National Government (United Kingdom)

National GovernmentNationalNational Independent National 1930s National GovernmentBritish governmentBritish national governmentscaretaker governmentcrisis of 1931Independent (National)
In the United Kingdom, National Government is an abstract concept of a coalition of some or all major political parties.wikipedia
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Neville Chamberlain

ChamberlainMr. ChamberlainNeville
In a historical sense it usually refers primarily to the governments of Ramsay MacDonald, Stanley Baldwin and Neville Chamberlain, which held office during the Great Depression from 1931 until 1940.
He was appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer in the National Government in 1931.

Stanley Baldwin

BaldwinStanley Baldwin, 1st Earl Baldwin of BewdleyPrime Minister
In a historical sense it usually refers primarily to the governments of Ramsay MacDonald, Stanley Baldwin and Neville Chamberlain, which held office during the Great Depression from 1931 until 1940.
In 1931, Labour Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald formed a National Government, most of whose ministers were Conservatives, and which won an enormous majority at the 1931 general election.

Great Depression

Depressionthe Great DepressionDepression-era
In a historical sense it usually refers primarily to the governments of Ramsay MacDonald, Stanley Baldwin and Neville Chamberlain, which held office during the Great Depression from 1931 until 1940.
MacDonald wanted to resign, but King George V insisted he remain and form an all-party coalition "National government."

National Labour Organisation

National LabourN.Lab.National Labour Party
The new cabinet had four Labourites (now called "National Labour Party") who stood with MacDonald, plus four Conservatives (led by Baldwin and Chamberlain) and two Liberals.
The National Labour Organisation, also known as the National Labour Committee or simply as National Labour, was a British political group formed after the 1931 creation of the National Government to co-ordinate the efforts of the supporters of the government who had come from the Labour Party.

1931 United Kingdom general election

19311931 general election1931 election
Henderson led it into the general election on 27 October against the three-party National coalition.
The 1931 United Kingdom general election was held on Tuesday 27 October 1931 and saw a landslide election victory for the National Government which had been formed two months previously after the collapse of the second Labour government.

Winston Churchill

ChurchillSir Winston ChurchillChurchill, Winston
The all-party coalitions of Herbert Henry Asquith and David Lloyd George in the First World War and of Winston Churchill in the Second World War were sometimes referred to as National Governments at the time, but are now more commonly called Coalition Governments.
When Ramsay MacDonald formed the National Government in 1931, Churchill was not invited to join the Cabinet.

History of the Labour Party (UK)

old LabourLabour PartyOld
The Labour government agreed in principle to make changes in taxation and to cut expenditure to balance the budget and restore confidence.
In response, MacDonald, on the urging of the king agreed to form a National Government, with the Conservatives and the small group of Liberals.

Ramsay MacDonald

MacDonaldJames Ramsay MacDonaldRt Hon. Ramsay MacDonald
In a historical sense it usually refers primarily to the governments of Ramsay MacDonald, Stanley Baldwin and Neville Chamberlain, which held office during the Great Depression from 1931 until 1940.
With this unworkable split, on 24 August 1931 MacDonald submitted his resignation and then agreed, on the urging of King George V to form a National Government with the Conservatives and Liberals.

John Simon, 1st Viscount Simon

Sir John SimonJohn SimonViscount Simon
One group, under Sir John Simon emerged as the Liberal Nationals, was prepared to accept the tariff and expressed willingness to take the place of the main Liberals in the government.
Beginning his career as a Liberal (identified with the left-wing and later the right-wing of the Party ), he joined the National Government in 1931, creating the Liberal National Party in the process.

Invergordon Mutiny

in a non-violent "mutinyInvergordon Naval Mutinymutineer
Efforts to bring public expenditure cuts produced further problems, including a mutiny in the Royal Navy over pay cuts (the Invergordon Mutiny), with the result that the pound sterling came under renewed pressure, and the government was forced to take the radical step of taking the pound off the gold standard altogether.
In September 1931, as part of its attempts to deal with the Great Depression, the new National Government launched cuts to public spending.

David Lloyd George

Lloyd GeorgeRt Hon. David Lloyd GeorgeBritish Prime Minister David Lloyd George
The all-party coalitions of Herbert Henry Asquith and David Lloyd George in the First World War and of Winston Churchill in the Second World War were sometimes referred to as National Governments at the time, but are now more commonly called Coalition Governments.
In 1931 an illness prevented his joining the National Government when it was formed.

National Liberal Party (UK, 1931)

National LiberalLiberal NationalNational Liberal Party
One group, under Sir John Simon emerged as the Liberal Nationals, was prepared to accept the tariff and expressed willingness to take the place of the main Liberals in the government.
When the Labour Government was replaced by a makeshift, emergency (though to prove long-lasting) National Government in August 1931, dissident Liberals were temporarily reconciled with the rest of their party within it; but in the next two months the party's acting leader, Herbert Samuel, came close to resigning from the government over the National Government's proposal to call a snap general election, fearing that it would lead to a majority for the Conservatives and the abolition of free trade.

Donald Maclean (British politician)

Sir Donald MacleanDonald MacleanRt Hon. Sir Donald Maclean
In 1932, Sir Donald MacLean died.
He was Leader of the Opposition between 1918 and 1920 and served in Ramsay MacDonald's National Government as President of the Board of Education from 1931 until his death in June that following year.

1935 United Kingdom general election

19351935 general election1935 election
Increasingly foreign affairs were coming to dominate political discourse and in November Baldwin led the government to victory in the 1935 general election on a platform of support for the League of Nations and sanctions against Italy for invading Abyssinia.
The 1935 United Kingdom general election was held on Thursday 14 November 1935 and resulted in a large, albeit reduced, majority for the National Government now led by Stanley Baldwin of the Conservative Party.

Arthur Henderson

HendersonRt Hon. Arthur HendersonThe Right Honourable '''Arthur Henderson
When a final vote was taken, the Cabinet was split 11-9 with a minority, including many political heavyweights such as Arthur Henderson and George Lansbury, threatening to resign rather than agree.
MacDonald agreed on 24 August 1931 and formed an emergency National Government, with members from all parties.

George V

King George VKingthe King
The financial crisis grew worse and decisive government action was needed as the leaders of both the Conservative and Liberal Parties met with King George V, and MacDonald, at first to discuss support for the measures to be taken but later to discuss the shape of the next government.
In the wake of a world financial crisis, the King encouraged the formation of a National Government in 1931 led by MacDonald and Baldwin, and volunteered to reduce the civil list to help balance the budget.

British Empire Economic Conference

Imperial Economic Conference1932Ottawa Agreement
Further tensions emerged over the Ottawa Agreement, which set up a series of tariff agreements within the British Empire, and the remaining Liberals and Snowden resigned their ministerial posts although they continued to support the government from the backbenches for another year.
This abandonment of open free trade led to a split in the British National Government coalition: the Official Liberals under Herbert Samuel left the Government, but the National Liberals under Sir John Simon remained.

J. H. Thomas

Jimmy ThomasJ.H. ThomasJames Henry Thomas
The Government was initially applauded by most, but the Labour Party were left in a state of confusion with the loss of several of their most prominent figures, and MacDonald, Philip Snowden and James Henry Thomas did little to explain themselves, with the result that the Labour Party soon swung fully against the government.
He became Secretary of State for the Dominions in 1930 and retained that position in Ramsay MacDonald's National Government (1931–1935).

Herbert Samuel, 1st Viscount Samuel

Herbert SamuelSir Herbert SamuelHerbert Louis Samuel
The Liberals' acting leader and Home Secretary, Sir Herbert Samuel, fought in Cabinet against an election but found the Liberal Party dividing in several directions over the course of action.
Two years later, he became deputy leader of the Liberal Party and acted as leader in the summer of 1931 when Lloyd George was ill. Under Samuel, the party served in the first National Government of Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald formed in August 1931, with Samuel himself serving as Home Secretary.

May Report

1931 May Committeeall-party committee to look into government financesMay Committee
In 1931 the situation deteriorated and there was much fear that the budget was unbalanced, which was born out by the independent May Report which triggered a confidence crisis and a run on the pound.
Therefore, on 24 August a National Government headed by MacDonald came into being, a consequence of which was to split the Labour Party.

Norway Debate

8a famous debateBritish discontent over the Norwegian campaign
On 7 and 8 May 1940, a two-day debate took place in Parliament, known to history as the Norway Debate.
Following on from an adjournment motion, the debate was primarily about the progress of the Norwegian Campaign but it quickly brought to a head widespread dissatisfaction with the overall conduct of the war by the Conservative-dominated National Government, led by Neville Chamberlain as Prime Minister.

Cabinet collective responsibility

collectively responsiblecollective ministerial responsibilitycabinet solidarity
On the suggestion of Hailsham, it was agreed to suspend the principle of Cabinet collective responsibility to allow the Liberals to oppose the introduction of tariffs while remaining in government.
On occasion, this principle has been suspended; most notably in the 1930s when in Britain the National Government allowed its Liberal members to oppose the introduction of protective tariffs; and again when Harold Wilson allowed Cabinet members to campaign both for and against the 1975 referendum on whether the UK should remain in the European Economic Community.

John Anderson, 1st Viscount Waverley

John AndersonSir John AndersonAnderson
Following the defeat, elements of the old National Government 'all party coalition' idea continued with Sir John Anderson (elected as a National MP) and Gwilym Lloyd-George, a former Liberal MP who now sat as an Independent Liberal, occupying important positions in Churchill's Shadow Cabinet team.
In early 1938, Anderson was elected to the House of Commons by the Scottish Universities as a National Independent Member of Parliament, a non-party supporter of the National Government.

List of political parties in the United Kingdom

Party Others political party
In the United Kingdom, National Government is an abstract concept of a coalition of some or all major political parties.

H. H. Asquith

AsquithAsquithianHerbert Henry Asquith
The all-party coalitions of Herbert Henry Asquith and David Lloyd George in the First World War and of Winston Churchill in the Second World War were sometimes referred to as National Governments at the time, but are now more commonly called Coalition Governments.