National Liberal Party (UK, 1931)

National LiberalLiberal NationalNational Liberal PartyLiberal NationalsNational LiberalsLiberal National PartyLib.N.National Liberal and ConservativeN.Lib.Conservative and National Liberal
The National Liberal Party, known until 1948 as the Liberal National Party, was a liberal political party in the United Kingdom from 1931 to 1968.wikipedia
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Conservative Party (UK)

ConservativeConservative PartyConservatives
It broke away from the Liberal Party, and later co-operated and merged with the Conservative Party.
In 1931, following the collapse of the Labour minority government, it entered another coalition, which was dominated by the Conservatives with some support from factions of both the Liberal and Labour Parties (National Labour and National Liberals).

1931 United Kingdom general election

19311931 general election1931 election
Witnessing the rise of cheap foreign goods, the party split over how they would negotiate over ardent Conservative protectionism: supporters formed the Liberal National Party in the run-up to the 1931 general election in October.
This issue not only divided the government from the opposition but also divided the parties in the National Government: the majority of Liberals, led by Sir Herbert Samuel, were opposed and supported free trade, but on the eve of the election a faction known as Liberal Nationals under the leadership of Sir John Simon was formed who were willing to support protectionist trade policies.

Robert Bernays

Bernays
The two groups were now completely separate, though some Liberal MPs like Robert Bernays remained on the Government benches before officially joining the Liberal Nationals, and other MPs maintained links across the floor.
Robert Hamilton Bernays (6 May 1902 – 23 January 1945) was a Liberal Party, and later Liberal National, politician in the United Kingdom who served as a member of parliament (MP) from 1931 to 1945.

Walter Runciman, 1st Viscount Runciman of Doxford

Walter RuncimanLord RuncimanRt Hon. Walter Runciman
Liberal Associations which supported Liberal National candidates remained affiliated to the National Liberal Federation, the mainstream body for the official party, until that body was dissolved in 1936; in particular one Liberal National cabinet minister, Walter Runciman elected in 1899, of a wealthy shipping family, remained its President even after the Commons split.
Walter Runciman, 1st Viscount Runciman of Doxford, (19 November 1870 – 14 November 1949) was a prominent Liberal and later National Liberal politician in the United Kingdom between the 1900s and 1930s.

1945 United Kingdom general election

1945 general election19451945 election
After both parties' drubbing and the Labour Party's victory in the 1945 general election, the two factions made renewed attempts at reuniting.
The National Liberal Party fared even worse, losing two-thirds of its seats and falling behind the Liberals in seat count for the first time since the parties split in 1931.

British Empire Economic Conference

Imperial Economic ConferenceOttawa AgreementOttawa Conference
In 1932 the "Samuelite" Liberals resigned from the government over the result of the Ottawa Conference – the introduction of a series of tariff agreements – though they continued to support the National Government from the back benches.
This abandonment of open free trade led to a split in the British National Government coalition: the Official Liberals under Herbert Samuel left the Government, but the National Liberals under Sir John Simon remained.

Liberal Party (UK)

LiberalLiberal PartyLiberals
It broke away from the Liberal Party, and later co-operated and merged with the Conservative Party. At Westminster the core, independent Liberals were in a shattered state, their tiny numbers representing all shades of opinion; and it was doubtful that the new leader, Clement Davies (himself a former Liberal National who had defected back to the independent Liberals) could carry all of his colleagues into a united party.
In doing so the bulk of Liberals remained supporting the government, but two distinct Liberal groups had emerged within this bulk – the Liberal Nationals (officially the "National Liberals" after 1947) led by Simon, also known as "Simonites", and the "Samuelites" or "official Liberals", led by Samuel who remained as the official party.

National Government (United Kingdom)

National GovernmentNationalNational Independent
When the Labour Government was replaced by a makeshift, emergency (though to prove long-lasting) National Government in August 1931, dissident Liberals were temporarily reconciled with the rest of their party within it; but in the next two months the party's acting leader, Herbert Samuel, came close to resigning from the government over the National Government's proposal to call a snap general election, fearing that it would lead to a majority for the Conservatives and the abolition of free trade.
One group, under Sir John Simon emerged as the Liberal Nationals, was prepared to accept the tariff and expressed willingness to take the place of the main Liberals in the government.

Clement Davies

Clement Edward DaviesRt Hon. (Edward) Clement DaviesThe Rt Hon Clement Davies
At Westminster the core, independent Liberals were in a shattered state, their tiny numbers representing all shades of opinion; and it was doubtful that the new leader, Clement Davies (himself a former Liberal National who had defected back to the independent Liberals) could carry all of his colleagues into a united party.
In 1931, the Liberals divided into three groups and he became one of the Liberal National MPs supporting the National Government.

Ramsay MacDonald

James Ramsay MacDonaldMacDonaldRt Hon. Ramsay MacDonald
The Liberal Nationals evolved as a distinctive group within the Liberal Party when the main body of Liberals maintained in office the second Labour government of Ramsay MacDonald, who lacked a majority in Parliament.
In control of domestic policy were Conservatives Stanley Baldwin as Lord President and Neville Chamberlain the chancellor of the exchequer, together with National Liberal Walter Runciman at the Board of Trade.

Michael Shaw, Baron Shaw of Northstead

Michael ShawSir Michael ShawBaron Shaw of Northstead
A joint Conservative and National Liberal candidate (Michael Shaw) gained a seat from the opposition Labour Party in a by-election in Brighouse and Spenborough in 1960.
Michael Norman Shaw, Baron Shaw of Northstead (born 9 October 1920) is a former National Liberal and British Conservative Party politician who served as a Member of Parliament (MP) from 1960 to 1964 (as a National Liberal) and from 1966 to 1992 for the Conservatives.

Independent Liberals (UK, 1931)

Independent LiberalsIndependent Liberalfinal splinter group of 1931
A third group under the official leader, David Lloyd George, also emerged, the Independent Liberals, who opposed the National Government completely, but this had few adherents amongst prominent Liberals beyond Lloyd George's relatives.
In the new Parliament, the group of Independent Liberal MPs rejected attempts to reunify all the Liberals (including the pro-tariff Liberal National Party) under a single party whip and consistently opposed the National Government.

Herbert Samuel, 1st Viscount Samuel

Herbert SamuelSir Herbert SamuelHerbert Louis Samuel
When the Labour Government was replaced by a makeshift, emergency (though to prove long-lasting) National Government in August 1931, dissident Liberals were temporarily reconciled with the rest of their party within it; but in the next two months the party's acting leader, Herbert Samuel, came close to resigning from the government over the National Government's proposal to call a snap general election, fearing that it would lead to a majority for the Conservatives and the abolition of free trade.
Sir John Simon had already led a breakaway group of MPs to form the Liberal National Party.

David Lloyd George

Lloyd GeorgeRt Hon David Lloyd GeorgeDavid Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor
A third group under the official leader, David Lloyd George, also emerged, the Independent Liberals, who opposed the National Government completely, but this had few adherents amongst prominent Liberals beyond Lloyd George's relatives.
Sir John Simon and his followers were still loyal to Asquith (after 1931 Simon would lead a breakaway National Liberal Party, which eventually merged with the Conservatives) whilst Walter Runciman led a separate radical group within the Parliamentary Party.

Robert Hutchison, 1st Baron Hutchison of Montrose

Robert HutchisonSir Robert HutchisonBaron Hutchison of Montrose
By June 1931 three Liberal MPs — Simon, Ernest Brown and Robert Hutchison (a former Lloyd George ministry-supporting coalitionist of the earlier National Liberal Party) — resigned their party's whip and sat as independents.
Hutchison was National Liberal Member of Parliament for Kirkcaldy Burghs from 1922 to 1923, Liberal member for Montrose Burghs from 1924 to 1931 and Liberal National member for that constituency from 1931 to 1932.

Herbert Butcher

Herbert Walter Butcher
The post of chairman of the parliamentary party was filled by the former junior minister David Renton, the MP for Huntingdon since 1945, with veteran National Liberal Herbert Butcher (who sat for the seat of Holland with Boston) remaining their chief whip.
Sir Herbert Walter Butcher, 1st Baronet (12 June 1901 – 11 May 1966) was an English Conservative and National Liberal

Winston Churchill

Sir Winston ChurchillChurchillChurchill, Winston
In 1940 the National Government was replaced by an all-party coalition led by Winston Churchill; the Liberal Nationals were marginalised, with Simon "kicked upstairs" to become Lord Chancellor.
The government contained Conservatives, National Liberals and a few non-party figures such as Sir John Anderson and Lord Woolton, but not Labour or Archibald Sinclair's Official Liberals.

Newcastle upon Tyne North (UK Parliament constituency)

Newcastle upon Tyne NorthNewcastle-upon-Tyne NorthNewcastle North
From its creation out of the old Newcastle-upon-Tyne constituency in 1918, the seat was a safe Conservative Party seat— including six years of representation by Gwilym Lloyd George, who was aligned to the National Liberal Party but served as Home Secretary for almost three years until 1957 in a Conservative government.

Michael Heseltine

Lord HeseltineMichael Heseltine, Baron HeseltineThe Lord Heseltine
Another noteworthy National Liberal candidate in this time period was the future Deputy Prime Minister Michael Heseltine who had stood as a National Liberal for the Gower constituency in 1959, then went on to stand as a Conservative for more winnable seats in the 1960s.
He had been the only applicant for the Conservative (technically, Conservative and National Liberal) candidacy.

Charles Kerr, 1st Baron Teviot

Charles KerrKerrLord Teviot
In May 1947, the Woolton-Teviot agreement between Lord Woolton (for the Conservatives) and Lord Teviot (for the Liberal Nationals) resulted in the two parties merging at the constituency level.
Kerr entered the House of Commons at the Montrose Burghs by-election in 1932 as a member of the National Liberal Party.

Gwilym Lloyd George

Gwilym Lloyd-GeorgeGwilym Lloyd George, 1st Viscount TenbyHon. Gwilym Lloyd George
A year later Lloyd George returned to parliament as a National Liberal) for Newcastle upon Tyne North in the 1951 general election.

James Henderson-Stewart

James Henderson StewartSir James Henderson-StewartSir James Henderson-Stewart, Bt.
He was a National Liberal Member of Parliament (MP) for East Fife from 1933 until his death, and was the sessional chairman of the Parliamentary Party in 1945.

John Maclay, 1st Viscount Muirshiel

John MaclayJohn Scott MaclayViscount Muirshiel
John Scott Maclay, 1st Viscount Muirshiel, (26 October 1905 – 17 August 1992) was a British politician, sitting as a National Liberal and Conservative Member of Parliament before the party was fully assimilated into the Unionist Party in Scotland in the mid 1960s.

Stanley Holmes, 1st Baron Dovercourt

Stanley HolmesSir Stanley HolmesJoseph Stanley Holmes
Joseph Stanley Holmes, 1st Baron Dovercourt (31 October 1878 – 22 April 1961) was a British chartered accountant, businessman and Liberal Party politician, who later served as a Liberal National Member of Parliament.