National Liberation Front (Algeria)

National Liberation FrontFLNFront de Libération NationaleAlgerian National Liberation FrontNational Liberation Front (FLN)Front de Libération NationalAlgerian Liberation FrontFront de Libération Nationale (FLN)NLFAlgeria
The National Liberation Front (جبهة التحرير الوطني Jabhatu l-Taḥrīri l-Waṭanī; Front de libération nationale, FLN) is a nationalist political party in Algeria.wikipedia
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Algerian War

Algerian War of IndependenceAlgeriaAlgerian revolution
It was the principal nationalist movement during the Algerian War and the sole legal and the ruling political party of the Algerian state until other parties were legalised in 1989.
The Algerian War, also known as the Algerian War of Independence or the Algerian Revolution (الثورة الجزائرية Al-thawra Al-Jazaa'iriyya; ; Guerre d'Algérie or Révolution algérienne) was fought between France and the Algerian National Liberation Front (Front de Libération Nationale – FLN) from 1954 to 1962, which led to Algeria gaining its independence from France.

Algerian Civil War

civil warcivil conflictAlgeria
After the 1988 October Riots and the Algerian Civil War (1991-2002) against Islamist groups, the FLN was reelected to power in the 2002 Algerian legislative election, and has generally remained in power ever since, although sometimes needing to form coalitions with other parties.
The conflict began in December 1991, when the new and enormously popular Islamic Salvation Front (FIS) party appeared poised to defeat the ruling National Liberation Front (FLN) party in the national parliamentary elections.

National Liberation Army (Algeria)

National Liberation ArmyArmée de Libération NationaleALN
The FLN was established in 1954 from a split in the Movement for the Triumph of Democratic Liberties from members of the Special Organisation paramilitary; its armed wing, the National Liberation Army, participated in the Algerian War from 1954 to 1962.
The National Liberation Army or ALN (جيش التحرير الوطني الجزائري Armée de libération nationale) was the armed wing of the nationalist National Liberation Front of Algeria during the Algerian War.

Évian Accords

Evian AccordsEvian agreementsAlgerian Independence
After the Évian Accords of 1962, the party purged internal dissent and ruled Algeria as a one-party state.
The Évian Accords comprise a treaty which was signed on 18 March 1962 in Évian-les-Bains, France, by France and the Provisional Government of the Algerian Republic, the government-in-exile of FLN (Front de Libération Nationale) which sought Algeria's independence from France.

Larbi Ben M'hidi

Ben M'HidiLarbi Ben M’HidiMohamed Larbi Ben M'Hidi
It initially had a five-man leadership consisting of Mostefa Ben Boulaïd, Larbi Ben M'hidi, Rabah Bitat, Mohamed Boudiaf and Mourad Didouche.
He is one of the six founding members of the Front de Libération Nationale (FLN; National Liberation Front) that launched an armed revolt throughout Algeria and issued a proclamation calling for a sovereign Algerian state.

Mohamed Boudiaf

Mohammed BoudiafMuhammad BoudiafBoudiaf
It initially had a five-man leadership consisting of Mostefa Ben Boulaïd, Larbi Ben M'hidi, Rabah Bitat, Mohamed Boudiaf and Mourad Didouche. Consequently, the Algerian nationalists veered to a more military approach as noted in their participation in the Special Organisation (Algeria), which is a paramilitary component of the MTLD and included the important figures in Algerian politics such Ahmed Ben Bella, Hocine Aït Ahmed, and Mohammed Boudiaf.
Mohamed Boudiaf (23 June 1919 – 29 June 1992, محمد بوضياف; ALA-LC: Muḥammad Bū-Ḍiyāf), also called Si Tayeb el Watani, was an Algerian political leader and one of the founders of the revolutionary National Liberation Front (FLN) that led the Algerian War of Independence (1954–1962).

One-party state

one-partyone-one-party system
After the Évian Accords of 1962, the party purged internal dissent and ruled Algeria as a one-party state.

Messali Hadj

Messali El HadjAhmed Messali HadjMessali El Hajj
As this objective failed to realize, a new party Movement for the Triumph of Democratic Liberties (MTDL) founded by the just-released Messali Hadj started to gain momentum and took the lead in the nationalist movement. By 1956 nearly all the nationalist organizations in Algeria had joined the FLN, which had established itself as the main nationalist group through both co-opting and coercing smaller organizations; the most important group that remained outside the FLN was Messali Hadj's Algerian National Movement (MNA).
He also founded the Mouvement national algérien to counteract the ongoing efforts of the Front de libération nationale.

Revolutionary Committee of Unity and Action

CRUARevolutionary Committee of Unity and Action (CRUA)
Later in 1951, the capture of Ahmed Ben Bella and the subsequent dismantling of the Special Organisation temporarily subdued the nationalist movement but sparkled the desire inside the Special Organisation militants to form a new organization – Revolutionary Committee of Unity and Action(CRUA).
CRUA would later evolve into the FLN.

Ahmed Ben Bella

Ben BellaAhmad Ben BellaMohammed Ahmed Ben Bella
Consequently, the Algerian nationalists veered to a more military approach as noted in their participation in the Special Organisation (Algeria), which is a paramilitary component of the MTLD and included the important figures in Algerian politics such Ahmed Ben Bella, Hocine Aït Ahmed, and Mohammed Boudiaf. They were joined by Krim Belkacem in August, and Hocine Aït Ahmed, Ahmed Ben Bella and Mohamed Khider later in the summer.
This was the immediate predecessor of the National Liberation Front.

1988 October Riots

riotsBlack Octobercrisis of 1988
After the 1988 October Riots and the Algerian Civil War (1991-2002) against Islamist groups, the FLN was reelected to power in the 2002 Algerian legislative election, and has generally remained in power ever since, although sometimes needing to form coalitions with other parties.
The riots were "the most serious" since Algeria's independence", and involved thousands of youth who "took control of the streets". Riots started in Alger and spread to other cities, resulting in about 500 deaths and 1000 wounded although the official death count reports that 159 were killed with 154 protesters injured. The riots indirectly led to the fall of the country's one-party system (Front de Libération Nationale (FLN) party had been in power since 1962) and the introduction of democratic reform, but also to a spiral of instability and increasingly vicious political conflict, ultimately fostering the Algerian Civil War.

Mohamed Khider

Mohammed Khider
They were joined by Krim Belkacem in August, and Hocine Aït Ahmed, Ahmed Ben Bella and Mohamed Khider later in the summer.
Mohamed Khider was one of the original leaders of the Front de Libération nationale (FLN), having been previously active in its nationalist predecessors, the Étoile Nord-Africaine and Parti du Peuple Algerien (PPA) of Messali Hadj.

Hocine Aït Ahmed

Hocine Ait AhmedAït AhmedHocine Aït-Ahmed
Consequently, the Algerian nationalists veered to a more military approach as noted in their participation in the Special Organisation (Algeria), which is a paramilitary component of the MTLD and included the important figures in Algerian politics such Ahmed Ben Bella, Hocine Aït Ahmed, and Mohammed Boudiaf. They were joined by Krim Belkacem in August, and Hocine Aït Ahmed, Ahmed Ben Bella and Mohamed Khider later in the summer.
After the war for Algerian independence, during which he was one of the main leaders of the National Liberation Front (FLN), Aït Ahmed resigned from the provisional Government of the Algerian Republic (GPRA) and all the organs of the new power during the crisis of the summer of 1962.

Provisional Government of the Algerian Republic

GPRAAlgerian provisional governmentGouvernement provisoire de la republique algérienne
These units were later to emerge under the leadership of army commander Colonel Houari Boumediene as a powerful opposition to the political cadres of the FLN's exile government, the GPRA, and they eventually came to dominate Algerian politics.
The Provisional Government of the Algerian Republic (الحكومة المؤقتة للجمهورية الجزائرية, ح م ج ج; French: Gouvernement provisoire de la République Algérienne) was the government-in-exile of the Algerian National Liberation Front (FLN) during the latter part of the Algerian War of Independence (1954–62).

Algerian People's National Armed Forces

Algerian militaryAlgerian armymilitary
The single most powerful political constituency remained the former ALN, which had entered largely unscathed from exile and was now organized as the country's armed forces; added to this were regionally powerful guerrilla irregulars and others who jockeyed for influence in the party.
It is the direct successor of the Armée de Libération Nationale (ALN), the armed wing of the nationalist National Liberation Front, which fought French colonial rule during the Algerian War of Independence (1954-1962).

Algeria

AlgerianPeople's Democratic Republic of AlgeriaAlgérie
The National Liberation Front (جبهة التحرير الوطني Jabhatu l-Taḥrīri l-Waṭanī; Front de libération nationale, FLN) is a nationalist political party in Algeria.
Historians have estimated that between 30,000 and 150,000 Harkis and their dependents were killed by the Front de Libération Nationale (FLN) or by lynch mobs in Algeria.

Algerian National Movement

Mouvement National AlgérienMNAAlgerian National Movement (''"Mouvement national algérien"'' / MNA)
By 1956 nearly all the nationalist organizations in Algeria had joined the FLN, which had established itself as the main nationalist group through both co-opting and coercing smaller organizations; the most important group that remained outside the FLN was Messali Hadj's Algerian National Movement (MNA).
The Algerian National Movement (Mouvement national algérien, or MNA, Tamazight: Amussu Aɣelnaw Adzayri, الحركة الوطنية الجزائرية ) was an organization founded to counteract the efforts of the Front de Libération Nationale (FLN).

Political party

political partiespartyparties
The National Liberation Front (جبهة التحرير الوطني Jabhatu l-Taḥrīri l-Waṭanī; Front de libération nationale, FLN) is a nationalist political party in Algeria.
Examples of dominant party systems include the People's Action Party in Singapore, the African National Congress in South Africa, the Cambodian People's Party in Cambodia, the Liberal Democratic Party in Japan, and the National Liberation Front in Algeria.

Battle of Philippeville

El Halia minemassacre in ConstantinoisPhilippeville massacre
Notorious examples of FLN massacres include the Philippeville massacre.
The Battle of Philippeville was part of the Algerian War between France and Algerian rebels, primarily the National Liberation Front (FLN) The battle took place on August 20, 1955 and centered on the Algerian town of Philippeville, though the FLN also made attacks on surrounding areas.

Ferhat Abbas

As the war turned gradually more in favor of the Western Allies, given the US's global engagement and its ideological campaign against colonialism, the core sentiment amongst the Algerian nationalists was to use the victory in Europe to promote the independence of the country, which is reflected by the issuing of the Manifesto of the Algerian People by Ferhat Abbas.
However, after the French intensified the war, in 1956, 18 months after the Algerian War of Independence against French rule began, Ferhat joined the Front de Libération Nationale (FLN).

Café Wars

It was divided into guerrilla units fighting France and the MNA in Algeria (and wrestling with Messali's followers over control of the expatriate community, in the "Café Wars" in France), and another, stronger component more resembling a traditional army.
The Café Wars took place during the Algerian War, as a part of the internal fighting in France between two rival Algerian nationalist movements, the Mouvement National Algérien and the Front de Libération National (which later became the ruling political party in independent Algeria).

Abdelaziz Bouteflika

President BouteflikaAbdulaziz BouteflikaBouteflika
In 1965, the tension between Boumédiène and Ben Bella culminated in a coup d'état, after Ben Bella had tried to sack one of the Colonel's closest collaborators, Foreign Minister Abdelaziz Bouteflika (who was in 1999 elected President of Algeria).
In 1956, Bouteflika went to the village of Ouled Amer near Tlemcen and subsequently joined—at the age of 19—the National Liberation Army, which was a military branch of the National Liberation Front.

Algerian nationalism

AlgerianismNationalism and resistance in AlgeriaAlgerian independence movement
The National Liberation Front (جبهة التحرير الوطني Jabhatu l-Taḥrīri l-Waṭanī; Front de libération nationale, FLN) is a nationalist political party in Algeria.
In October the CRUA renamed itself the National Liberation Front (Front de Libération Nationale, FLN), which assumed responsibility for the political direction of the revolution.

President of Algeria

PresidentAlgerian PresidentPresident of the Revolutionary Council of Algeria
In 1965, the tension between Boumédiène and Ben Bella culminated in a coup d'état, after Ben Bella had tried to sack one of the Colonel's closest collaborators, Foreign Minister Abdelaziz Bouteflika (who was in 1999 elected President of Algeria).
For the first four decades of independence government was controlled as a one-party state by the National Liberation Front or FLN.

Special Organisation (Algeria)

OSOrganisation SpécialeSpecial Organization
The FLN was established in 1954 from a split in the Movement for the Triumph of Democratic Liberties from members of the Special Organisation paramilitary; its armed wing, the National Liberation Army, participated in the Algerian War from 1954 to 1962. Consequently, the Algerian nationalists veered to a more military approach as noted in their participation in the Special Organisation (Algeria), which is a paramilitary component of the MTLD and included the important figures in Algerian politics such Ahmed Ben Bella, Hocine Aït Ahmed, and Mohammed Boudiaf.
The OS had around 1500-2000 members at its peak, and spawned the groups that would later form the FLN; this group, in turn, became the leading force in the Algerian War of Independence (1954–1962), and later Algeria's single ruling party until 1989.