tech
The original eight members of the NDRC were: Vannevar Bush, President of the Carnegie Institution (Chairman); Rear Admiral Harold G. Bowen, Sr.; Conway P. Coe, Commissioner of Patents; Karl Compton, President of MIT; James B. Conant, President of Harvard University; Frank B. Jewett, President of the National Academy of Sciences and President of Bell Telephone Laboratories; Brigadier General George V. Strong; and Richard C. Tolman, Professor of Physical Chemistry and Mathematical Physics at California Institute of Technology.
The United States Navy also maintained a naval training school for aeronautical engineering, resident inspectors of ordinance and naval material, and a liaison officer to the National Defense Research Committee on campus.

Manhattan Project

Manhattan Engineer DistrictThe Manhattan ProjectManhattan District
The NDRC's most important project eventually became the Manhattan Project—the full-scale project to produce nuclear weapons by the United States.
The Advisory Committee on Uranium became the National Defense Research Committee (NDRC) on Uranium when that organization was formed on 27 June 1940.

DUKW

duck boatDuck BoatsDUKW amphibious truck
Developed by the National Defense Research Committee and the Office of Scientific Research and Development to solve the problem of resupply to units which had just performed an amphibious landing, it was initially rejected by the armed services.

Proximity fuze

proximity fuseproximityproximity fuses
The National Defense Research Committee assigned the task to the physicist Merle A. Tuve at the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism.

Frank B. Jewett

Frank Baldwin JewettFrank Jewett
The original eight members of the NDRC were: Vannevar Bush, President of the Carnegie Institution (Chairman); Rear Admiral Harold G. Bowen, Sr.; Conway P. Coe, Commissioner of Patents; Karl Compton, President of MIT; James B. Conant, President of Harvard University; Frank B. Jewett, President of the National Academy of Sciences and President of Bell Telephone Laboratories; Brigadier General George V. Strong; and Richard C. Tolman, Professor of Physical Chemistry and Mathematical Physics at California Institute of Technology.
He also served on the National Defense Research Committee.

George Kistiakowsky

George B. KistiakowskyGeorge Bogdan KistiakowskyGeorge B. Kistiakowski
During World War II, Kistiakowsky was the head of the National Defense Research Committee (NDRC) section responsible for the development of explosives, and the technical director of the Explosives Research Laboratory (ERL), where he oversaw the development of new explosives, including RDX and HMX.

Applied Mathematics Panel

Statistical Research Group
The Applied Mathematics Panel (AMP) was created at the end of 1942 as a division of the National Defense Research Committee (NDRC) within the Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD) in order to solve mathematical problems related to the military effort in World War II, particularly those of the other NDRC divisions.

Project Pigeon

pigeon bombpigeon to steer a missile
The National Defense Research Committee saw the idea to use pigeons in glide bombs as very eccentric and impractical, but still contributed $25,000 to the research.

Frederick L. Hovde

Frederick HovdeFred HovdeFrederick Lawson Hovde
In 1941, following the outbreak of World War II, Hovde joined the newly established National Defense Research Committee, which later became a part of the war-time Office of Scientific Research and Development.

Roger Adams

Bush wanted to bring Adams into the National Defense Research Committee that he was organizing for President Franklin D. Roosevelt.

Einstein–Szilárd letter

Einstein-Szilard letterEinstein–Szilard lettera letter
An Advisory Committee on Uranium had been established to consider the feasibility of an atomic bomb as part of the National Bureau of Standards during 1939 as the result of the Einstein–Szilárd letter, but had not made significant progress.
It was superseded by the National Defense Research Committee in 1940, and then the Office of Scientific Research and Development in 1941.

George R. Harrison

George Russell HarrisonHarrison
During World War II, he was chief of the Optics Division of the National Defense Research Committee, and later head of the Office of Field Service of the Office of Scientific Research and Development.

Alfred Lee Loomis

Alfred LoomisAlfred L. LoomisDr Alfred Loomis
Because he had performed more work in this area than anyone else in the country, Loomis was appointed by Vannevar Bush to the National Defense Research Committee as chairman of the Microwave Committee and vice-chairman of Division D (Detection, Controls, Instruments).

Chauncey Guy Suits

C. G. SuitsChauncey G. SuitsSuits, Chauncey Guy
In 1940 he became Assistant to the Director of Research at GE, and simultaneously from 1942-1946 was in the National Defense Research Committee of the Office of Scientific Research and Development, heading Division 15 in Electronics which was responsible for radio and radar countermeasures.

Karl Taylor Compton

Karl ComptonKarl T. ComptonK.T. Compton
The original eight members of the NDRC were: Vannevar Bush, President of the Carnegie Institution (Chairman); Rear Admiral Harold G. Bowen, Sr.; Conway P. Coe, Commissioner of Patents; Karl Compton, President of MIT; James B. Conant, President of Harvard University; Frank B. Jewett, President of the National Academy of Sciences and President of Bell Telephone Laboratories; Brigadier General George V. Strong; and Richard C. Tolman, Professor of Physical Chemistry and Mathematical Physics at California Institute of Technology.
The start of World War II motivated the start of the National Defense Research Committee (NDRC), created in 1940 under the chairmanship of Vannevar Bush.

Harold Locke Hazen

Harold HazenHarold L. HazenHarold L. Hazen, Chief
From December 1942 until 1946 he was head of Division 7, "Fire Control", of the NDRC (National Defence Research Committee).

United States

AmericanU.S.USA
The National Defense Research Committee (NDRC) was an organization created "to coordinate, supervise, and conduct scientific research on the problems underlying the development, production, and use of mechanisms and devices of warfare" in the United States from June 27, 1940, until June 28, 1941.

Radar

radar stationradarsradar system
Under the chairmanship of Bush the NDRC created new laboratories, including the Radiation Laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, which aided the development of radar, and the Underwater Sound Laboratory at New London, Connecticut, which developed sonar. Most of its work was done with the strictest secrecy, and it began research of what would become some of the most important technology during World War II, including radar and the atomic bomb.

Nuclear weapon

atomic bombnuclear weaponsnuclear
Most of its work was done with the strictest secrecy, and it began research of what would become some of the most important technology during World War II, including radar and the atomic bomb.