National language

main languagenationalmajority languagenational languageslanguagenational statusat the national levelEnglish as the official languagenationalizesNative languages
A national language is a language (or language variant, e.g. dialect) that has some connection—de facto or de jure—with people and the territory they occupy.wikipedia
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Official language

official languagesofficialadministrative language
"National language" and "official language" are best understood as two concepts or legal categories with ranges of meaning that may coincide, or may be intentionally separate. Australia has no official language, but is largely monolingual with English being the de facto national language. In September 2012, La Union became the first province in Philippine history to pass an ordinance proclaiming a local language and a vernacular, Ilokano, as an official language. South Africa has 11 official languages, namely Afrikaans, English, isiNdebele, Sepedi, Sesotho, siSwati, Setswana, Xitsonga, Thsivenda, isiXhosa and isiZulu.
Many of the world's constitutions mention one or more official or national languages.

Regional language

local languageregionalregional languages
Many of these have their own regional languages.
For example, Catalan (a regional language of Spain, Italy and France, albeit the national language of Andorra) has more speakers than Finnish or Danish.

Nationalism

nationalistnationalisticnationalists
Further, they may enjoy recognition as a language used in compulsory schooling and treasury money may be spent to teach or encourage adults in learning a language which is a minority language in a particular area to restore its understanding and spread its moral stories, rhymes, poems, phrases, songs, and other literary heritage which will promote social cohesion (where other languages remain) or will promote nationalist differentiation where another, non-indigenous language is deprecated.
It further aims to build and maintain a single national identity—based on shared social characteristics such as culture, language, religion, politics, and belief in a shared singular history —and to promote national unity or solidarity.

Languages of Africa

African languagesAfricanAfrican language
In many African countries, some or all indigenous African languages are officially used, promoted, or expressly allowed to be promoted (usually taught in schools and written in important publications) as semi-official languages whether by long-term legislation or short-term, case-by-case executive (government) measures.
Although many mid-sized languages are used on the radio, in newspapers and in primary-school education, and some of the larger ones are considered national languages, only a few are official at the national level.

De facto

de facto relationshipde-factode facto'' segregation
A national language is a language (or language variant, e.g. dialect) that has some connection—de facto or de jure—with people and the territory they occupy. Bengali, the sole official language of Bangladesh, is also the de facto national language of the country.
Several countries, including Australia, Japan, Mexico, the United Kingdom and the United States, have a de facto national language but no official, de jure national language.

Indigenous language

indigenousindigenous languagesautochthonous
In many African countries, some or all indigenous African languages are officially used, promoted, or expressly allowed to be promoted (usually taught in schools and written in important publications) as semi-official languages whether by long-term legislation or short-term, case-by-case executive (government) measures.
Indigenous languages are not necessarily national languages (but they can be; cf.

Bengali language

BengaliBanglaBengali-language
Bengali, the sole official language of Bangladesh, is also the de facto national language of the country. Hindi,Tamil, Malayalam, Telugu, Bengali, Marathi, Assamese, Punjabi, Gujarati are majorly spoken by the native people.
The official and de facto national language of Bangladesh is Modern Standard Bengali (Literary Bengali).

Monolingualism

monolingualmonoglotunilingual
Australia has no official language, but is largely monolingual with English being the de facto national language.
In a different context, "unilingualism" may refer to a language policy which enforces an official or national language over others.

Berber languages

BerberBerber languageTamazight
Berber is also an official language.
In 2001, Berber became a constitutional national language of Algeria, and in 2011 Berber became a constitutionally official language of Morocco.

Mandarin Chinese

MandarinChineseMandarin dialects
The Beijing dialect of Mandarin and Guangzhou dialect of Cantonese were each proposed as the basis for a national language for China.
In the early 20th century, a standard form based on the Beijing dialect, with elements from other Mandarin dialects, was adopted as the national language.

Dialect

dialectsregiolectdialectal
A national language is a language (or language variant, e.g. dialect) that has some connection—de facto or de jure—with people and the territory they occupy.
During the Risorgimento, proponents of Italian republicanism and Italian nationalism, like the Lombard Alessandro Manzoni, stressed the importance of establishing a uniform national language in order to better create an Italian national identity.

Catalan language

CatalanCatalan-languageca
Andorra's national language is Catalan; moreover Catalan is an official language in several territories in Spain (Catalonia, Valencian Community, Balearic Islands), and is spoken (without official recognition or status) in territories in Spain (the Catalan-Aragonese borderlands known as La Franja and the Murcian municipality of El Carche), France (Pyrénées Orientales) and in Italy (Alghero).

Hindi

Hindi languageHindi-languageStandard Hindi
Hindi,Tamil, Malayalam, Telugu, Bengali, Marathi, Assamese, Punjabi, Gujarati are majorly spoken by the native people.
Contrary to the popular belief, Hindi is not the national language of India because no language was given such a status in the Indian constitution.

Languages of India

Indian languagesIndianregional languages of India
States of India are free to adopt one or more local languages for official purposes of that state.
The Constitution of India does not give any language the status of national language.

Standard language

standardstandardizedstandard dialect
Standard languages, such as Standard German, Standard French, and Standard Spanish, may serve as national (language-in-common), regional, and international languages.
It would later become the official language of all the Italian states, and after the Italian unification it became the national language of the Kingdom of Italy.

Luxembourgish

Luxembourgish languageLuxembourgianLuxemburgish
Luxembourg uses three official languages: Luxembourgish, French, and German.
Luxembourgish is the national language of Luxembourg and one of three administrative languages, alongside French and German.

Filipino language

FilipinoTagalogSpoken languages
The 1973 Philippine constitution hegemonically imposed Tagalog national language at the expense of all other ethnic nationalities in the country and mandated development and formal adoption of a common national language to be known as Filipino. The 1987 constitution designated the Filipino language, which is based on Tagalog with the inclusion of terms from all recognized languages of the Philippines, as the national language.
Filipino (Wikang Filipino ) is the national language (Wikang pambansa / Pambansang wika) of the Philippines.

Tagalog language

TagalogTagalog-languageFilipino
The 1973 Philippine constitution hegemonically imposed Tagalog national language at the expense of all other ethnic nationalities in the country and mandated development and formal adoption of a common national language to be known as Filipino.
Its standardized form, officially named Filipino, is the national language of the Philippines, and is one of two official languages alongside English.

Vernacular

vernacular languagevernacular languagesvernacularization
In September 2012, La Union became the first province in Philippine history to pass an ordinance proclaiming a local language and a vernacular, Ilokano, as an official language.
The vernacular is contrasted with higher-prestige forms of language, such as national, literary, liturgical or scientific idiom, or a lingua franca, used to facilitate communication across a large area.

Khoekhoe language

NamaKhoekhoeKhoekhoegowab
Among Namibia's national languages are German, Afrikaans, Oshiwambo, Otjiherero, Portuguese, as well as the languages of the Himba, Nama, San, Kavango and Damara.
Khoekhoe is a national language in Namibia, where it is used for teaching up to the university level as well as in the public administration.

National Language Promotion Department

National Language AuthorityMuqtadra Quami ZabanNational Language Authority Of Pakistan
The National Language Authority is an organization established to make arrangements to promote Urdu since 1979.
The National Language Promotion Department (undefined, ), formerly known as the National Language Authority (or Urdu Language Authority), is an autonomous regulatory institution established in 1979 to support the advancement and promotion of Urdu, which is the national language of Pakistan.

Languages of the Philippines

Philippine languagesLanguagesPhilippine language
The 1987 constitution designated the Filipino language, which is based on Tagalog with the inclusion of terms from all recognized languages of the Philippines, as the national language.
The 1973 constitution declared the Pilipino language to be co-official, along with English, and mandated the development of a national language, to be known as Filipino.

Languages of Slovenia

officially bilingual areas of Sloveniaminority languages
There are 6 minority languages.
The official and national language of Slovenia is Slovene, which is spoken by a large majority of the population.

Sotho language

SothoSesothoSouthern Sotho
South Africa has 11 official languages, namely Afrikaans, English, isiNdebele, Sepedi, Sesotho, siSwati, Setswana, Xitsonga, Thsivenda, isiXhosa and isiZulu.
Sotho or Sesotho (also known as Southern Sotho or Southern Sesotho), is a Southern Bantu language of the Sotho-Tswana (S.30) group, spoken primarily by the Basotho in Lesotho, where it is the national and official language, South Africa, where it is one of the 11 official languages and in Zimbabwe where it is one of 16 official languages.

Japanese language

JapaneseJapanese-languageJp
During Japanese rule (1895 to 1945), the "national language movement" promoted the Japanese language.
Japanese is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.