National Origins Formula

National Origins quota
The National Origins Formula was an American system of immigration quotas, used between 1921 and 1965, which restricted immigration on the basis of existing proportions of the population.wikipedia
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Immigration to the United States

immigrationimmigrantsimmigrant
The National Origins Formula was an American system of immigration quotas, used between 1921 and 1965, which restricted immigration on the basis of existing proportions of the population.
Between 1921 and 1965, policies such as the national origins formula limited immigration and naturalization opportunities for people from areas outside Western Europe.

Emergency Quota Act

1921Emergency Quota Act of 1921Immigration Act of 1921
The 1921 Emergency Quota Act restricted immigration to 3% of foreign-born persons of each nationality that resided in the United States in 1910.
These limits came to be known as the National Origins Formula.

Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965

Immigration and Nationality ActImmigration Act of 19651965 Immigration Act
The National Origins Formula was abolished by the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, which marked a significant change in American immigration policy.
The law abolished the National Origins Formula, which had been the basis of U.S. immigration policy since the 1920s.

Immigration Act of 1924

1924Asian Exclusion ActImmigration Act
The Immigration Act of 1924, also called the National Origins Act, provided that for three years the formula would change from 3% to 2% and the basis for the calculation would be the census of 1890 instead of that of 1910.
The immigration act made permanent the basic limitations on immigration into the United States established in 1921 and modified the National Origins Formula established then.

Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952

Immigration and Nationality ActMcCarran-Walter ActMcCarran–Walter Act
The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 retained but relaxed the National Origins Formula (President Truman wanted to abolish it, but Congress overrode his veto).

Southern Europe

SouthernSouthern EuropeanMediterranean Europe
It aimed to reduce the overall number of unskilled immigrants (especially from Southern Europe, Eastern Europe and Asia), to allow families to re-unite, and to prevent immigration from changing the ethnic distribution of the largely Protestant Northwestern European-descended United States population.

Eastern Europe

Eastern EuropeanEasternEast European
It aimed to reduce the overall number of unskilled immigrants (especially from Southern Europe, Eastern Europe and Asia), to allow families to re-unite, and to prevent immigration from changing the ethnic distribution of the largely Protestant Northwestern European-descended United States population.

Asia

AsianAsian continentAsian countries
It aimed to reduce the overall number of unskilled immigrants (especially from Southern Europe, Eastern Europe and Asia), to allow families to re-unite, and to prevent immigration from changing the ethnic distribution of the largely Protestant Northwestern European-descended United States population.

Protestantism

ProtestantProtestantsProtestant church
It aimed to reduce the overall number of unskilled immigrants (especially from Southern Europe, Eastern Europe and Asia), to allow families to re-unite, and to prevent immigration from changing the ethnic distribution of the largely Protestant Northwestern European-descended United States population.

Northwestern Europe

Northwest EuropeNorth West EuropeNorth-West Europe
It aimed to reduce the overall number of unskilled immigrants (especially from Southern Europe, Eastern Europe and Asia), to allow families to re-unite, and to prevent immigration from changing the ethnic distribution of the largely Protestant Northwestern European-descended United States population.

Harry S. Truman

Harry TrumanTrumanHarry S Truman
The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 retained but relaxed the National Origins Formula (President Truman wanted to abolish it, but Congress overrode his veto).

Border control

border crossingimmigration policyInternational Zone

Chinese Exclusion Act

Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882Chinese Exclusion1882 Chinese Exclusion Act
Chinese immigration later increased with the passage of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952, which abolished direct racial barriers, and later by Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, which abolished the National Origins Formula.

Italian Americans

Italian-AmericanItalianItalian American
The war, together with the restrictive Emergency Quota Act of 1921, Immigration Act of 1924 and the implementation of the discriminatory National Origins Formula heavily curtailed Italian immigration.

History of laws concerning immigration and naturalization in the United States

immigration reformU.S. Commission on Immigration Reformcomprehensive immigration reform
A more complex quota plan, the National Origins Formula, replaced this "emergency" system under the Immigration Act of 1924 (Johnson-Reed Act), which set quotas on the number of immigrants from the Eastern Hemisphere, and effectively banned all immigration from Asia.

Presidency of Warren G. Harding

Harding administrationpresidencyWarren G. Harding
Though the act was later superseded by the Immigration Act of 1924, it marked the establishment of the National Origins Formula.

Yellow Peril

anti-Asian sentimentThe Yellow Dangeryellow-peril
The National Origins Formula (1921–1965) was meant to maintain the status quo percentages of colored ethnic populations in proportion to their existing populations.

Presidency of Lyndon B. Johnson

Johnson administrationJohnsonLyndon B. Johnson
The act repealed the National Origins Formula, which had restricted emigration from countries outside of Western Europe and the Western Hemisphere.

Racial quota

quotaracial quotasquotas
The National Origins Formula was an American system of immigration quotas, between 1921 and 1965, which restricted immigration on the basis of existing proportions of the population.

Immigrant invasion (rhetoric)

anti-immigration "invasion" rhetoricImmigrant invasion rhetoric
Through a series of legislation over many decades—the Magnuson Act, Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952, Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965—which overturned the National Origins Formula, it was completely repealed.

Anti-Chinese sentiment in the United States

anti-Chinese sentimentanti-Chinese movementAmerican racism against the Chinese
One of the goal of this National Origins Formula, established in 1929, was explicitly to keep the status quo distribution of ethnicity, by allocating quotas in proportion to the actual population.

History of immigration to the United States

immigrationimmigrantGerman immigration to the United States
The National Origins Formula of 1921 (and its final form in 1924) not only restricted the number of immigrants who might enter the United States, but also assigned slots according to quotas based on national origins.

Chain migration

chain migrantschain migration systemfamily reunification
The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, and its successors creating the Asiatic Barred Zone, and the National Origins quota system built by the Immigration Act of 1924 were effective in limiting chain migration but could not end it entirely.